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US HISTORY                                                                  NAME: ________________________________________...
UNIT STANDARDS AND OBJECTIVES:STANDARDS:NEW YORK STATE SOCIAL STUDIES STANDARDS:                                          ...
Unit Engagement Activity:Directions: Read the information below, study the map, and answer the questions that follow      ...
STUDENT NOTES:GEOGRAPHY OF THE AMERICA’S:*Understanding geography is important to our understanding of the past and presen...
5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY: To study and understand geography, we use the 5 Themes of Geography.1. Location: Tells where a plac...
● The United States is part of the continent of __________________ ______________________.                                ...
3. Interaction Between People and Their Environment:                                                                      ...
MAPS: A representation of the features of the Earth or part of the Earth.1. PARTS OF A MAP: All maps have 4 basic parts.  ...
WRITING LESSON #1:                                                  HOW TO WRITE A BASIC SENTENCE TO ANSWER A QUESTIONIn s...
A. What is the key word in the task?______________________________________________________________________________________...
AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY:The study of American history often demands knowledge of American geography. From the arrival of the fi...
AMERICA’S LAND AND WATER:Almost every landform, or physical feature, or geographic feature, is to be found somewhere in th...
DIRECTIONS: Define the following terms by using the above reading and then answer the questions that follow. Remember to u...
MAP SKILLS WORKSHEET: THE PARTS OF A MAPDIRECTIONS: The map below provides information about the Yosemite National Park. S...
MAP EXERCISE: THE UNITED STATES IN THE WORLDDIRECTIONS: Use maps and additional references to complete the following.1. La...
AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY                                                          POWERPOINT PROJECTDIRECTIONS: Each group is to...
PowerPoint Project Check Sheet: American Geography ProjectName: ________________________________________                  ...
AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY TEST REVIEW SHEET:DIRECTIONS: Complete the following review sheet to help prepare for the unit test.PAR...
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________...
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________...
LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE:A. LINES OF LATITUDE:                                            B. LINES OF LONGITUDE:            ...
LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE:Imagine that you are the captain of a U.S. aircraft carrier in the Persian Gulf. You get a message ...
HEMISPHERES: WHERE ARE YOU?Where do you live? a. Western Hemisphere? b. Eastern Hemisphere? c. Northern Hemisphere? d. Sou...
2. Western/Eastern:We can divide the globe in half from the North Pole to the South Pole, giving us a Western Hemisphere a...
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American Geography Student Packet 2012

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  1. 1. US HISTORY NAME: ___________________________________________________ TEACHER: _________________________________ PERIOD: _______________ Packet Grade: _______________WEBSITE ADDRESS: _______________________________________________________________ Quiz Grade: _________________ AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY Writing Lesson Grade: _________ Map of the world showing the continents and the oceans. 1 1
  2. 2. UNIT STANDARDS AND OBJECTIVES:STANDARDS:NEW YORK STATE SOCIAL STUDIES STANDARDS: CCSS:Standard 3: Geography, Key Ideas 1 and 2 RH 7: 1, 2, 4, 6 RST 7: 1, 2, 4, 7 WHST 7: 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9UNIT OBJECTIVES:1. Describe the relationships between people and environments and the connections between people and places.2. Understand the geography of settlement patterns and the development of cultural patterns3. Map information about people, places, and environments4. Explain how maps provide information about people, places, and physical & cultural environments?5. Discuss how geography affects how and where people live?6. Understand key vocabulary terms such as: Environment, society, demographics, culture, geography, natural resources, weather, climate,latitude, and longitude. DAY: DAILY OBJECTIVES: 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 9 2
  3. 3. Unit Engagement Activity:Directions: Read the information below, study the map, and answer the questions that follow Afraid of being lost at sea? Afraid of being eaten by a sea monster? Afraid of falling off the edge of the Earth? These are fears that early explorers had to deal with when they set sail and went beyond the sight of land. The reason they had to deal with these fears is because they had limited knowledge of world geography. How they used their limited knowledge has created the history that we have today. All human events are influenced by the environment that they take place in. Understanding Geography is important in order to understand the events of history.1. Identify any errors or missing land forms you see on the map: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. Predict how the errors or missing land forms could cause a problem and affect history: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  4. 