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  • The "Ashoka Chakra" in the centre of the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. Truth or satya, dharma or virtue ought to be the controlling principle of those who work under this flag. Again, the wheel denotes motion. There is death in stagnation. There is life in movement. India should no more resist change, it must move and go forward. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change.
  • PEACOCK: The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus , the national bird of India, is a colorful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. The male of the species is more colourful than the female, with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green tail of around 200 elongated feathers. The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male and lacks the tail. The elaborate courtship dance of the male, fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a gorgeous sight. In 1963, the peacock was declared the National Bird of India because of its rich religious and legendary involvement in Indian traditions. The criteria for this choice were many. The bird must be well-distributed within the country so it could truly 'national'. It must be recognizable to the common man. It must lend itself to formal depiction, i.e. abstract depiction on government publications, etc. It must not be confused with the bird emblem of any other nation. It should be associated with Indian myths and legends. The peacock fit the bill. The Peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), the national bird of India. It is symbolic of qualities like beauty, grace, pride and mysticism. Peacocok is a colourful, swan-sized bird, with a fan-shaped crest of feathers, a white patch under the eye and a long, slender neck. LOTUS: Lotus (Nelumbo Nucipera Gaertn) is the National Flower of India. It is a sacred flower and occupies a unique position in the art and mythology of ancient India and has been an auspicious symbol of Indian culture since time immemorial. India is rich in flora. Currently available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyed so far, 47,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India (BSI). National Flower of India - Lotus - The glory of being the National Flower of India goes to 'Lotus' or the water lily, an aquatic plant of Nymphaea family. The big attractive pink flowers have symmetrically arranged petals and broad floating that impart the sense of serenity and beauty. They are considered quite sacred by the Hindus, a major section of the Indian population and are thus have many legends, religious mythology and folklores surrounding them. It is said to represent long life, honor, good fortune and triumph. Lotus can live both in fresh shallow waters and in muddy swamps and can re-germinate for thousands of years symbolizing survival and purity of heart, mind and soul in all conditions. Lotus is often depicted as the seat of Gods and is often used by worshipping and religious practices. Its long stems contain air spaces while rhizomes perform the functions of the roots. The metaphorical symbolism of Lotus extends to divinity, fertility, wealth, knowledge and enlightenment. The adaptability of the plant to produce beautiful and gorgeous flowers despite the muddy swaps where it goes are meant to remind to remain pure and untouched by the evil and lead a life of non-attachment. The eyes of Lord Vishnu are often described in the Vedic verses as the petals of the Lotus flower and His pink feet are referred to as 'Charan Kamal' or the 'Lotus Feet'. It is often used as the motifs and patterns in the ancient Indian art and architecture.
  • NATIONAL TREE: Indian fig tree, Ficus bengalensis , whose branches root themselves like new trees over a large area. The roots then give rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this characteristic and its longevity, this tree is considered immortal and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India. Even today, the banyan tree is the focal point of village life and the village council meets under the shade of this tree.
  • State Emblem: The state emblem is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone, the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra) . In the state emblem, adopted by the Government of India on 26 January 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on right and a horse on left and the outlines of other wheels on extreme right and left. The bell-shaped lotus has been omitted. The words Satyameva Jayate from Mundaka Upanishad , meaning 'Truth Alone Triumphs', are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script. The Ganga: The Ganga or Ganges is the longest river of India flowing over 2,510 kms of mountains, valleys and plains. It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as the Bhagirathi River. It is later joined by other rivers such as the Alaknanda, Yamuna, Son, Gumti, Kosi and Ghagra. The Ganga river basin (External website that opens in a new window) is one of the most fertile and densely populated areas of the world and covers an area of 1,000,000 sq. kms. There are two dams on the river - one at Haridwar and the other at Farakka. The Ganges River Dolphin is an endangered animal that specifically habitats this river. The Ganga is revered by Hindus as the most sacred river on earth. Key religious ceremonies are held on the banks of the river at cities such as Varanasi, Haridwar and Allahabad. The Ganga widens out into the Ganges Delta in the Sunderbans swamp of Bangladesh, before it ends its journey by emptying into the Bay of Bengal. River Dolphin: River Dolphin is the National Aquatic Animal of India. This mammal is also said to represent the purity of the holy Ganga as it can only survive in pure and fresh water. Platanista gangetica has a long pointed snout and also have visible teeth in both the upper and lower jaws. Their eyes lack a lens and therefore function solely as a means of detecting the direction of light. Dolphins tend to swim with one fin trailing along the substrate while rooting around with their beak to catch shrimp and fish. Dolphins have a fairly thick body with light grey-brown skin often with a hue of pink. The fins are large and the dorsal fin is triangular and undeveloped. This mammal has a forehead that rises steeply and has very small eyes. River Dolphins are solitary creatures and females tend to be larger than males. They are locally known as susu , because of the noise it makes while breathing. This species inhabits parts of the Ganges, Meghna and Brahmaputra rivers in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh, and the Karnaphuli River in Bangladesh. River dolphin is a critically endangered species in India and therefore, has been included in the Schedule I for the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The main reasons for decline in population of the species are poaching and habitat degradation due to declining flow, heavy siltation, construction of barrages causing physical barrier for this migratory species.
