Swami Vivekanand's thoughts on Women's Education

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  • 1. Swami Vivekananda and Women’s Education Organised by Swami Vivekananda Saardh Shati Samaroh Samiti In collaboration with Narayanamma Institute of Technology & Science for Women Prof. Vasudha Kamat Vice Chancellor SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai National Seminar on Swami Vivekananda: Vision for Women's Development
  • 2. Agenda  Swami Vivekananda: A great Visionary  Swamiji’s thoughts on Education  Swamiji’s thoughts on Women’s Education  Women’s Education: Present Status  Contribution of Women’s Universities 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 2
  • 3. Swami Vivekananda http://www.slideshare.net/edusparx/vivekanandas-ideas-on-education  Born in 1863 in Calcutta as Narendranath Dutta  He found his Guru in Sri Ramkrishna Paramhansa  Shot to fame at Chicago‟s Parliament of Religions in 1893  Died in 1902 at a young age of 39 years and left a treasure of writings and inspirational thoughts. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 3 Background
  • 4. Swamiji defines education as “the manifestation of the perfection already in man”. According to him, manifestation indicates a spontaneous growth provided that the impediments are removed. He explains the term „perfection‟ as the goal of actualizing the highest human potential. Education in Man-making 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 4 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education
  • 5. 1. Capacity which means the acquisition of a specific characteristic or competence that makes learning possible. 2. Propensity of doing something when the opportunity comes - implying the development of learning. 3. Capability, the competence of working towards an intended outcome with the strength of getting rid of obstacles to learning. It implies self-development or self-empowerment. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 5 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education Swami Prabhananda’s interpretation of ‘Perfection’ in Swamiji’s definition of education http://www.sriramakrishna.org/admin/bulletin/_bulletin_1ed16b7a2592fb853a358d57913fb6594766d551.pdf
  • 6. In the spiritual sense, education is the process of discovering the capacity, propensity and capability of a human being to realize own soul‟s ever-perfect nature. In the secular sense, education is the process of bringing out in a human being the capacity, the propensity and the capability of self-development and self- empowerment in order to be self-reliant with a spirit of philanthropy and courage. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 6 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education Swami Prabhananda’s interpretation of ‘Perfection’ in Swamiji’s definition of education
  • 7. Swamiji urges, … … we want the education by which  character is formed  strength of mind is increased  the intellect is expanded  one stands on one’s own feet 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 7 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education
  • 8. Education is not the amount of information that is put into your brain and runs riot there, undigested, all your life. We must have life- building, manmaking, character-making assimilation of ideas. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 8 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education
  • 9. Swamiji delineates moral and ethical education as:  Help and not Fight  Assimilation and not Destruction  Harmony and Peace and not Dissension Each must assimilate the spirit of the others and yet preserve his individuality and grow according to his own law of growth. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 9 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education
  • 10. Swamiji said, I see it before my eyes, a nation is advanced in proportion as education and intelligence spread among the masses. The chief cause of India‟s ruin has been the monopolizing of the whole education and intelligence of the land by dint of pride and royal authority, among a handful of men. If we are to rise again, we shall have to do it by spreading education among the masses. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 10 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education
  • 11.  Give them (masses) ideas. That is the only help they require. Then the rest must follow.  the medium of instruction should be the mother tongue. The ideas must be taught in the language of the people.  Create a cult of learning among them to sustain the education they received.  Impart training in life skills, trade, commerce and agriculture. Swamiji’s pedagogical suggestions 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 11 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education
  • 12.  the self-sacrificing monks should go to the villages and teach them the secular subjects as well as religion and thus spread education from door to door.  „Why should not education go from door to door, say I . . . If a ploughman‟s boy cannot come to education, why not meet him at the plough, . . . just wherever he is?‟ said Swamiji. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 12 Swami Vivekananda Swamiji’s pedagogical suggestions Thoughts on Education
  • 13.  physical culture  aesthetics  classics  language  religion  science and technology 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 13 Subjects of study Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education
  • 14. language : Although Swamiji was of the opinion that mother tongue is the right medium for social or mass education, he prescribes the learning of English and Sanskrit also. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 14 Subjects of study Swami Vivekananda  physical culture  aesthetics  classics  language  religion  science and technology Thoughts on Education
  • 15. Swamiji presses the need for the eradication of poverty, unemployment and ignorance. “… We need technical education and all else which may develop industries, so that men, instead of seeking for service, may earn enough to provide for themselves”. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 15 Swami Vivekananda Subjects of study Thoughts on Education
  • 16. In Swamiji‟s view, for the development of a balanced nation, we have to combine the dynamism and scientific attitude of the West with the spirituality of our country. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 16 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education