4. STUDENT NOTES:GEOGRAPHY OF THE AMERICA’S:*Understanding geography is important to our understanding of the past and present. -Geography is linked to _________________. -To understand history, you must understand _________________. -All of human history has taken place in and is influenced by the _____________________________ we live in. -The ____________________________ a person lives in affects the development of their culture.GEORGRAPHY: ____________________________________________________________________________-Geography is the __________________________ in which we live and in which all past events have taken place.ENVIRONMENT:____________________________________________________________________________ The Erie Canal was built in New York. To understand why it was built in its location, you need to understand geography.*Geography includes: 1. Physical/Geographic Features 4. Natural Resources 2. Weather 5. Human, Animal, & Plant Life Rivers are physical or geographic 3. Climate features and are examples of naturalPHYSICAL FEATURES: (Geographical Features or Landforms) ____________________________________ resources._____________________________________________________________________________________________NATURAL RESOURCES:_____________________________________________________________________WEATHER:_________________________________________________________________________________CLIMATE: Quick Check Quiz #1:__________________________________________________________________________________ -Made up of temperature and precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, hail) 1._______ 3._______ Plants and animals are part of the geography and are examples of natural resources. Gold and trees are examples of 2._______ 4._______ natural resources. 4
  5. 5. 5 THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY: To study and understand geography, we use the 5 Themes of Geography.1. Location: Tells where a place is. A. Relative Location: Tells where a place is in relation to another place. B. Exact (Absolute) Location: Tells where a place is by using Latitude and Longitude lines on maps.LATITUDE:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________LONGITUDE:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Lines of latitude run east and west and are located above and below the Equator. The Equator is the 0° latitude line. Lines of longitude run north and south North and are located left and right of the Prime Meridan. The Prime EQUATOR Meridan is the 0° longitude line. South When you take lines of latitude and lines of longitude and put them together, you get a map grid. West East PRIME 5 MERIDAN
  6. 6. ● The United States is part of the continent of __________________ ______________________. 3● North America is one of the ___________ continents on the Earth. 1. _________________________ 5. _________________________ 1 5 2. _________________________ 6. _________________________ 4 3. _________________________ 7. _________________________ 2 6 4. _________________________●America’s location is in the ___________________ and _____________________Hemisphere’s. North North 7 America America Rivers/Lakes Quick Check Quiz #2: Mountains 1._______ 3._______ 2._______ 4._______ Cities and buildings are man made so they are human features.2. Place: Describes an area’s physical and human features. It is the environment in which we live. A. Physical Features: (Geographical Features or Landforms) B. Human Features: Houses, transportation, jobs, language, and religion. 6
  7. 7. 3. Interaction Between People and Their Environment: People can clear land and plant crops, build houses, and build roads. A. People adapt to the _____________________________ by changing the way they live in order to survive. Ex: People change the types of clothes they wear when the weather changes. B. People can change the environment by physically changing the way it looks. Ex: People can cut down trees to build buildings, roads, or plant crops.-Everything that has happened in human history and everything that will happen, involves the physical environment. SUMMER WINTER In the 1600’s, the Pilgrims left England and migrated to the New World. They did not plan on going back. Mountain States Midwest4. Movement: Movement of people, goods, and ideas. -People move in order to get resources. Northeast5. Regions: An area with certain unifying characteristics. -Physical or human. West●The United States is broken down into _________ general New York is in thePolitical/Social Regions. Northeast region of the US. The states in this 1. ___________________ 4. ___________________ region have similar features. Southeast 2. ___________________ 5. ___________________ Southwest 3. ___________________ 6. ___________________ 7
  8. 8. MAPS: A representation of the features of the Earth or part of the Earth.1. PARTS OF A MAP: All maps have 4 basic parts. A. ________________________________ C. ________________________________ B. ________________________________ D. ________________________________2. TYPES OF MAPS: There are 2 main types of maps; physical and political maps.PHYSICAL MAP: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________POLITICAL MAP: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Quick Check Quiz #3: 1._______ 2._______ 3._______ 4._______ Political Map Physical Map 8
