MEDA 5400Integrating Technology into Teaching and Learning – Week 1 History – Learning Theories – Rationale Michelle Childress, M.S. Ed.
Objectives for the Course Design instructional activities and materials using various technologies including productivity tools, multimedia, and telecommunications tools Align instructional objectives with curriculum standards (e.g. professional, national, and state) both for subject areas and instructional/educational technology Identify current considerations for implementation of technology-based education experiences Research information on the history and trends of educational technology as well as read and critique current research literature in the field
Overview for Week 11) Review this PowerPoint (PPT) presentation—Week 12) Review the Course Syllabus (attached in D2L)3) Introduce yourself in the Discussion area (in D2L)4) Complete the attached Student Profile Sheet (attached in D2L) and submit to the D2L Dropbox (Student Profile folder) no later than the date and time in your course calendar.5) Questions? Contact me via email or post your question in the Discussion area of D2L. I check my email and course site on a daily basis (often multiple times each day).
Learning with Technology Graphic created with http://www.wordle.net/
Brief History of Educational TechnologyThe earlier references to educational technology were focused more ondevices and materials than methods. Today‘s educators may tend to think ofeducational technology as equipment, but a more useful definition must focuson the process of applying tools for educational purposes. “Technology…is nota collection of machines and devices, but a way of acting.” (Muffoletto, 1994)Over time the historical perspectives from four distinctly different groups ofeducation professionals have merged to help shape the current practices in thefield of educational technology. Graphic created with https://bubbl.us/
Learning with Technology: Evolution• Computer technology has over a 50 year history in education and classroom technology resources have changed dramatically over time.• Technology is now considered to be a combination of media, instructional systems, and computer-based support systems.• Over time educators have learned: – technology resources should be directed toward specific problems and needs – anticipate and plan for change – separate fads (glitz factor) from what works (proven techniques)
Applications of Educational TechnologyEducational technology systems support hundreds of activities relatedto education—both to benefit students directly or to help teachersprepare for teaching. Instructional resources Student Tools instructional software writing assignments in all subject interactive video-based materials areas distance learning courses help with research assistance with learning tasks Productivity applications with task specific software word-processing/desktop developing products and publishing presentations record keeping and data analysis instructional presentations time management and organization
Why Use Technology? (What Research Says)To Motivate: - gaining learner attention - supporting manual operations during high-level learning - illustrating real-world relevance through highly-visual presentations - engaging student through productive work - connecting them with audiences for their writing - increasing student perceptions of being in control - engaging learners with real-world situations - and collaborations
Why Use Technology? (What Research Says)To Enhance Instruction: - supplying interaction and immediate feedback to support skill practice - helping students visualize underlying concepts in unfamiliar or abstract topics - illustrating connections between skills and real-world applications - letting students study systems in unique ways - supplying self-paced learning for capable students - allowing access to learning opportunities - providing opportunities and support for cooperative learning
Why Use Technology? (What Research Says)To Make Student and Teacher Work More Productive: - saving time on production tasks - grading and tracking student work - saving money on consumable materialsTo Help Students Learn andSharpen Their Information AgeSkills: - technological literacy - informational literacy - visual literacy
Models for Instruction Directed Instruction vs ConstructivismInstructional Needs Met by Instructional Needs Met byDirected Instruction: Constructivism:• provides individual pacing and • anchors learning tasks inremediation meaningful, authentic real-life situations• makes efficient learning paths • addresses motivational problems• allows for students to perform time- through interactive activitiesconsuming tasks (e.g. skill practice)and frees teaching time for other • teaches group-based, cooperative-student needs learning skills• supplies self-instructional • emphasizes activities that requiresequences when human teachers higher-level skills and prerequisiteare not available skills at the same time
Directed Instruction Model - focuses on teaching sequences of skills that begin with lower-level skills and build to higher-level skills - clearly states skill objectives with test items matched to them - stresses more individualized work than group work - emphasizes traditional teaching and assessment methods: lectures, skill worksheets, activities and tests with specific expected responses
Learning Theories for Directed InstructionBehavioral Theories: behavioral psychologists concentrated onimmediately observable changes in performance (e.g. tests) asindicators of learning; these theories are the basis for both behaviormodification techniques and programmed instructionInformation-processing Theories: cognitive psychologists focusedon memory and storage processes to make learning possible; aperson receives information, stores it in memory (much like acomputer), and continues to build on previously learned information—retrieving information from both short-term and long-term memory andapplying it to new situations
Directed Learning TheoristsBehavioral Theorists: B. F. Skinner Edward ThorndikeInformation-processing Theorists:Richard Atkinson Robert Gagne David Ausubel
The Next Step:Systems ApproachThe behaviorist and information-processing theories laid the groundwork formore efficient methods of creating directed instruction. Systematicinstructional design or system approaches came about as the process metthe needs of large numbers of learners. (e.g. military and industrial trainers)However, when teachers are developing their own directed instruction withtechnology, thinking about instruction as a system will help develop guidelinesto evaluate their own teaching effectiveness and the usefulness of theircomputer-based resources.The system approach guidelines include:• setting instructional goals and objectives• analyzing the instructional task• evaluating the tests and assessments• determining instructional strategies• revising and improving instruction
Learning Theories: Constructivist LearningConstructivist Learning Models: - focus on learning through posing problems, exploring possible answers, and developing products and presentation - pursue more global goals that specify general abilities such as problem solving and research skills - stress more group work than individualized work - emphasize alternative learning and assessment methods: exploration of open-ended questions and scenarios, doing research and developing products; assessment by student portfolios, performance checklists, and test with open-ended questions; descriptive narratives written by teachers
Learning Theories for ConstructivismConstructivist strategies are based on theprinciples of learning which were derived frombranches of cognitive science—specifically onstudents‘ motivation to learn and to use theirnewly learned skills and abilities outside the‗school culture.‘ Constructivists wish to inspirestudents to see the relevance of what they learnand to be able to transfer which they know to thelearning of other skills which require priorknowledge.
Constructivism and TheoristsHuman Development Theorists:John Dewey Lev Vygotsky Jean PiagetEducational Theorists: Jerome Bruner Seymour Papert
The Next Step:Constructivist ApproachesThe principles from cognitive science have profoundly affected educationalpractice, particularly the instructional applications for technology. The work ofseveral researchers and theorists have contributed guidelines on how to bestdevelop instructional activities according to constructivist models. Teachersmust analyze the needs of their students and decide which strategies seemsmost appropriate—all of these strategies can seldom be used together.The constructivist approach includes:• problem-oriented activities which require solving problems• visual formats and mental models• ―rich‖ environments (e.g. information sources, symbol recording sources,construction kits, phenomenaria (simulation and exploration) sources, andtask manager (teachers)• cooperative or collaborative (group) learning• learning through exploration• authentic assessment methods
Technology Integration Strategies:Directed ModelsTechnology integration can be used to:• remedy identified weaknesses• promote fluency or automate prerequisite skills• make learning efficient for highly motivated students• optimize scarce resources• remove logistical hurdles
Technology Integration Strategies:Constructivist ModelsTechnology integration can be used to:• generate motivation to learn• foster creativity• facilitate self-analysis and metacognition• increase transfer of knowledge to problem-solving• foster group cooperation
Credits• How Does Technology Facilitate Learning? Jonassen, et. al.• Instructional Design.org [http://www.instructionaldesign.org]• Integrating Educational Technology into Teaching. Roblyer, et. al.• Research Evidence for Using Educational Technology. Roblyer & Doering• Microsoft clipart online• other credits given directly on slides as appropriate