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- 1. ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS OF THE PRINCIPLES OF PROJECTIONS OF SOLIDES. 1. SECTIONS OF SOLIDS. 2. DEVELOPMENT. 3. INTERSECTIONS. STUDY CAREFULLY THE ILLUSTRATIONS GIVEN ON NEXT SIX PAGES !
- 2. SECTIONING A SOLID. An object ( here a solid ) is cut by some imaginary cutting plane to understand internal details of that object. The action of cutting is called SECTIONING a solid & The plane of cutting is called SECTION PLANE. wo cutting actions means section planes are recommended. OBSERVER Section Plane perpendicular to Vp and inclined to Hp. ( This is a definition of an Aux. Inclined Plane i.e. A.I.P.) NOTE:- This section plane appears as a straight line in FV. Section Plane perpendicular to Hp and inclined to Vp. ( This is a definition of an Aux. Vertical Plane i.e. A.V.P.) NOTE:- This section plane appears as a straight line in TV. emember:After launching a section plane either in FV or TV, the part towards observer is assumed to be removed. As far as possible the smaller part is assumed to be removed. ASSUME UPPER PART REMOVED E AN PL ON FV. CT IN SE (A) (B) ASSUME LOWER PART REMOVED OBSERVER SE CT ON IN PLA TV NE .
- 3. ILLUSTRATION SHOWING IMPORTANT TERMS IN SECTIONING. For TV Fo rT ru e Sh ap e SECTION PLANE TRUE SHAPE Of SECTION x y Apparent Shape of section SECTION LINES (450 to XY) SECTIONAL T.V.
- 4. Section Plane Ellipse Section PlaneTriangle Through Generators Through Apex Pa rab ola Typical Section Planes & Typical Shapes Of Sections. Section Plane Parallel to end generator. Ellipse Cylinder through generators. Section Plane Hyperbola Parallel to Axis. Trapezium Sq. Pyramid through all slant edges
- 5. Q 14.11: A square pyramid, base 40 mm side and axis 65 mm long, has its base on the HP and all the edges of the base equally inclined to the VP. It is cut by a section plane, perpendicular to the VP, inclined at 45º to the HP and bisecting the axis. Draw its sectional top view, sectional side view and true shape of the section. 21 X1 31 o” o’ 3” 41 3’ 11 2” 4” 2’ 4’ 1’ X 1” b’ d’ a’ 45º c’ d” d 4 a 1 o 3 c 2 b Y1 a” c” Y b”
- 6. Q 14.14: A pentagonal pyramid , base 30mm side and axis 60 mm long is lying on one of its triangular faces on the HP with the axis parallel to the VP. A vertical section plane, whose HT bisects the top view of the axis and makes an angle of 30º with the reference line, cuts the pyramid removing its top part. Draw the top view, sectional front view and true shape of the section and development of the surface of the remaining portion of the pyramid. o’ a’ 60 6’ b’e’ 1’ 5’ b’e’ b c’d’ c’d’ 4’ b1 o’ 3’ c1 c 2 o a d e a1 30 X a’ 2’ 6 d1 1 4 5 o1 3 31’ 21’ 41’ e1 11’ 51’ 61’ Y
- 7. Q 14.6: A Hexagonal prism has a face on the H.P. and the axis parallel to the V.P. It is cut by a vertical section plane the H.T. of which makes an angle of 45 with XY and which cuts the axis at a point 20 mm from one of its ends. Draw its sectional front view and the true shape of the section. Side of base 25 mm long height 65mm. a’ f’ b’ e’ c’ d’ 6’ 7’ a’ f’ 65 a’ f’ 1’ b’ e’ 5’ b’ e’ 2’ X a’ f’ b’ e’ b a c’ d’ 4’ 3’ b1 b1 1 2 37 a1 c1 a1 c1 Y1 25 c Y c’d’ c’d’ d f e 4 6 f1 d1 e1 f1 d1 20 e1 31’ 21’ 11 ’ 5 41 ’ 71 ’ X1 51’ 61’
- 8. Q 14.24: A Cone base 75 mm diameter and axis 80 mm long is resting on its base on H.P. It is cut by a section plane perpendicular to the V.P., inclined at 45º to the H.P. and cutting the axis at a point 35 mm from the apex. Draw the front view, sectional top view, sectional side view and true shape of the section. c 1 h 1 d 1 g 1 f1 e 1 X1 o” l1 a 1 k 1 35 j1 b 1 i 1 o’ d’ j’ g’ f’ e’ h’ i’ f” d” 4 10 4 c d b 6 8 5 9 7 4” 5” 3” 5 6 e f g o 7 h 12 i l k 11 l” a” a 1 k” b” 3 2 j” c” b’ l’ 2 3 1 12 11 X h” i” e” c’ k’ a’ g” 8 j 10 9 Y1 6” 2” 7” 1” 8” 9”10” 12” 11” Y
- 9. Q14.13: A hexagonal pyramid, base 30 mm side and axis 65 mm long is resting on its base on the HP, with two edges of the base parallel to the VP. It is cut by a section plane perpendicular to VP and inclined at 45º to the HP, intersecting the axis at a point 25 mm above the base. Draw the front view, sectional top view, sectional side view and true shape of the section. 51 41 61 X2 Y1 31 11 o’ o” 4’ 3’5’ 71 4” 21 65 3” X1 2’6’ b’f’ a’ b 2” 25 1’7’ c’e’ d’ 1 3 a 4 o 7 d 5 f 6 6” b” c” c 2 5” e Y2 1” a” d” 7” f” e”
- 10. Q14.13: A hexagonal pyramid, base 30 mm side and axis 65 mm long is resting on its base on the HP, with two edges of the base parallel to the VP. It is cut by a section plane perpendicular to VP and inclined at 45º to the HP, intersecting the axis at a point 25 mm above the base. Draw the front view, sectional top view, sectional side view and true shape of the section. 51 41 61 X2 Y1 31 11 o’ o” 4’ 3’5’ 71 4” 21 65 3” X1 2’6’ b’f’ a’ b 2” 25 1’7’ c’e’ d’ 1 3 a 4 o 7 d 5 f 6 6” b” c” c 2 5” e Y2 1” a” d” 7” f” e”

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