  9. 9. WRITING LESSON #1: HOW TO WRITE A BASIC SENTENCE TO ANSWER A QUESTIONIn school, students are expected to be able to communicate effectively with their teachers. This communication includes writing answers to questions or tasks for class work andhomework. These answers should be written out in complete sentences. Learning how to write a complete sentence is the first step in learning how to complete other types ofwriting assignments such as paragraphs and essays.Before writing an answer to a question, statement, or task, you must first study the task and understand what it is asking you to do. This means that you break down the task andlook for important words (key words) that tell you what to do. By looking for and understanding the “key” word(s), you will have a better understanding of how to prepare agood answer. The “key” word in a task tells you what to do with the topic. Often the “key” word is an instruction word. Some common instruction words and their meaningsare listed below. A Glossary of “Key” Words: Compare: To state the similarities between two or more examples. Contrast: To state the differences between two or more examples; to differentiate. Define: To explain what something is or what it means. Describe: To give details or features; to illustrate in words; to tell about. Discuss (Explain): To make observations using facts, reasoning, and argument; to present in some detail. Identify: To name in a sentence. List: To name in a list, not a sentence.When you are ready to write your sentence, you should begin by using the TTQA method to start your answer. The TTQA method is where you start your answer by “TurningThe Question(Task) Around.” This means that you use the task to start your sentence.All answers must be written out in complete sentences. There are two exceptions to this rule. You do not have to write complete sentences if the task asks you to “list” youranswer or if your answer is to be placed in a box or table.PRACTICE YOUR SKILLS: IDENTIFYING THE KEY WORDDIRECTIONS: Analyze each of the following tasks and then answer the questions that follow. Remember to use the TTQA method when starting your answer.1. TASK: Define the term natural resource.A. What is the key word in the task?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9B. What does the key word tell you to do? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  10. 10. A. What is the key word in the task?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________B. What does the key word tell you to do? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. TASK: Describe how the environment of the Eastern Woodlands affected the way of life of the Iroquois. A. What is the key word in the task?_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________B. What does the key word tell you to do? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________PRACTICE YOUR SKILLS: WRITING SENTENCES USING TTQA_DIRECTIONS: Answer each task by writing a complete sentence using the TTQA method.1. Define the term environment. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. Identify 2 physical features in New York State. ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. List the 7 continents of the world.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10
  11. 11. AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY:The study of American history often demands knowledge of American geography. From the arrival of the first Americans to the Battle of Saratoga during the AmericanRevolution to the recent population shift to the Sunbelt States, geography has played a very important role in the development and history of the United States of America.WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?Before understanding American history, you must first understand geography. Geography is the study of the physical, biological, and cultural features of the Earth’s surface.Geography deals with the environment in which we live. Our environment is the surroundings in which we live. This includes the landforms or geographic features or physicalfeatures of an area, the climate of an area, the temperature and weather of an area, natural resources, vegetation and soil, sources of water, and animal life. Natural resourcesare things found in nature that can be used to produce goods or services. Lumber, water, minerals, oil, and soil are examples of natural resources. Landforms, geographicfeatures, and physical features are all the same thing. A landform (geographic feature/physical feature) is a feature of the earth’s surface. Another part of geography is theweather and climate of an area. Weather is the condition of the atmosphere in a given place at a given time. In other words, it is what it is doing outside right now. Climate isthe average weather of an area over a period of 20-30 years.Understanding geography is important to the study of history because everything that has ever happened in the human past has happened in the environment. Everything thathas happened in human history has been influenced by the geography of that specific area. This is known as “Interaction Between the Environment and Humans.” As a human,we can either change our environment or we change to fit into it. For example, if we need to build a new road and there is a forest in the way, what do we do? If thetemperature is 10 degrees outside and we want to go out, what do we do? Sometimes, we can change our environment to suite our needs. Other times, we cannot. Then, wehave to change the way we behave. STOP 1_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________AMERICA’S SIZE:The United States is a huge country on the North American continent. Not counting Alaska and Hawaii, the United States measures about 3,000 miles east to west and 1, 600miles north to south. The Continental United States is bordered on the north by Canada, on the south by Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, andon the west by the Pacific Ocean.In size, the United States is the 4th largest nation in the world. More than 300 million Americans live on the more than 3.6 million square miles that our country covers.America’s size has had many effects on our history. For example, Americans are famous for inventing machines that allow fewer workers to do more work. One such inventionwas the mechanical reaper. The reaper made it possible for farmers to take full advantage of the vast areas in America available for planting. Also, the great size of Americahas led to many inventions for speedy and cheap transportation. The steamboat, faster trains, mass-produced cars, and airplanes are just a few examples.America’s size also partly explains our heritage as a country that has become home for people from all over the world. People have always wanted to come here, and there hasalways been plenty of room for them. STOP 2_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11