  • National Calendar The national calendar based on the Saka Era , with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes: Gazette of India. News broadcast by All India Radio. Calendars issued by the Government of India. Government communications addressed to the members of the public. Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year. Tiger: The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris is a striped animal. It has a thick yellow coat of fur with dark stripes. The combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger its pride of place as the national animal of India. Out of eight races of the species known, the Indian race, the Royal Bengal Tiger, is found throughout the country except in the north-western region and also in the neighbouring countries, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. To check the dwindling population of tigers in India, 'Project Tiger' was launched in April 1973. So far, 27 tiger reserves have been established in the country under this project, covering an area of 37,761 sq km. Choice of Tiger as National Animal Tiger was chosen as the National animal of India due to its grace, strength, agility and enormous power. As the tiger is also considered as the king of Jungle, it was an obvious choice for the National Animal category. Since time immemorial, the tiger has been considered as a Royal Animal. Often, The Tiger as the National Animal of India symbolizes the power, strength, elegance, alertness, intelligence and endurance of the nation.
  • Mango: A fleshy fruit, eaten ripe or used green for pickles etc., of the tree Mangifera indica , the mango is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruits of the tropical world. Its juicy fruit is a rich source of Vitamins A, C and D. In India there are over 100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes and colours. Mangoes have been cultivated in India from time immemorial. The poet Kalidasa sang its praises. Alexander savoured its taste, as did the Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsang. Mughal emperor Akbar planted 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, Bihar at a place now known as Lakhi Bagh. National Game: India has conquered the podium when it comes to the game of Hockey. Our nation has an excellent record with eight Olympic gold medals. Indian hockey's golden period was from 1928-56, when the Indian hockey team won six successive Olympic gold medals. Team also won the 1975 World Cup besides two more medals (silver and a bronze). The Indian Hockey Federation (External website that opens in a new window) gained global affiliation in 1927 and joined the International Hockey Federation (FIH) (External website that opens in a new window). Thus began the history of Indian Hockey Federation as India entered the Olympics to begin its golden saga. The tour was a huge success with India winning 18 out of the 21 matches and the legendary Dhyan Chand was the cynosure of all the eyes scoring over 100 goals of the 192 Indian accounted for. The match began in Amsterdam in 1928 and India went on a winning spree in Los Angeles in 1932 and Berlin in 1936 and thus bagged a hat-trick of gold medals at the Olympics. Post Indian Independence; the Indian team achieved another hat-trick of gold medals at the 1948 London Olympics, 1952 Helsinki Games and the Melbourne Olympics. During the Golden Era, India played 24 Olympic matches, won all 24, scored 178 goals (at an average of 7.43 goals per match) and conceded only 7 goals. The two other gold medals for India came in the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and the 1980 Moscow Olympics. Hockey is the National Game of India. Hockey has been played in India for time immemorial. There was a golden period of Indian hockey when hockey stalwarts of India ruled the game. On the international scenario there were no competitors to match the magical hands of Indian hockey players. The might and power of Indian hockey made India synonymous with the game. Unmatched excellence and incomparable talent of Indian players became folklore. The ball-juggling feats of players like Major Dhyanchand made people to think that Indian players used some kind of black magic. The Golden Era of hockey in India was the period from 1928 - 1956 when India won 6 successive gold medals in the Olympic Games. Currency Symbol: The symbol of Indian Rupee typifies India's international identity for money transactions and economic strength. The Indian Rupee sign is an allegory of Indian ethos. The symbol is an amalgam of Devanagari "Ra" and the Roman Capital "R" with two parallel horizontal stripes running at the top representing the national flag and also the "equal to" sign. The Indian Rupee sign was adopted by the Government of India on 15th July, 2010. The symbol, conceptualised and designed by Udaya Kumar, a post graduate in Design from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, has been chosen from thousands of concept entries received by the Ministry of Finance through an open competition among resident Indian nationals. The process of establishing and implementing this new identity is underway through various digital technology and computer applications.
