SECTION – I Single Correct Answer Type Select the correct answer from among those provided for the following
Directions for questions 1 To 8 :Directions for questions 1 To 8 : Arrange the sentences A, B, C, and D between sentences 1 to 6 form a logically coherent paragraph.
01 Problem Trade Unions have been slow to react to recent changes in the environment. The shift from collective bargaining to participating in improving the quality of life will not solve the problems confronting the trade unions to day. They should take greater interest in the work people do and not just the wages they earn. They have been too rigid, too slow, too insensitive and not quite willing to face facts. Trade unions therefore have to revise their agenda if they are to survive in the 21st century. 6. But it could constitute an important beginning. ABCD DBCA CBDA CDBA
Problem 02 Operating a small motel, I tried to avoid answering the door bell before 6.30 a.m. One morning at about 5 O'clock the door bell rang. So I had a box put up next to the door and placed a sign on it saying, "Deposit keys here“ But some guests continued to summon me as early as 4.30 a.m Customers were told to leave their keys in their rooms when checking out. 6. When I opened the office door, a smiling guest greeted me with. "I just wanted you to know, I put my key in the box.“ BACD BADC ABDC DCBA
Problem 03 Anthropological studies grew up in the context of colonialism as part of colonial situation. They did not perceive that colonialism created colonial people in which the former used violence against the latter. Under the garb of "native peoples," they failed to understand the economic, political, cultural and spiritual domination of an alien power. Anthropologists for the most part did not question the colonial situation. They took the colonial situation for granted, often capitalizing upon it and sometimes actively supporting it. 6. Instead, they chose to see the colonial people terms of a "primitive concept" denying the colonized people, their colonial status. BADC CDAB CABD DACB
Problem 04 The market mechanism is the natural coordinator of private sector activities. It is also linked to the centrality of the notion of a free contract for both the operation of the market mechanism and the safeguarding of private property. This is linked to the autonomy of the decision maker under the market mechanism. It is futile to expect the state unit to behave as if it were privately owned. It is time to get rid of this vain hope once and for all. 6. There is no reason to be astonished by the fact that the state owner ship permanently recreates the bureaucracy because it is but an organic part of the bureaucratic hierarchy. ACDB DCBA BACD BADC
Problem 05 A manager is faced with innumerable situations in which he has to make a choice. These are not the only kind of decisions that managers take. As a seller, he has to decide what to sell. As a producer, he has to decide what to produce, how to produce, how much to produce and where to produce. As a buyer he has to decide what to buy. 6. They generally face a wide range of situations involving choice. DCBA DCAB BDAC ABCD
Problem 06 What is sociology? Because it is sociological theory that defines sociology as a profession where empirical study is validated. There is actually no easy answer. But this is a notion which few sociologists would defend. The textbook defines it as a study of society. 6. The big boys are all 'theoreticians having a kind of magic which the pure empiricist does not possess. BCDA DCAB CDBA BDCA
Problem 07 Class analysis is less concerned with breaking down society with discrete groupings of people with bundles of common characteristics than with trying to examine the whole social structure as a system of class. So the units of class existing in a society are essentially linked to the kind of social structure the society has. What is of primary importance is to assess how the working of a particular social structure acts to push people towards one an other in one direction, and against others in another direction. So the problem of slotting particular individuals into certain categories called 'class' is a second order concern. It follows from this that the first task of a class analysis is to ascertain the nature of a social structure being examined. 6. So one must first understand what social structure means. BCAD CBDA BCDA CBAD
08 Problem Every position that secures for its incumbent a livelihood is by definition, economically rewarded. It, therefore, becomes convenient for society to use unequal economic returns as the principal means of controlling the entrance of persons into positions and stimulating the performance of their duties. The amount of economic return therefore becomes one of the main indices of social status. For this reason there is an economic aspect to those positions the main function of which is not economic. It should be stressed, however, that the position does not bring power and prestige because it draws a high income. 6. Rather, it draws a high income because it is functionally important and the available personnel is for one reason or another scarce. ACBD CBAD ACDB CABD
Directions for questions 9 to 14 : In each of the following sentences, a part of the sentence is left unfinished. Beneath each sentence, four different ways of completing the sentence are indicated. Choose the best alternative among the four.
Problem 09 For some of our ruling politicians, social justice has apparently come to mean that ________ they have a right to plunder public money from the treasury they have a right to the plunder of public money from the treasury theirs is the right to plunder public money from the treasury the right is theirs to plunder public money from the treasury
Problem 10 Some critics believe that Satyajit Ray never quite came back to the great beginning he made in his path-breaking film Panther Paschalis. _________ have endured decades of well-travelled bad prints to become a signpost in cinematic history. The bizarre history of its misty origins Its haunting images Its compelling munificence The breathtaking awe it inspires
Problem 11 ________, the more they remain the same. The less the dynamism The more things change The more pronounced the transformation The more the merrier
12 Problem Revenues are likely to register a dramatic increase if _________, on the hundred million people who are said to comprise the rising lndian middle class. a flat tax is collected a flat tax is placed taxes at a flat rate are charged tax is imposed at a flat rate.
Problem 13 I am an entertainer. _________ I have to keep smiling because, deep in my heart, laughter and sorrow have an affinity. Even if I have tears in me Despite conditions of extreme adversity Inspire of misery around me Although I have yet to make it big
Problem 14 The stock market is probably ________ And the way the markets are plunging says a lot about investor confidence. an ideal indication of the health of public sentiment the least imperfect mechanism forejudging the quantity of the sentiment of the public. the best indicator of public sentiment the best barometer to assess the sentiment of the public
Directions for questions 15 to 21 : Each question has four items. Three of them are related or belong to one group and the fourth does not. Select as your answer that item which does not belong to the group.