  12. 12. AMERICA’S LAND AND WATER:Almost every landform, or physical feature, or geographic feature, is to be found somewhere in the United States. Physical features and geographic features are the same thingas landforms. These three words have the same meaning. A landform is a feature of the earth’s surface. Examples include bodies of water, mountains, valleys, deserts, andplains. Our rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water are essential parts of our country. They supply water for drinking and farming and, in some cases, for running power plants.They are also natural highways upon which enormous amounts of goods are moved every year. STOP 3_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________AMERICA’S LOCATION:The United States is in the Northern Hemisphere, the half of the earth north of the equator. The United States is also in the Western Hemisphere, the half of the earth west ofEurope and Africa. The United States, along with Canada and Mexico, makes up North America. In addition, Central America and South America are part of the WesternHemisphere. Until about 500 years ago, mapmakers did not know that the Western Hemisphere existed.For thousands of years, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans separated the Western Hemisphere from the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Greece, Rome, China, India, and WesternEurope. Today, of course, ships and planes crisscross the oceans in a matter of hours or days, and the United States “faces” both east and west. It faces east towards Europeand Africa and faces west towards Asia.For much of their recorded history, however, the North and South American continents have “faced” east toward Europe. From about 1500 AD to 1800 AD, the Europeancountries of England, France, Spain, and Portugal controlled much of the Western Hemisphere. Their effect on this hemisphere is still felt today.The United States began as a few small villages on the Atlantic Coast, settled mainly by English-speaking people. For the next 360 years or so, our country generally grew in awesterly direction – toward the Pacific Ocean, toward the setting sun, and toward Asia. This helps explain why our national capital, Washington, D.C., is closer to Great Britainthan it is to Hawaii or the western shores of Alaska. In fact, Alaska and Hawaii are so far away from the rest of the country that they usually must be presented as insets on mapsof the United States. STOP 4_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________REGIONS OF OUR COUNTRY:The United States has been broken down into regions by the Bureau of the Census. There are 6 basic regions in the United States. These include the Northeast, Southeast,Midwest, Southwest, Mountain States, and West. STOP 5_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12
  13. 13. DIRECTIONS: Define the following terms by using the above reading and then answer the questions that follow. Remember to use the TTQA method when writing ananswer.1. STOP 1:Geography:_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. STOP 1: Environment:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. STOP 1: Natural Resource:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. STOP 1: Landform/Physical Feature/Geographic Feature: ___________________________________________________________________________________________5. STOP 1: Weather:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6. STOP 1: Climate:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________7. STOP 1: Why is understanding geography important to the study of history? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________8. STOP 2: What countries make up the continent of North America? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________9. STOP 3: List examples of different landforms found in upstate New York. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________10. STOP 4: The United States is located in which hemisphere(s)? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________11. STOP 5: How many regions are there in the United States? _________________________________________________________________________________________ 13_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  14. 14. MAP SKILLS WORKSHEET: THE PARTS OF A MAPDIRECTIONS: The map below provides information about the Yosemite National Park. Study the map and answer the questions.1. What is the title of the map? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. Draw the pattern that is used to show the following information: a. Peak: c. State Highway: b. Pass: d. Camp:3. What is the part of the map called that is used to find this information?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. About how many miles is it from Tioga Pass to Tuolumne Meadows?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5. What is the part of the map called that you used to determine this distance?__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6. In what direction would you be traveling if you started at Mono Pass and went to White Wolf Lodge? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________7. What part of the map is used to tell direction?_____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  15. 15. MAP EXERCISE: THE UNITED STATES IN THE WORLDDIRECTIONS: Use maps and additional references to complete the following.1. Label the continents on the map by placing the letter of the continent in the correct area. a. North America c. Europe e. Asia g. Antarctica b. South America d. Africa f. Australia2. Label the following lines on the map: Equator, Prime Meridian.3. Label the following oceans: Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Arctic Ocean.4. Label the compass rose on the map with the following directions: North, South, East, and West.5. Label the United States of America, Mexico, and Canada on the map. 15 11