  • Interesting Facts about India India never invaded any country in her last 100000 years of history. When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization) The name 'India' is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu. The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name 'Hindustan' combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus. Chess was invented in India. Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India. The 'Place Value System' and the 'Decimal System' were developed in India in 100 B.C. The World's First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu. The shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite. This magnificent temple was built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola. India is the largest democracy in the world, the 7th largest Country in the world, and one of the most ancient civilizations. The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat'. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. The game was played with cowrie shells and dices. In time, the game underwent several modifications, but its meaning remained the same, i.e. good deeds take people to heaven and evil to a cycle of re-births. The world's highest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh. Built in 1893 after leveling a hilltop, this cricket pitch is 2444 meters above sea level. India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world. The largest employer in India is the Indian Railways, employing over a million people. The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India's wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake. The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word 'NAVGATIH'. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou'. Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days. The value of "pi" was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians. Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India.Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period.Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12). Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world (Source: Gemological Institute of America). The Baily Bridge is the highest bridge in the world. It is located in the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan mountains. It was built by the Indian Army in August 1982. Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries. Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient Indian medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism,physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts. India exports software to 90 countries. The four religions born in India - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world's population. Jainism and Buddhism were founded in India in 600 B.C. and 500 B.C. respectively. Islam is India's and the world's second largest religion. There are 300,000 active mosques in India, more than in any other country, including the Muslim world. The oldest European church and synagogue in India are in the city of Cochin. They were built in 1503 and 1568 respectively. Jews and Christians have lived continuously in India since 200 B.C. and 52 A.D. respectively The largest religious building in the world is Angkor Wat, a Hindu Temple in Cambodia built at the end of the 11th century. The Vishnu Temple in the city of Tirupathi built in the 10th century, is the world's largest religious pilgrimage destination. Larger than either Rome or Mecca, an average of 30,000 visitors donate $6 million (US) to the temple everyday. Sikhism originated in the Holy city of Amritsar in Punjab. Famous for housing the Golden Temple, the city was founded in 1577. Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called "the Ancient City" when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today. India provides safety for more than 300,000 refugees originally from Sri Lanka, Tibet, Bhutan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, who escaped to flee religious and political persecution. His Holiness, the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists, runs his government in exile from Dharmashala in northern India. Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries. Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.