Problem 15 Duplicity Guilelessness Artfulness Shrewdness
Problem 16 Break Hiatus Pause End
17 Problem Pseudonym Alias Euphemism Misnomer
Problem 18 Anxious Zealous Eager Ardent
Problem 19 Stigmatise Vilify Consecrate Scandalise
Problem 20 Intrusion Percolation Effluence Effusion
Problem 21 Impetuosity Equanimity Effervescence Paroxysm
Directions for questions 22 to 26 : Each question contains six statements followed by four sets of combinations of three. Choose the set in which the statements are logically related.
Problem 22 An ostrich lays eggs. All birds lay eggs. Some birds can fly. An ostrich cannot fly An ostrich is a bird. An ostrich can swim. ECD EDC BEA AEB
Problem 23 IIM Calcutta is in West Bengal. IIM Luck now is in UP. West Bengal is in India. UP is in North India. All IIMs are in India. At least one IM is in India. CDE ABF BFD ACF
Problem 24 All Prime Ministers were politicians. All members of parliament were politicians. All Prime Ministers were members of Parliament. Pundit Nehru was a politician. Pundit Nehru was the Prime Minister. Pundit Nehru was a member of parliament. ECF ECB FCE ADE
Problem 25 Some non vegetarians eat fish, chicken and meat. All non vegetarians eat fish. Ramnath does not eat chicken or meat. Ramnath eats fish. Hilsa is a-fish. Ramnath is a non vegetarian. BDE DEF BDF CDF
Problem 26 India is a poor country. All countries with per capita GNP below $400 are poor. India has a per capita GNP of $315. In poor-countries the state subsides food. In all poor countries democratic institutions are weak. In India, democratic institutions are weak. EFA ACB EAF BCF
Directions for question 27 to 35 : Each pair of CAPITALIZED words given below is followed by four pairs of words. Choose the pair which exhibits the relationship similar to that expressed in the capitalized pair.
Problem 30 RELATIVE : ABSOLUTE : : Faint: Bright Variable : Constant Partial: General Similar : Contrary
Problem 31 CAUSE : EFFECT : : Rationale : Conclusion Occur : Impend Seed : Sprout Result: Game
Problem 32 DEMAND : SUPPLY :: Labor : Capital Require : Offer Give : Take Accept: Reject
Problem 33 DOUBT : FAITH :: Atheist: Religious Skeptic : Pious Cerebral : Dull Impolite : Courteous
Problem 34 UNITY : DIVERSITY :: Single : Multiple One : Many Homogenous : Heterogeneous Singular : Plural
Problem 35 ANTERIOR : POSTERIOR :: Before : After In : Out Came : went Top : Bottom
Directions for questions 36 to 40 : In each of the following sentences, a part of the sentence is underlined. Beneath each sentence, four different ways of phrasing the underlined part are indicated. Choose the best alternative among the four.
Problem 36 Victory is everything in the Indian universe and Tendulkar will be expected to translate his genius in batting into the captaincy. To contemplate other options is to contemplate the risk of failure. To contemplate other options is to contemplate the risk of failure. Failure is not an option. All other options have the potential for failure. Unrealistic options invite the threat of failure.
Problem 37 Whatever be the experience of the other funds, the Unit Trust of India decision will put pressure on them to convert their closed schemes into open ones. Investors must evaluate future offerings from the other funds on that basis. must evaluate future offerings from the other funds on that basis. should hereafter gauge such offerings keeping such a rationale in mind. reckon with such offerings upon such expectations. ought to carefully scan potential offerings on that logic.
Problem 38 Dieters who regain weight usually think flattening their fumiest means giving up all their favorite fattening foods. In fact most diet winners still eat doughnuts and pizza but they do so with equanimity. but they do so soberly. but in moderation. but they do so with a sense of judiciousness. but they do so with equanimity.
Problem 39 The most important thing I have ever done happened when I was completely helpless. Something terrible was happening to people I cared about and I was bereft of powers to change course. I was powerless to change the outcome. I was prevented from transforming the conclusion. I was helpless in the aftermath. I was bereft of powers to change course.
Problem 40 Notwithstanding the opposition from private vested interests, the fundamental flaw in the government's reasoning is its obstinacy to edify the flowering of Indian democracy and the historically demonstrable capability of Indians to absorb and synthesize foreign influences rather than being culturally subsumed or asphyxiated by them. is its obstinacy to edify the flowering of Indian democracy. lies in its stubbornness to glorify the emergence of Indian democracy. is at the root of its obduracy to acknowledge the origins of Indian democracy. is its refusal to appreciate the flowering of Indian democracy.
Directions for questions 41 to 50 : Sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the four given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.