  16. 16. AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY POWERPOINT PROJECTDIRECTIONS: Each group is to complete a PowerPoint program on a series of geographic features found in the United States of America. Youare to research the geographic features shown below and create a PowerPoint program based on those features. Use the internet as your primaryresource.PROJECT GUIDELINES (REQUIREMENTS):1. TITLE SLIDE: You must have a title slide for the program. This title slide must have the following information: A. Name or title of the program/project. For example: “American Geography” (Times New Roman, size 40-44) B. Your names. (Times New Roman, size 24-28) C. Your class period. (Times New Roman, size 24-28) D. One or two images that relate to your title or topic. E. Each image must have its own caption. (Times New Roman, size 12-14)2. BODY SLIDES: You must have 1 slide for each of the geographic features that you are working on. A. Your group must research the following geographic features. 1. Mountains 3. Rivers 2. Lakes 4. Plains B. You must include the following information on the body slides. 1. Every slide must have a title which gives the geographic feature that is discussed on the slide. Example: “Rivers of the United States”or “American Mountains.” (Times New Roman, size 40-44) 2. Under the slide title, you must give a definition of the geographic feature. Use www.dictionary.com for definitions. (Times NewRoman, size 24-28) 3. You must have a map of the United States on each slide of the body. Then, research and find specific names of your geographicfeature in the United States of America. Place the images of your feature on the slides and use arrows to show where it is located in the USA. Thearrows should go from the images to the location on the map. 4. Each slide must have 2-4 images that explain/show/illustrate the geographic feature. Keep the slides “neat” and clean looking. 5. Each image must have a caption that explains or names the image. (Times New Roman, size 12-14)3. END SLIDE: You must have an ending slide for the program. This end slide must have the following: “The End” (Times New Roman, size96) 16
  17. 17. PowerPoint Project Check Sheet: American Geography ProjectName: ________________________________________ Period: ________________Group Member Names: _________________________________________________________________TITLE SLIDE: Title of Project: ________________________________________ REMEMBER: TITLE SLIDE: + /5 1. Font: Times New Roman 1. Do you have a title slide? Yes/No 2. Sizes of Font: 2. Do you have a title for the project on the slide? Yes/No A. Titles: 40-44 B. Text: 24-28 3. Do you have the names of the group members on the slide? Yes/No C. Captions: 12-14 4. Do you have your class period on the slide? Yes/No D. “The End”: 96 5. Do you have 1 or 2 images on the slide? Yes/No 3. Backgrounds: NONEBODY SLIDES: 6. Do you have a caption for each images on the slide? Yes/No 4. Animations: NONE 7. Did you use the proper font style and size? Yes/No 5. Slide Transitions: NONE BODY SLIDES: + /20 1. Do you have 4 slides in the body of the program? Yes/No 6. Keep the slide neat. 2. Do you have a title for each slide? Yes/No 7. Use up empty or “dead” 3. Do you have the definition of the geographic feature on each slide? Yes/No space with more information or images. 4. Do the images relate to the feature on the slide? Yes/NoEND SLIDE: 5. Do you have a caption for each image on each slide? Yes/No 8. If you need to, split up information onto more than 1 6. Do you have 2-4 images on each slide? Yes/No slide. 7. Did you use the proper font style and size? Yes/No END SLIDE: + /5 / 30 = 1. Do you have a slide that says “The End”? 17 Yes/No 2. Did you use the proper font style and size? Yes/No
  18. 18. AMERICAN GEOGRAPHY TEST REVIEW SHEET:DIRECTIONS: Complete the following review sheet to help prepare for the unit test.PART 1: VOCABULARY: Write out the definitions for the following terms.1. GEOGRAPHY:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. LATITUDE:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. LONGITUDE: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________4. PHYSICAL FEATURES:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5. NATURAL RESOURCES: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6. CLIMATE:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________7. WEATHER:_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________8. ENVIRONMENT:__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________PART 2: SHORT ANSWER: Answer the following questions to help understand the ideas and concepts covered in this unit.1. How are history and geography related to each other? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. What type of location do lines of latitude and longitude show?________________________________________________________________________________________3. Explain the theme called “Interaction Between People and Their Environment.”_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 184. What are some other names for physical features?