  • Interesting Facts about India India never invaded any country in her last 100000 years of history. When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization) The name 'India' is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu. The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name 'Hindustan' combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus. Chess was invented in India. Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India. The 'Place Value System' and the 'Decimal System' were developed in India in 100 B.C. The World's First Granite Temple is the Brihadeswara Temple at Tanjavur, Tamil Nadu. The shikhara of the temple is made from a single 80-tonne piece of granite. This magnificent temple was built in just five years, (between 1004 AD and 1009 AD) during the reign of Rajaraja Chola. India is the largest democracy in the world, the 7th largest Country in the world, and one of the most ancient civilizations. The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat'. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. The game was played with cowrie shells and dices. In time, the game underwent several modifications, but its meaning remained the same, i.e. good deeds take people to heaven and evil to a cycle of re-births. The world's highest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh. Built in 1893 after leveling a hilltop, this cricket pitch is 2444 meters above sea level. India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world. The largest employer in India is the Indian Railways, employing over a million people. The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by India's wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake. The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word 'NAVGATIH'. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou'. Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days. The value of "pi" was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians. Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India.Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period.Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12). Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world (Source: Gemological Institute of America). The Baily Bridge is the highest bridge in the world. It is located in the Ladakh valley between the Dras and Suru rivers in the Himalayan mountains. It was built by the Indian Army in August 1982. Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries. Usage of anaesthesia was well known in ancient Indian medicine. Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism,physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts. India exports software to 90 countries. The four religions born in India - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world's population. Jainism and Buddhism were founded in India in 600 B.C. and 500 B.C. respectively. Islam is India's and the world's second largest religion. There are 300,000 active mosques in India, more than in any other country, including the Muslim world. The oldest European church and synagogue in India are in the city of Cochin. They were built in 1503 and 1568 respectively. Jews and Christians have lived continuously in India since 200 B.C. and 52 A.D. respectively The largest religious building in the world is Angkor Wat, a Hindu Temple in Cambodia built at the end of the 11th century. The Vishnu Temple in the city of Tirupathi built in the 10th century, is the world's largest religious pilgrimage destination. Larger than either Rome or Mecca, an average of 30,000 visitors donate $6 million (US) to the temple everyday. Sikhism originated in the Holy city of Amritsar in Punjab. Famous for housing the Golden Temple, the city was founded in 1577. Varanasi, also known as Benaras, was called "the Ancient City" when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C., and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today. India provides safety for more than 300,000 refugees originally from Sri Lanka, Tibet, Bhutan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, who escaped to flee religious and political persecution. His Holiness, the Dalai Lama, the exiled spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists, runs his government in exile from Dharmashala in northern India. Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries. Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.
  • Chess was invented in India. Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India. The 'Place Value System' and the 'Decimal System' were developed in India in 100 B.C. The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called 'Mokshapat'. The ladders in the game represented virtues and the snakes indicated vices. The game was played with cowrie shells and dices. In time, the game underwent several modifications, but its meaning remained the same, i.e. good deeds take people to heaven and evil to a cycle of re-births.
  • The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago.
  • The world's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to mankind. The Father of Medicine, Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word 'NAVGATIH'. The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word 'Nou'. Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. According to his calculation, the time taken by the Earth to orbit the Sun was 365.258756484 days.
  • The value of "pi" was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians. Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus also originated in India. Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century.
  • Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period.Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).
  • Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 B.C.during the Vedic period.Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).
  • By some counts there are over 200 languages in India (almost 1600, if you include dialects), with about twenty of them being very prominent ones. The Indian currency is printed in 15 languages. Most forms (like job application, tax forms) in India are hence printed in three languages -- English, Hindi, and a prominent local language.
  • The Saree, Lungi, Dhoti, Turbans are all worn this way. It is the way of wearing is where the styles differ. Tailored Indian clothing includes Salwar-Kameez,  collarless jackets, Kurtas, and western attires for both men and women.
  • The food habits of the one billion Indians varies by the availability of raw materials, cooking traditions, local spices, and interestingly their religious faiths. For instance, some Jain communities do not kill life to feed themselves -- including plants! This means they only consume fruits, milk and leaves only. Many communities do not eat meats respecting the life on the animals. Besides the staples, the spices play an important role in Indian food. There are so many spices to appeal to different parts of the body that the English language does not have adequate adjectives to describe them. For example, the hotness that touches the taste-buds is different than the hotness that makes your gums swell !  India also has a number of sweet dishes, mostly based on sugar, milk, and unbleached sugar (called jaggery in India). The Bengal is famous for its milk-based sweets. In general Indian food is rich in oil and in spices. Rice and wheat are the primary bases for Indian food. The coastal areas fashion seafood delicacies, while the desert areas have mastered cooking with minimal use of water.
  • The years of foreign rule, religious movements, and spiritual discoveries in the ancient land of India has given way to a rich potpourri of social habits, festivals, and customs. To appreciate the Indian culture, an introduction to the religious heritage of India is necessary.
  • The years of foreign rule, religious movements, and spiritual discoveries in the ancient land of India has given way to a rich potpourri of social habits, festivals, and customs. To appreciate the Indian culture, an introduction to the religious heritage of India is necessary. Please see topics on the Bhakti Movement, Hinduism, Festivals, and other Topics on the Indian Culture. India also has a very rich native or tribal culture. See topics on the life of some of the tribes of India at the Tribals of Bastar and Children of the Forest God.