Problem 41 With eyes wild and arms wind milling, Atoning sailed off the platform right in from of the carriage. He lunged for the T-shaped brake lever to his right. The driver realized in an instant that the girl was going to fall in front of the train. The brakes locked, and 32 steel wheels shrieked gains the rails. CADB CBDA CBAD ACDB
Problem 42 A wife may not be sure that what her husband is saying means "the end". She has found that people's voices often get higher or shakier when they lie, and they are more likely to stumble over words. According to De Paulo, changes in voice can be significant. She should listen closely, not only to what he says, but also to how he says it. ACDB ADBC ABCD ADCB
Problem 43 Back at the house, I dispatched the children to wash the two bagfuls of was apples they had picked. The apples tasted better than any new variety available in the market. Or perhaps it was because they were stolen. Perhaps it was because they were fresh from the trees. ACDB ABDC ADCB ABCD
Problem 44 In bulk processing, a set of standard prices typically emerges. Competing therefore means keeping products flowing, trying to improve quality, getting costs down. Let us look at the two cultures of competition. Production tends to be repetitive-much the same from day to day or even from year to year. ABDC CABD DCBA CDBA
Problem 45 Nearly 80 percent tries three or more times before they got it right. Registered dietitian Annie Fletcher surveyed weight-loos winners for her book. Thin for life. If you've tried countless times to trim your tummy, don't despair. The vast majority, she found didn't succeed on the first try. BCDA BCAD CBDA CBAD
Problem 46 A moment later my prospective fiancé reappeared and shoved a ticket to jiuquan through the hatch. The queue gazed at me dumbstruck, then broke into a little ripple of applause. The station master and clerk retreated into the back room. I lifted it like a trophy. ACDB ACBD CADB CABD
Problem 47 The hasjte with which the patents were withdrawn even suggests a measure of panic. Only the public outcry generated by the decision (fanned by TRW' decision to boast of its apparent victory) caused the decsion to be belatedly reconsidered. The TRW case, however, raises the possibility that patents might be granted without regard to their wider consequences. It would seem that the US Patent Office rubber-stamped TRW's application without adequate consideration of the broader issues. CDBA CDAB DACB DABC
Problem 48 The past is a real world, inhabited by villains and heroes and regular folk passing this way on swift journeys. The past is no row of bare facts waiting to be memorized by school children. Their story is our story - the tie that binds each generation to all the others. Nor does it stand in our backyard like an old fence, slowly and silently rotting. BDAC ACDB BDCA ACBD
Problem 49 He pulled popcorn dipped in ketchup out of her mouth with a air of pilers. Soon Steven was making horro pictures, using his sisters as victims. A few years later Steven borrowed his dad's eight-millimetre movie camera to film, The Last train Wreck, using his own electric train set. In one he played a dentist, with his sister Ann as the patient. DACB DABC CBDA CBAD
Problem 50 Widely publicized tables of income levels of all countries indicate that when incomes are higher, the greater is the contribution made by the manufacturing industry. Countries which have little or no industry are almost invariably poor. The lesson is clear to overcome poverty and backwardness, a country must industrialize. Industrialization is seen as the key to growth and a prerequisite for development. DCBA DABC CABD CBAD
SECTION - II
Directions for questions 51 to 100 : Each passage in this part is followed by questions based on its contents. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer for each question. It was in the late eighties that corporations discovered the magic mantra : customer satisfaction. Gear up your marketing programmed to satisfy customers, and you will never have to worry about rivals, was the consensus of CEOs and gurus alike. In the mid nineties, the mantra is being modified somewhat. Instead of merely satisfaction, enlightened companies have now started talking about customer loyalty. The distinction is important. Increasingly, research data is showing that even customers who claim to be satisfied tend to desert a company whenever its rival unleashes a new marketing programmed. And any marketing exercise that merely aims at satisfying customers is unlikely to reap any long term benefits. Customer loyalty has become especially crucial because, as every marketer knows, it is about six times more expensive to attract a new customer than it is to retain an old one. Moreover, empirical evidence shows that a firm's most loyal customers are also its most profitable ones. As the period of relationship lengthens, with each passing year, it takes far less to service them. And as the loyalty cycle grows, these old customers become increasingly important business builders - not just buying more, but paying premium prices, and helping bring in new customers through referrals.
But how does one ensure loyalty? The trick lies in developing a marketing programmed that rewards loyalty and provides an incentive for the customer to stay on with a company. So far quite a few durables and service marketing companies have started trying out such schemes. These loyalty reward schemes shouldn't be confused with short- team promotion pitches or specials of the month. While the latter bring in quick jumps in the number of customers, none of them are really designed to keep a client for the long term. So how does one develop a successful loyalty programmed? Here are some of the important issues that need to be tackled before a loyalty programmed starts paying dividends. The first issue is whom to target. Because the first principle of any loyalty programmed is based on the foundation that all customers are not alike, implementing any rogrammed becomes rather tricky. There are some who do it easily enough. Think of your neighborhood grocer. In many ways, he's a good example of a person who ntuitively understands the strategic purpose of a loyalty programmed. In turn for your unfailing loyalty, what does the grocer have to offer? He smiles at you, reets you by name, is willing to take orders over the phone, and send the goods to your doorstep. And offer credit for at least a month. In turn, you continue to pick up all your requirements from him. But what makes it so difficult for an organisation to follow suit? Largely, the scale of operations makes bigger corporations slightly impersonal in their dealings. In 1989, the
garware Supermarket tried to usher in the super marketing revolution. But by 1994, the store had downed its shutters. What went wrong? The store hadn't anticipated what it look to make enough number of customers switch from the local bania. Not that Garware's didn't try personalising the service. It had made it mandatory for its sales people to know all the regular customers by name.The problem Garware faced was that controlling the customer interface on the shopfloor wasn't possible at all times, coupled with the fact that there was a steady turnover of staff. It is a problem common to almost all service businessess. Hotels, particularly, have to be careful on this score. So how does a popular five star hotel ensure that when a loyal guest arrives, he is automatically recognised at the check-in counter? To easily identify a valued customer, the obvious route is to equip him with a card, which he flashes every time he buys a product or service. So irrespective of who is manning the check -in counter, a valued customer is accorded the level of privileges that are due to him. Of course, before you can equip your valued customers with he card, you need to figure out who your best customers are. The second issue is regarding recruiting members into loyalty programmed. How do you ensure that you enroll exactly the right profile of people into your loyalty programmed? The trick is to keep your net wide enough so that enough members trickle in. Then track their usage pattern closely and sift out those who ought to be your special customers and then focus the rewards on them. The British Airways frequent
flyer programme, Executive Club, works on much the same principle. The programme has two components- benefits, that are available to everyone who joins the club and rewards, that are determined by how much you fly. The club has three graded tiers- Blue, Silver and Gold. A member who joins starts out as a Blue member and is entitled to general benefits such as preferred seating, priority wait listing, a special newsletter. Once a member has flown 35, 000 miles in one membership year, he qualifies for the Silver tier - and the reward scheme becomes operational. To directly induce to fly BA, a redemption scheme is offered- which allows a member to trade in the miles that he has flown, for a free ticket. A silver card member is entitled to more benefits such as access to executive club lounges, and privileges at checking, and bonus miles. He is motivated to accumulate more miles so that he can upgrade to the Gold tier. Where does BA find members to enroll in its Executive Club Programme? They come from different sources. It asks its network of travel agents to recommend the names of frequent flyers. There are also dispensers placed near the check in at the club class counters. Titan, which is testing out its rewards scheme called the Signet collection in Bangalore, is planning to extend the scheme to other cities in the near future. But it has chosen to wisely restrict itself to just the Titan showrooms.