  19. 19. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 19__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  20. 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 20__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  21. 21. LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE:A. LINES OF LATITUDE: B. LINES OF LONGITUDE: C. GLOBAL GRID: LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE 21
  22. 22. LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE:Imagine that you are the captain of a U.S. aircraft carrier in the Persian Gulf. You get a message that an unidentified fighter plane is headed your way. The plane’s currentlocation is 28°N latitude, 50°E longitude.Where is the plane? You would know if you understood latitude and longitude. Mapmakers long ago came up with this system of crisscrossing lines to locateplaces on maps and globes.Latitude: North-South DistanceGlobe A shows a series of lines circling Earth. The lines, called parallels of Latitude, measure distance north and south of the equator.Any place on the equator is 0° latitude. Latitude increases as you travel north or south to a maximum of 90° at each pole. Any location north of the equator is north latitude(N); any place south of the equator is south latitude (S).Longitude: East-West DistanceGlobe B shows a series of lines running from pole to pole. These are meridians of longitude. They measure distance east or west of the prime meridian, an imaginary linerunning from pole to pole through Greenwich, England.Any point on the prime meridian is 0°. Longitude increases as you travel east (E) or west (W) until you reach 180°. The 180° meridian is in the Pacific Ocean, halfway aroundthe globe from the prime meridian.Global Grid: Latitude and LongitudeGlobe C shows latitude and longitude combined to form a global grid. Latitude is listed first, then longitude. For example: Aden is 15°N, 45°E.DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions using the globes and reading.1. What is the name for 0° latitude line? ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. What is the name for 0° longitude line? _________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. To measure distance north and south of the equator, you would use lines of _____________________________________________________________________________4. To measure distance east and west of the Prime Meridian, you would use lines of _______________________________________________________________________5. If you were at 15°S, 45°W, on which continent would you be? _______________________________________________________________________________________6. Look at Globe C. What city is located at 15°N, 45°E? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 227. Look at Globe C. What city is located at 60°N, 23°E? ______________________________________________________________________________________________
  23. 23. HEMISPHERES: WHERE ARE YOU?Where do you live? a. Western Hemisphere? b. Eastern Hemisphere? c. Northern Hemisphere? d. Southern hemisphere?Stumped? Geographers divide the globe into hemispheres to locate places more easily. (Hemi means half; sphere means globe.) Heres how the world is divided.1. Northern/Southern:We can also split the globe in half along the equator. The equator circles the Earth halfway between the North and South poles. The Northern Hemisphere includes everythingnorth of the equator; the Southern Hemisphere includes everything south of the equator. 23 13
  24. 24. 2. Western/Eastern:We can divide the globe in half from the North Pole to the South Pole, giving us a Western Hemisphere and an Eastern Hemisphere. Geographers usually divide the globe at20°W and l60°E so that most continents fall into either one of these two hemispheres.DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions based on the globes and reading.1. A line from the North Pole to the South Pole divides Earth into the ________________________ Hemisphere and _______________________ Hemisphere.2. Both North and South America are in the _______________________________ Hemisphere.3. Both Africa and Europe are in the ______________________________ Hemisphere.4. The equator divides the globe into the __________________________________ and _________________________________ hemispheres.5. People in the U.S. live in the _____________________________ and _______________________________ hemispheres. 24
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