India heritage India heritage Presentation Transcript

  • Know India???? NOW “Know India”THE INCREDIBLE INDIA
  • The Name “India”
  • • The name India is derived from the River Indus, the valleys around which were the home of the early settlers. The Aryan worshippers referred to the river Indus as the Sindhu.• The Persian invaders converted it into Hindu. The name Hindustan combines Sindhu and Hindu and thus refers to the land of the Hindus.
  • India At a Glance
  • Capital New DelhiArea 3.3 Million sq. kmArea wise in the world 7thCoastline 7516.5 kmPhysical Feature The mainland consists of four well- defined regions: (i)The great mountain zone, (ii)The Indo- Gangetic plain, (iii)The desert region and (iv)The Southern PeninsulaAdministrative Division 28 States and 7 Union Territories.Official Language Hindi, EnglishCivilization 5000 years oldPopulation 1.3 Billion
  • A Look at National Symbols of India
  • National Flag • Saffron: strength and courage of the country • White: peace and truth • green: fertility, growth and auspiciousness of the land •“wheel of the law“: there is life in movement and death in stagnation. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change
  • National Bird: •A colorful swan-sized bird.Peacock •beauty, grace, pride and spirituality •Found in most of the areas of the country, that’s why its national birdNational Flower: •Lotus can live both in freshLotus shallow waters and in muddy swamps and can re- germinate for thousands of years symbolizing survival and purity of heart, mind and soul in all conditions. • Symbol of Indian Culture from time immortal
  • National Tree: • Its branches rootThe Fig/Banyan themselves like new treesTree over a large area, roots then give rise to more trunks and branches. • Considered immortal because of long life, and is very important part of Indian culture.National Anthem “Jana-Gana-Mana” • It’s a prayer to Mother India for blessings and a wish for her Victory •Written by late poet Rabindra Nath Tagore
  • State Emblem • adaptated from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka The words Satyameva Jayate, meaning Truth Alone Triumphs, are inscribed below.National River: • Longest River of IndiaThe Ganga • Indians have religious sentiments attached with this river. • its revered as most sacred river on earth by Indians.National Aquatic • This mammal is said toAnimal: River represent the purity of theDolphin holy Ganga as it can only survive in pure and fresh water.
  • National Calendar •based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days •Gregorian calendar is used for various official purposes •Has a correspondence with Gregorian Calendar •1 Chaitra falls on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.National Song “Vande Mataram” •composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji •Is a song of praise and respect of Mother India, Her blessings and Her beautyNational Animal: • combination of grace,Tiger strength, alertness and enormous power
  • National Fruit • Originated in India •In India there are over 100 varieties of mangoesNational Game: • Indian hockeys goldenHockey period was from 1928-56 •During the Golden Era, India played 24 Olympic matches, won all 24 •Won 6 successive gold medals in OlympicsCurrency Symbol • The symbol is an amalgam of Devanagari "Ra" and the Roman Capital "R" •two parallel horizontal stripes running at the top representing the national flag and also the "equal to" sign. •Adopted on 15th July, 2010. •Designed by Udaya Kumar
  • Lets Discuss FewInteresting Facts about India
  • • India never invaded any country in her last 1,00,000 years of history.• When many cultures were only roaming forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization)• India is the largest democracy in the world• The worlds highest cricket ground is in Chail, Himachal Pradesh.• India has the largest number of Post Offices in the world.• India was one of the richest countries till the time of British rule in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus, attracted by Indias wealth, had come looking for a sea route to India when he discovered America by mistake.
  • • Until 1896, India was the only source of diamonds in the world• The Baily Bridge is the highest bridge in the world is located in India.• The four religions born in India - Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the worlds population.• There are 300,000 active mosques in India, more than in any other country, including the Muslim world.• The Vishnu Temple in the city of Tirupathi built in the 10th century, is the worlds largest religious pilgrimage destination. Larger than either Rome or Mecca, an average of 30,000 visitors donate $6 million (US) to the temple everyday.• India exports software to 90 countries.