Problem 51 “Titan has decided to restrict its reward scheme just to Titan showrooms". Why you think the author feels this is wise? Because it is easier to induce purchase from the company showroom than from a dealer showroom. Because control over such schemes is not possible. If they are extended to dealers. Because such schemes are most likely to be successful only if implemented with precision and this is more likely in the company showroom. Because reward schemes need to be explained carefully and only company salesmen will be able to do that kind of work.
Problem 52 Which of the following statements is not true? Customer loyalty is more important than customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is no longer considered very important by marketing gurus. Customers are cheaper to retain than to attain. More than one of the above.
Problem 53 Why according to the author, did the Garware Supermarket close down? Because it wasn't able to make enough customers prefer its services to that of the local grocer. Because it faced a steady turnover of staff. Because it faced the same problem that star hotels face and it wasn't big enough to face them. because its sales people couldn't recognize regular customers.
Problem 54 Why are a firm's loyal customers also its most profitable ones? Because with lengthening relationship, it takes less to service such customers. Because they are willing to pay more. Because they buy more. Only statements I and II Only statements II and III All three statements None of the above
Problem 55 How do five-star hotels reward their loyal customers? By giving them an identity card. By giving them some special privileges. By recognizing them at the check-in counter. By controlling customer interface on the shop floor.
Problem 56 What does BA do to find members who will enroll in its Executive Club programmed? It gets them. Through the travel agent network. Through its ticket sales records. Through the check-in counter records. More than one of the above.
Problem 57 According to the author, marketing exercises that aim merely at customer satisfaction are doomed to fail because the new magic mantra is customer loyalty. will survive only if rivals unleash a new marketing programmed. will result in long term customers but they will not be the most profitable customers to have. will not achieve long term benefits.
Problem 58 Which of the following is not a feature of the British Airways frequent flyer programmer? A Blue tier member who has flown a total of 35000 miles qualifies for the Silver Tier. The redemption scheme is offered only to Silver and Gold tier members. A silver tier member is entitled to access to executive club lounge. None of the above.
Problem 59 Why do large organizations face difficulties in rewarding customer loyalty? Because their large scale of operations makes any such reward scheme expensive. Because of the impersonal manner of their dealings. Because small operators have a much larger reach. Because they can't give credit like a beanie does.
As has been the convention every year-end, we take a hard look at the Indian economy, and try to discern trends in the Indian economy. The findings of the our team do not give much cause for comfort. There is increasing evidence that the government has tried to paint a rosier picture of the Indian economy than is warranted. Most important it has tried to gloss over the fact that the government is on the brink of, if not already in, a debt trap. There are indications that while the country has several strengths, which can be successfully exploited to make India a stronger and more prosperous nation, there are pitfalls along the way. Under normal circumstances, circumventing these obstacles should have been an easy task. But the job has been made more complicated because India's bureaucrats, with the blessings of their political masters, have tried to prevent foreign funds from flowing in easily. Their attempt to clear foreign investment proposals on a case-by-case basis, and their willingness to play favourites have jinxed the country's march towards progress. The manner in which the finance ministry cleared patently flawed criteria for selecting promoters for private power generation projects resulted in the unforunate Enron episode. And the insolence with which the telecom ministry decided to favour Himachal Futuristic and the Mittals of Ispat has resulted in the telecom tenders getting snarled up in the Supreme Court once again. Neither episode has helped
India's image overseas. The sadness is that the blame for delaying foreign investments will now be pinned on to the people who protested against the unfairness of the selection procedures, not those who actually manipulated events which made these protests unavoidable. A major discovery which our team stumbled upon was that India managed to achieve the highest real growth rates in respect of its GDP essentially in those years in which elections were announced. Had this happened only once, it could be dismissed as an accident. Twice would have been a coincidence. But when peaks of the GDP growth rate constantly coincide with election years, there has to be an expiation for the same. The only one which we could come up with is that politicians and bureaucrats become sincere about their responsibilities only in these years. It is then that politicians go about to personally assure themselves that the poorest and the neediest have managed to get some of the benefits which were earmarked for them. In other years, these benefits get usurped by other more influential and perversely avaricious sections of society. That provides one more reason why the government must not be entrusted with looking after the interests of the downtrodden. If the benefits meant for the underprivileged are to reach them only once in five years, it means that almost 80% of all the outlays earmarked for such purposes get diverted. If this diversion of funds leaves the impoverished hungrier, it also enables the gluttonous to
become even more rapacious. Both become a drain on the economy, and have to be eventually paid for by the already overburdened taxpayer. If the government is serious about reforming the economy, it must quickly get out of doing things which ought to be best left to businessmen and entrepreneurs. It must get out of managing PSUs, except in critical areas relating to defense of infrastructure. It must, similarly, get out of banking and insurance where the each bank employee continues to make losses of Rs. 81 lakh on an average each year, compared to annual profits of Rs. 24 lakh that is made by each employee of private sector banks and Rs. 4 crore by each employee of foreign banks. The government must also realise that charity is a nice concept as long as one can afford it. When it is forced on the people of a country, it becomes nothing but exploitation. No government must be allowed to stoop to such a low level.