  • 17. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose wrote: “Swamiji harmonized the East and the West, religion and science, past and present. And that is why he is great. Our countrymen have gained unprecedented self-respect, self-reliance and self-assertion from his teachings.” 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 17 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Education
  • 18. “There is no chance of the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly on one wing.” Swamiji 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 18 Swami Vivekananda Women Empowerment
  • 19. Swamiji declared that the western ideal of womanhood is wife, while the eastern ideal is mother. “The very peculiarity of Hindu women which they have developed and which is the ideal of their life, is that of the mother …” 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 19 Swami Vivekananda Women Empowerment
  • 20. It is very difficult to understand why in this country so much difference is made between men and women, where Vedanta declared that one and the same Self was present in all beings. Women must be put in a position so that they could solve their problems in their own way. Women in statesmanship, managing territories, governing countries, even making war, have proved themselves equal to men, if not superior. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 20 Swami Vivekananda Women Empowerment
  • 21. Whenever they have had the opportunity, they have proved that they have as much ability as men, with this advantage – that they seldom degenerate. They keep to the moral standard, which is innate in their nature. And thus as governors and rulers of their state, they prove-at least in India far superior to men. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 21 Swami Vivekananda Women Empowerment
  • 22. The main objective of his scheme of women's education was to make them strong, fearless, and conscious of their chastity and dignity. According to him, for women, problems can be many but none that cannot be solved by that magic word „education‟. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 22 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Women’s Education
  • 23. He was emphatic that women must be educated, for it is the women who mould the next generation, and hence, the destiny of the country. Therefore, in Swamiji‟s educational scheme for India, the uplift of women and the masses received the highest priority. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 23 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Women’s Education
  • 24. To make a beginning in women‟s education, his argument centred on chastity because it is the heritage of Hindu women. He said, daughters should be supported and educated with as much care and attention as the sons. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 24 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Women’s Education
  • 25. He prescribed an education that would create “great fearless women – women worthy to continue the traditions of Sangamitra, Lila, Ahalya Bai, and Mira Bai. For him development of true ideal of womanhood was the primary goal of education. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 25 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Women’s Education http://samyukta.info/site/node/320
  • 26. Swamiji emphasized women studying religion, science, art, housekeeping, cooking, sewing, hygiene, etc. along with, japa, worship and meditation. He said, “Ideal characters must always be presented before the girls to imbue them with a devotion to principles of selflessness.” 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 26 Swami Vivekananda Thoughts on Women’s Education The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Calcutta: Advaita Ashram
  • 27. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 27 Bharat Ratna Maharshi Karve Thoughts on Women’s Education Women as a class have different functions to fulfill in the social economy from those of men…both national and social economy require that women should occupy a station of their own, distinct from that of men.
  • 28. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 28 Japan Women’s University Thoughts on Women’s Education “Our aim in establishing Women‟s University is neither to copy the higher institutions for women in America and Europe nor to rival the men‟s university courses in this country. We aim to frame our study to suit the mental and physical conditions of women at present…” Mr. Naruse (1901)
  • 29. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 29 Asian Women’s University Thoughts on Women’s Education “This residential university will focus on helping women to become innovative leaders in their fields and promote intercultural understanding and sustainable development in Asia and other parts of the world.” (2008)
  • 30. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 30 Women’s Universities in India SNDT Women‟s University 1916 Sri Padmavati Mahila Vishwavidyalaya 1983 Banasthali Vidyapeeth (1935) 1983 Mother Teresa Women‟s University 1984 Avinashllingam University for Women 1988 Karnataka State Women‟s University 2003 BPS Mahila Vishwavidyalaya (1936) 2006
  • 31. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 31 In Asia and Africa Ewha Women‟s University (Korea) 1886 Japan Women‟s University 1901 Seoul Women‟s University 1919 Philippine Women‟s University 1919 Asian Women‟s University (Bangladesh) 2008 Women‟s University in Africa (Zimbabwe) 2002
  • 32. Enrolment of women in higher education (2009-10) Total Women % 1,46,24,990 60,80,373 41.6 7 Women‟s Universities till XI Plan 20 more will come up in XII Plan 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 32 Women Enrolment
  • 33. Swamiji‟s vision for Women‟s Education and present globally emergent issues related to women‟s education need to be addressed especially by the Women‟s Universities, Women‟s Colleges and institutions of higher learning…. 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 33 Next Step
  • 34. Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda (1959), Vol. II, IV, V, VII Calcutta: Advaita Ashram Maheshwari V K and Shastri Veena Swami Vivekanand - Education of women http://www.scribd.com/doc/51163064/SWAMI- VIVEKANAND-EDUCATION-OF-WOMEN Sanyal Bikas C. (2012) Revisiting Educational Thoughts and Actions of Swami Vivekananda http://www.sriramakrishna.org/admin/bulletin/_ bulletin_1ed16b7a2592fb853a358d57913fb659476 6d551.pdf Usha K. B. (2009) Swami Vivekananda On The Women Question http://samyukta.info/site/node/320 9/29/2013 Prof. Vasudha Kamat, Vice Chancellor, SNDTWU 34 References
  • 35. Thank You Prof. Vasudha Kamat Vice Chancellor SNDT Women’s University, Mumbai vc@sndt.ac.in