The pros are demonstrated in the following
possible benefits and uses of the multi-purpose
river valley projects:
provides power & water for human consumption
helps to conserve water
provides water for agriculture & industrial uses
provides for a fishery
changes the ecology of the region
opens new areas to agriculture
CONS MAY INCLUDE:
they lead to the displacement of human, plants, animals, chiefly from small
disrupt downstream fisheries.
increase the risk of earthquakes.
submerge forest land.
increase the spread of insect-borne diseases.
threaten the fragile regional ecosystem
These projects initially devastate human lives and biodiversity by
inundating thousands of acres of forests and agricultural land.
They degrade the fertile agricultural soils due to continuous irrigation
(rather the seasonal irrigation which is dependent on the monsoon), and
salinization, making the soil toxic to many plant species.
Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam across the Sutlej
River, and is near the border between Punjab and Himachal
Pradesh in northern India .The dam, located at a gorge near
the (now submerged) upstream Bhakra village in Bilaspur
district of Himachal Pradesh, is India's second tallest at
225.55 m (740 ft) high next to the 261m Tehri Dam The length
of the dam (measured from the road above it) is 518.25 m; it
is 9.1 m broad. Its reservoir, known as the "Gobind Sagar",
stores up to 9.34 billion cubic meters of water, enough to
drain the whole of Chandigarh, parts of Haryana, Punjab
and Delhi. The 90 km long reservoir created by the Bhakra
Dam is spread over an area of 168.35 km2
. In terms of
storage of water, it withholds the second
largest reservoir in India, the first being Indira Sagar
Dam in Madhya Pradesh with capacity of 12.22 billion cu m.
The dam was constructed with an aim to
provide irrigation to Punjab and Himachal
Pradesh. Another reason behind the
construction of the dam was to prevent
damage due to monsoon floods. The dam
provides irrigation to 10 million acres
(40,000 km²) of fields in Punjab ,Himachal
Pradesh, Haryana, and Rajasthan. It also has
five flood gates to control floods.
Being the Second highest dam in India, it attracts a
large number of tourists who visit its reservoir and
attractive location. The distance between the
Ganguwal and Bhakra Dam is about 30–35 km.
DAMODAR RIVER VALLEYDAMODAR RIVER VALLEY
First river valley project of free india.First river valley project of free india.
Damodar is a small river tributary to the Hugli River mostly called, 'sorrowDamodar is a small river tributary to the Hugli River mostly called, 'sorrow
of Bengal’.of Bengal’.
The project involves compact, unified multipurpose river basin developmentThe project involves compact, unified multipurpose river basin development
program .program .
The Damodar Valley Project has total installed capacity of generatingThe Damodar Valley Project has total installed capacity of generating
1181 mw of electricity .1181 mw of electricity .
providing irrigation facilities to 5.15 lakh hectares of agricultural area.providing irrigation facilities to 5.15 lakh hectares of agricultural area.
development of24,235 square km of adjoining area covering industrial belt ofdevelopment of24,235 square km of adjoining area covering industrial belt of
Bihar and West Bengal and rural areas of Patna, Gaya, Shahabad, SinghbhumBihar and West Bengal and rural areas of Patna, Gaya, Shahabad, Singhbhum
(Bihar) and Medinipur (West Bengal), districts.(Bihar) and Medinipur (West Bengal), districts.
PROS OF DAMODAR RIVER VALLEYPROS OF DAMODAR RIVER VALLEY
erosion-resisting structures like Adivasi, Deochanda, Bachhi anderosion-resisting structures like Adivasi, Deochanda, Bachhi and
Gauria Karma dams built in the catchment area to hold back rainGauria Karma dams built in the catchment area to hold back rain
water and prevent gully erosion.water and prevent gully erosion.
scientific regeneration of denuded forests.scientific regeneration of denuded forests.
large-scale plantation of timber, mulberry and other fastlarge-scale plantation of timber, mulberry and other fast
growing trees.growing trees.
promotion of culture.promotion of culture.
development of aqua-culture in the reservoirs of the D.V.C.development of aqua-culture in the reservoirs of the D.V.C.
development of paper metallurgical, engineering, aluminium,development of paper metallurgical, engineering, aluminium,
cement and other industriescement and other industries
promotion of tourism, horticulture and dairying.promotion of tourism, horticulture and dairying.
CONS OF DAMODAR RIVER VALLEYCONS OF DAMODAR RIVER VALLEY
adverse impact of release of water from over flowing dams in theadverse impact of release of water from over flowing dams in the
the displacement of person evicted from the construction areas of thethe displacement of person evicted from the construction areas of the
inadequate provision for rehabilitation of displaced societies and loss ofinadequate provision for rehabilitation of displaced societies and loss of
their livelihood.their livelihood.
the cost of construction and maintenance of dams, especially if these arethe cost of construction and maintenance of dams, especially if these are
managed inefficiently by the private sector.managed inefficiently by the private sector.
Many estuary based fisheries and river based fisheriesMany estuary based fisheries and river based fisheries
have been either damaged, or destroyed.have been either damaged, or destroyed.
The Narmada Valley Development Project is the
single largest river development scheme in India.
It is one of the largest hydroelectric projects in the
world and will displace approximately 1.5 million
people from their land in three states (Gujarat,
Maharashtra, and Madhya Pradesh)
the project involves the construction of several
dams, the largest of them being ‘Sardar Sarover’ which
is being built on the east side of Gujarat, it will
submerge 40,000 hectares of land and is will also
become the second largest dam.
The project will supply domestic and industrialThe project will supply domestic and industrial
water to around 30 million people and will alsowater to around 30 million people and will also
irrigate crops that could potentially feed up to 20irrigate crops that could potentially feed up to 20
million peoplemillion people
The project will provide electricity in areas withThe project will provide electricity in areas with
high unmet need, for instance, farm pumps usuallyhigh unmet need, for instance, farm pumps usually
get only a handful of hours power every day,get only a handful of hours power every day,
continuous electricity would definitely result incontinuous electricity would definitely result in
more productive and quantitative produce.more productive and quantitative produce.
Most importantly, it would produce immenseMost importantly, it would produce immense
economic opportunities – it has a potential toeconomic opportunities – it has a potential to
employ 1 million people. It would also result in anemploy 1 million people. It would also result in an
economic multiplier effect, that is, investment andeconomic multiplier effect, that is, investment and
employment stirred by the dam developmentemployment stirred by the dam development ..
• The project can potentially displace around 300,000The project can potentially displace around 300,000
people, disrupt fisheries, increase the risk of earthquakes,people, disrupt fisheries, increase the risk of earthquakes,
inundate forest lands and cause a rise in insect-borneinundate forest lands and cause a rise in insect-borne