Problem 60 Whom does the author primarily hold responsible for India not being able to overcome the obstacles on the path of prosperity? The politicians. The influential, avaricious sections of society. The bureaucrats. The impoverished sections of society.
Problem 61 Why should the government not be given the task of taking care of the concerns of the downtrodden? Because it usurps the benefits earmarked for them. Because the government permits diversion of funds meant for the needy. Because politicians and bureaucrats are sincere only once in five years. Because the government favors the wealthy.
Problem 62 Which of the following statements is not true? The government has projected a better picture of the economy than is justified. India is on the verge of a debt trap. India, as a nation, has several strengths. None of the above.
Problem 63 How many times is the profit of an average foreign bank more than that of an average private sector bank? 16 times. Slightly more than 16 times. Cannot be determined from the passage. None of the above.
Problem 64 Who should really be blamed for delaying foreign investments coming to India? The Supreme Court. The telecom ministry. People who cleared the criteria for selecting promoters. People who keep protesting about selection procedures laid down by the government.
Problem 65 According to the author, who finally pays for the government's lapses in economy management? The poorest sections of society. The government itself. The taxpayer. More than one of the above.
Why do individuals trade with one another? Consider the hypothetical case of Jane Barrister, a lawyer, divorced with two children. The Barrister family, like practically all families, trades continually with other families and with business firms. Since Ms. Barrister is a lawyer, she trades her legal services for money which she uses to buy the food, clothing , housing, and other goods and services her family wants. Why does the Barrister family do this? What advantages does it receive through trade? Why doesn't it attempt to be self- sufficient? To see why the Barrister family prefers to opt for trade rather than self-sufficiency, let's compare the current situation -where Ms. Barrister specializes in the production of legal services and trades the money she receives for other goods and services - with the situation of self-sufficiency. In the latter case, the Barristers would have to provide their own transportation, telephone service, foodstuffs clothing, and a host of other things. Mr. Barrister is a lawyer – a well-trained valuable. Productive member of the community. But if she were to try her hand at making automobiles - or even bicycles she might be a total loss. Thus, if the Barrister family attempted to be self-sufficient, it might be unable to provide many of the goods it now enjoys. Trade permits specialization, and specialization increases output. This is the advantage of trade, both for individuals and for nations. In our hypothetical case, it is obvious that, because she can trade with other families and with firms, Ms. Barrister can specialize, in doing what she
is good at - practising law. Consequently, she can be more productive than if she were forced to be a Jane-of-all-trades, as she would have to be if she could not trade with others. The same principle holds for nations. Because the United States can trade with other nations, it can specialize in the goods and services it produces particularly well. Then it can trade them for goods that other countries are especially good at producing. Thus both we and our trading partners benefit.Some countries have more and better resources of certain types than others. Saudi Arabia has oil, Canada has timber, Japan has a skilled labour force, and so on. International differences in resource endowments, and in the relative quantity of various types of human and nonhuman resources, are important bases for specialization. Consider countries with lots of fertile soil, little capital, and much unskilled labor. They are likely to find it advantageous to produce agricultural goods, while countries with poor soil, much capital and highly skilled labor will probably do better to produce capital intensive, high-technology goods. We must recognize, however, that the bases for specialization do not remain fixed over time. Instead, as technology and the resource endowments of various countries change, the pattern of international specialization changes as well. For instance, the United States specialized more in raw materials and foodstuffs a century ago than it does now. Surprising as it may seem, even if one country is able to produce everything more cheaply than another
country. It still is likely that they both can benefit from specialization and trade. This proposition is known as the law of comparative advantage. To illustrate why this law is valid, consider Jane Barrister and her friend, Ann Jones. Suppose that Jane is ten times as good at legal work and twice as good at typing as Ann. Should Jane do both legal work and typing. By no means. s 3 should hire Ann to do the typing. Why? Bcauseshe earns so much more by specializing in law that it pays her to turn the typing over to Ann. While Ann is half as good a typist as Jane, she is only a tenth as good a lawyer. Thus, by doing the typing, she is engaged in the type of work where she is best comparatively. Similarly, by doing the legal work, Jane is engaged in the type of work where she is best comparatively. (Recall that she is ten times as good a lawyer as Ann but only twice as good a typist.) If each does the type of work
Problem 66 Which factor(s) is (are) responsible for the fact that different nations have advantages in the production of different items? Because of differences in resource endowments. Because of the differences in quantity of non-human resources. Because of the differences in quantity of human resources. All of the above.
Problem 67 According to the law of comparative advantage? since Jane is better than Ann at law, she should stick to law while Ann does the typing. since Jane is better than Ann at typing, Jane should do the typing. since Jane is better than Ann both at typing and at law., Jane should do both the jobs. None of the above.
Problem 68 The most suitable title for this passage would be Specialization and comparative advantage. Comparative advantage and law. The fundamental law of trade. Trade versus self-sufficiency - an analysis.
Problem 69 By Jane-of-all-trades the author is referring to a state of affairs where Jane can specialize in all trades she is good at like law and typing. Jane should specialize in doing what she is best at, i.e. law. Jane does all that is required to acquire self sufficiency. Jane trades in all areas where she is able to increase overall output.