  • Few Quotes About India
  • • "We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made!" - Albert Einstein (Theoretical Physicist, Germany)• "India is the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most artistic materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only!" - Mark Twain (Writer, America)• "If I were asked under what sky the human mind has most fully developed some of its choicest gifts, has most deeply pondered on the greatest problems of life, and has found solutions, I should point to India." - Max Mueller (German Scholar)• "India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border." - Hu Shih (Former Ambassador of China to USA)
  • • "Many of the advances in the sciences that we consider today to have been made in Europe were in fact made in India centuries ago.“ - Grant Duff (British Historian of India)• "India was the motherland of our race and Sanskrit the mother of Europes languages. India was the mother of our philosophy, of much of our mathematics, of the ideals embodied in Christianity... of self-government and democracy. In many ways, Mother India is the mother of us all.“ - Will Durant (American Historian 1885-1981)
  • Contribution of India to the World History
  • • Chess was invented in India.• Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus are studies, which originated in India.• The Place Value System and the Decimal System were developed in India in 100 B.C. The game of Snakes & Ladders was created by the 13th century poet saint Gyandev. It was originally called Mokshapat.
  • • The worlds first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects.• Ayurveda is the earliest schoolof medicine known to mankind.The Father of Medicine,Charaka, consolidated Ayurveda2500 years ago.
  • • The Art of Navigation & Navigating was born in the river Sindh over 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH.• The word navy is also derived from the Sanskrit word Nou.• Bhaskaracharya rightly calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the Sunhundreds of years before the astronomerSmart. According to his calculation, thetime taken by the Earth to orbit the Sunwas 365.258756484 days.
  • • The value of "pi" was first calculated by the Indian Mathematician Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem.• He discovered this in the 6th century, long before the European mathematicians.• Quadratic Equations were used by Sridharacharya in the 11th century.• Martial Arts were first created in India, and later spread to Asia by Buddhist missionaries.• Yoga has its origins in India and has existed for over 5,000 years.
  • • The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10*53 (i.e. 10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 BC during the Vedic period.• Even today, the largest used number is Terra: 10*12(10 to the power of 12).• Sushruta is regarded as the Father of Surgery. Over2600 years ago Sushrata & his team conducted complicated surgeries like cataract, artificial limbs, cesareans, fractures, urinary stones, plastic surgery and brain surgeries.
  • • Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient Indian medicine.• Detailed knowledge of anatomy, embryology, digestion, metabolism, physiology, etiology, genetics and immunity is also found in many ancient Indian texts.• The largest religious building in the world is Angkor Wat, a Hindu Temple in Cambodia built at the end of the 11th century.
  • Sanskrit (सं स् क त ) ृ• Sanskrit was the classical language of India, older than Hebrew and Latin. It is the oldest, most scientific, systematic language in the world. It became the language of all cultured people in India and in the countries that were influenced by India. Sanskrit literally means “refined” or “perfected” Sanskrit word English meaning Sanskrit meaning matar mother pitar papa / father bhratar brother svasar sister gyaamti geometry measuring the earth’ trikonamiti trigonometry measuring triangular dvaar door forms‘ ma me naman name ‘first person pronoun’ smi smile eka equal ‘the same’
  • Unity in Diversity
  • Geographical Diversity• Himalayas
  • • Plains of India
  • • Sea Shores
  • • Deserts
  • • Diversity of Religions
  • • Diversity of Languages
  • • Diversity of Dressing
  • Diversity in Food Habits
  • • Cultural Diversity
  • Video Link From Namaste Londonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-95XN5szWK0
  • Conclusion• Yes we have problems, then who doesn’t have• Yes we are imperfect and make mistakes, then whose perfect• India is a democratic country, if you don’t like something, change it; and if you can’t, then don’t complain
  • Note• We have tried our level best to find the most accurate data. But we apologize in case if any discrepancies found and would like to be informed for the same. -Alisha Juneja -Kamalpreet Kaur -Kirty Jindal -Manpreet Kaur Sodhi
  • References• http://india.gov.in/knowindia.php• http://www.facts-about-india.com/• http://indianculture.awgp.org/Contributiono fIndiatotheWorld/
  • This was just a drop from the Ocean