Problem 70 Which of the following statements is true? Specialization enhances trade and increases output. Trade permits specialization and specialization increases output. Countries with fertile soil, little capital and highly skilled labor should produce agricultural goods. Bases for specialization remain the same for any given country.
Problem 71 How many members does Jane Barrister's family have? Two Four Cannot be determined based on the passage None of the above
Problem 72 Based on what you have read, what is the best course of action for the Indian government? India should produce agricultural goods. India should give up the goal of self- reliance. India should study the world market and produce all those goods, which it can produce cheaper than other nations can. India should produce all the goods that are essential for the well-being of its people.
Religion is an integral part of the Indian tradition. Four of the world's major faiths have met on Indian soil: Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity and Islam. The first two of these were born in India. In addition, India gave birth to Jainism, Sikhism and countless minor cults and regionals sets. India has also played host to Jews and Zoroastrians who have become part of Indian life. All these religions have acted and reacted upon each other for centuries. Even religions which came from outside have assimilated the subtle, indefinable shades of mood, attitude and life style that are distinctively Indian. It is now realized that pre- Aryan elements have played an important part in shaping religious attitudes and practices. The term "pre-Aryan" denotes the indigenous inhabitants of India, usually referred to as Dravidians and the people of the Indus Valley, with whom the Dravidians probably had contact. Hinduism is not merely one of the oldest living religions of the world but the most complex of them, too. It has grown through time. The term "Hindu' itself is said to have been invented by foreigners to describe the inhabitants of the country to the east of the river Sindhu (later known as indus). It is a fact of great importance that Hinduism, the leading religion of the largest religious country of the world does not have a founder. It grew gradually over a period of five thousand years, absorbing and assimilating all the religious and cultural movements. Hinduism is a dynamic religion, a genuinely living and growing one. The Census Report of the Government of India, 1911 pointed out, there is (in Hinduism) a bewildering maze of sects which overlap each other in the most extraordinary manner. Hinduism shelters within its
portals - monotheists, polytheists and pantheists; worshippers of the great gods Sive and Vishnu, or of their female counterparts as well as worshippers of the divine mother, of the spirits of trees, rocks and streams and of the tutelary village deities; persons who propitiate the deity in all manner of bloody sacrifices and persons who not only will not kill any living creature but who must not even use the word 'cut' those whose rituals consist mainly of prayers and hymns and those who, indulge in unspeakable orgies in the name of ceremonies. Hinduism thrives on contrasts. At one end is the most abstruse metaphysical speculation about Ultimate Reality, at the other, there were popular cults based on the propitiation of tree spirits and animals deities. Absolute monism goes hand in hand with extreme pluralism. On the one hand, Hinduism accepts the validity of many paths leading to the same goal, and is willing to recognize the divinity of the prophets of other religions. But along with this tolerance one sees right adherence to caste distinctions and custom-ridden practices.T he Vedas are regarded as the fountainhead of Hinduism. They contain ideas and suggestions that have shaped the entire Hindu tradition and show a tendency to move from pluralism to monism. Although different gods were worshipped, they were increasingly seen as manifestations of a single Divine Principle. The Upanishads represents a reaction against this decline in values. The most popular text in the Vedic tradition is the Bagdad Gita ("Song of God"). Although it is a part of the Mahabharata, an epic poem which belongs to a much later period, the Gita is strongly influenced by the Upanishads. The two
great epic poems, Ramayana and Mahabharata, constitute a veritable treasure house of mythology. Stories from these epics, and other myths derived from various sources, were later elaborated in a vast body of literature known as the Puranas. Of these, the Siva Purana, the Vishnu Purana and the Bhagavata are specially important since they contain myths of Shiva, Vishnu and Krishna respectively. The ultimate goal is moksha, liberation from the cycle of existence. There are many paths leading to this goal. Until moksha is attained, all human beings are subject to rebirth. The conditions of life is each birth are determined by the cumulative results of the Kama (deeds) peformed in previous lifetimes. In addition to the final objective (moksha) three proximate ends are recognized as legitimate kama (pleasure, including sex), artha (prosperity, fame), and dharma ( truth, righteousness). The first two must be subordinated to the third. The normal rhythm of life takes us through four stages- the stage of the learner, demanding self- control and abstinence; the stage of house-holder, the stage of detachment or gradual turning away from wordly concerns; and the stage of renunciation, when one leads a wholly spiritual life, preparing for moksha.
Problem 73 The passage mainly deals with Religion and philosophy. Hinduism Moesha The Vedas
Problem 74 Which of the following is the correct order in which the Hindu religion texts came into being (in increasing order of antiquity)? Upanishads, BhagavadGita, Puranas BhagvadGita, Upanishads, Puranas Puranas, BhagavadGita, Upanishad Siva Purana, Vishnu Purana, Bhagavata
Problem 75 Which of the following is in order of increasing importance among the proximate ends recognized as ligitimate by Hinduism? Artha, Kama, Dharma Kama, Artha, Dharma Dharma, Artha, Kama could be (1) or (2) above
76 Problem Which of the following statements is true? Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world. Hinduism is an extremely complex religion. The term 'Hindu' was coined by Indians. Both (1) and (2)
77 Problem Which of the following religions were founded in India? Hinduism and Buddhism Judaism and Zoroastrianism jainism and Sikhism Both (1) and (3)
Problem 78 Which of the following is not a stage of life as described in the passage? The stage of attachment. The stage of abstinence. The stage of renunciation. The stage of house-holder
Problem 79 According to the author, Hinduism thrives on contrast because it includes both tolerance and rigid caste distinctions. it shows a tendency to move from pluralism to monism. it is a dynamic religion, a genuinely living and growing one. both male deities and female duties are worshipped.
Problem 80 According to the passage, indigenous inhabitants of India. are referred to as Aryans. are referred to as pre-Aryans. were in contact with the people of the Indus Valley. both (2) and (3)
It has often been said that the stock market does not like uncertainty, and those who are perennial pessimistsw have, over the years, consistently pointed out that "this is a period of uncertainty". The problem with this argument is that all eras include periods of uncertainity, the outlook is never perfectly clear. Although we should certainly worry about many thorny issues like growing government deficit, rising rate of inflation, hike in prices of petroleum- products, build-up of inventories, slowdown in exports, murky political scenario, etc for it is at these times that the overwhelming majority talks of a slowdown, taking a long term contrarian view can help you beat the market. It is the worst times that throw up opportunity. Identifying them is the catch. According to Ravi Kumar. S, CMD Aspic Finance, "India which till last year was on a high growth path has now moved into the consolidation phase wherein it is still north bound but at a relatively slower pace. The pace of growth is witnessing a slight slowdown. India is going through a process of consolidation and the inefficient are going under.“The stock market is reading too much into economic indicators. For instance, many economists believe money supply is the single most important factor in national economic planning but until ten years ago the average investor had never heard of this term. Public interest in the subject has now carried to such an extreme that
some market participants eagerly await the release of the weekly money supply statistics prior to making market decisions. One has to remember that the classical economic theories could go wrong. Economists believe that in a country when the saving rate is high, the industrial production is low and vice-versa. But take the case of Korea and Taiwan in the last five years, the saving rate is on the ascend and so also the industrial production. India over the last one year has seen the gross domestic savings going down from 24 to 23 percent and industrial production is also sliding from 10 to 8 percent. It has certainly proved that the classical theory wrong. Says G.C. Garg, managing director, Lioyds finance. " Increasing propensity to save as witnessed by the surge in the bank deposits have contributed to the slowdown in demand during the year.” Back to the market. The current bear grip that the Indian stock market is caught in, is probably the longest haul in the history of the capital market in recent times. This can't go on. It has to end. To get a better grasp of the current roller- coaster ride the BSE Sen sex has gone through and get a fix on where the market is headed one will have to recap the reasons that lead the fall of the market in the last couple of years." says Sanjay Morab, manager (equity research), Blue Blends Stocks and Securities. So, let's take a quick recap of the 28 months beginning September 1994. It would be prudent to divide this period into three parts which consists of two downslides. One from September 1994 to
January 1996 and the second from July 1996 to date. The first southward journey can be attributed to the tight liquidity position, large supply of paper, burgeoning fiscal deficit and the then forthcoming general elections. During this period, however the fundamentals of the economy remained very strong, record growth rate was registered, corporate results were supposed to be excellent, and the political situation was to improve after the elections.
Problem 81 Based on the passage, it can be said that the current period is one of uncertainty. the current outlook is perfectly clear. the stock markets will not like the current period if it is a period of uncertainty. there is a problem with every argument.
Problem 82 According to the managing director of Lioyds Finance. bank deposits have increased during the year. demand growth has slid during the year. propensity to demand has increased during the year. both (1) and (2)
Problem 83 According to the author, the bear-grip will end soon. the bear grip will end sometime the bear grip at present is the longest one in the entire history of Indian capital markets. more than one of the above.
Problem 84 Which of the following should we not worry about? Rapid increase in imports Hike in prices of petroleum products Growing government deficit Unclear political situation
Problem 85 Which of the following is an example of classical economic theory misfiring? In Korea and Taiwan over the last fifteen years, saving rate has increased and industrial production has slowed down. In India, during the last one year, savings have gone down and so has industrial production. Increase in saving rates have contributed to slowdown in demand. Market investors await the release of money supply stastistics prior to making market decisions.
Problem 86 During the period September 94 to January 1996 the growth rate of the economy was high. there was a lot of liquidity in the system. fiscal deficit had been controlled. the fundamentals of the economy were uncertain.
Of course men and women are different. Boy, are they different. In every sphere of life, it seems, the sexes act, react or perform differently. Toys? A little girl daintily sets up her dolls, plastic cups and saucers, while her brother assembles his Legos into a gun- and ambushes the tea party. Navigating? The female tourist turns her map every which way but right, trying to find the way back to that charming bistro, whiles her boyfriend charges ahead, remembering every tricky turn without fail. Relationships? with spooky intuition, women's acute senses pick up subtle tones of voice and facial expressions: men are insensitive clods who can't tell a sad face until it drenches them in tears. Cognition? Females excel at language, like finding just the right words to make their husbands feel like worms: males can't verbalize even one good excuse for stumbling home at 2 a.m. Stereotypes? May be - but as generalizations they have a large enough kernel of truth that scientists, like everyone else, suspect there's something going on here. As Simon Levy, the Salk institute neuroscientist who in 1991 discovered structural differences between the brains of gay and straight men, put it recently,. There are differences in the mental lives of men and women. The mind, of course is just what the brain does for a living. So if LeVay is right, those mental differences must arise from differences in that gelatinous three-pound blob. For a decade neuroscientists have been discovering evidence of differences. Although the findings are tentative and ambiguous at the end of the day, relaxing over beers at a neuroscience conclave, most specialists
agree that women's and men's brains differ slightly in structure. But the studies have been frustratingly silent on whether the anatomical differences in their brains make men and women think differently. But now - drum roll, please - thanks to an array of few imaging machines that are revolutionizing neuroscience, researchers are beginning to glimpse differences in how men's and women's brains actually function. With new technologies like functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), researchers catch brains in the very act of cogitating feeling or remembering. Already this year researchers have reported that men and women use different clumps of neurons when they take a first step toward reading and when their brains are "idling". And, coming soon to a research journal near you, provocative studies will report that women engage more of their brains than men when they think sad thoughts - but, possibly, less of their brains when they solve SAT math problems. "Now that we actually have functional brain data, we're getting lots of new insights. "Says Richard Haier, professor of pediatrics and neurology at the University of California, Irvine, and leader of the SAT study. "Even at this early point we have data to support the idea that men and women in general have brains that work differently.” To compare male and female brains at work, subjects were instructed to think of... nothing. In January scientists led by Ruben Gur of the University of Pennsylvania
reported a PET study of 37 men and 24 women, mostly recruited by ads in local papers. Each volunteer got an injection of radioactive glucose. Glucose is brain food: active regions of the brain use more glucose than quiescent areas and so emit radioactivity, which PET detects. For 30 minutes a volunteer lay in a quiet, dimly lit room with eyes open and head in a tunnel with defectors embedded in the walls. Each volunteer was told to relax, without "exerting mental effort"- while PET read his or her mind.In men's idling brains, the action was in the temporal-limbic system. This primitive region controls highly unsubtle expressions of emotion, such as fighting. It is often dubbed the "reptilian" brain. In most of the women's supposedly idling brains, the neurons were buzzing in the posterior cingulategyrus, an evolutionarily newer addition to mammals brains. Not even the researchers are sure what all of this shows. For one thing 13 men and four women showed activity more like the other sex's. But the real problem is that" thinking of nothing" is nearly impossible. Volunteer (and co researcher) Lyn Mozley admits that "some of thetime I was probably thinking. When is this going to be over?" What the PET scans may actually is that, when told to think of nothing, men fixate on sex and football, while women weave together strings of words. But if, in men, the pilot light is always on in neurons that control aggression and action, it may explain why they're more violence-prone than women.
Problem 87 What does the word "bistro" mean? Penthouse Bar Tent Clubhouse
Problem 88 What has been responsible for the recent breakthroughs in understanding the anatomical differences in the brains of men and women? Improvement in imaging technology Enhanced interest on the part of the scientist community. The path breaking work of Simon LeVay. None of these.
Problem 89 Which of the following statements is true? During "idling" the posterior cingulated gyrus of men's brains are active. During "idling" the primitive region in control of unstable expressions of emotion is active in men's brains. During "idling" women's brains are less active than men's brains. During "idling" the temporal limbic system is active in both men and women.
Problem 90 What is the main problem faced by researchers studying brain activity in men and women in the experiment described in the passage? Several men and women showed brain activity more like the other sex's. The flow of radio-active glucose is not necessarily an indication of brain activity. It is very difficult to interpret the finding of experiments conducted using the new imaging technology. None of these.
Problem 91 How many examples has the author quoted to explain that men and women act react and perform differently? Three Four Five None of these
Problem 92 Which of the following statements is true? Men engage more of their brains than women when performing analytical tasks. When asked to think of nothing, men's minds probably are more blank than women's minds. Fundamentally, men and women use the same set of neurons in their brain but the activity levels of the brain differ in the two sexes. Women's and men's brain differ significantly in structure.
Problem 93 For how long before the passage was written had scientists been trying to identify evidence of differences in the brains of men and women. (The passage was written in 1995)? Four years Ten years Two years Cannot say
Why can not tickle yourself? And what does that have to do with artificial consciousness? Quite a lot, according to Rodney Cotterill, a physicist at the Danish Technical University in Lyngby. After years of pondering the working of the brain, Dr. Correrill believes he has found the quintessence of consciousness. For good measure he has also applied for a patent covering circuit design for conscious computers, and is discussing with several companies. The nature of consciousness is shrouded in controversy. Theologians, philosophers, biologists and computer scientists all have their per theories. So, to understand how Dr. Coterill's computers might work, it is necessary to understand his views of consciousness. His is a classical outlook that can be traced to the philosophers and scientists of the first half of this century, who saw muscular movement as the key to understanding consciousness.T hey believed-that a person's main source of information about the world comes from movement. Even vision depends on the tiny scanning movements that the eye makes to keep the photosensitive cells of the retina refreshed with new information. So, the theory goes, consciousness must be intimately related to muscles.Like many of his fellow physicists, Dr. Cotterill is intrigued by how artificial neural networks- the vast arrays of interconnected electronic proceses - might mimic the real networks of nerve cells of the brain. But whereas many neural-network enthusiasts hope that consciousness will emerge automatically of their machines becomes sufficiently complex, Dr. Cotterill thinks that something fundamental is missing in
which brains communicate with muscles. Consider what happens when you reach for a glass. Signals to the brain from the eyes and fingers (called efference in the biological jargon) keep it informed about how the task is progressing. Signals from the brain to the fingers and eyes (called efference) make the necessary adjustments to avoid an accident. But at the same time another type of signal , called an efference copy, is sent out to other parts of the brain. In simple terms, the efference copy warns the brain's sensory- receptor areas about what they muscles are about to do. Hence, since it is anticipated, self- tickling is not very stimulating. Certain nerve cells in the brain are activated only if they receive efference copy and related efference within about two-tenths of a second of each other. such machines. That something is linked to the particular way in This seems to be a way of discriminating between events that the brain has causd in the environment and those over which it has no control, and thus distinguishing self and non-self, a central aspect of consciousness. It is the efference copy that Dr. Cotterill believes is the crucial ingredient of consciousness. Without it, all there is, is a computer-controlled robot. With it, a computer robot becomes aware that it is in control of itself. Efference copy can be produced by a brain even when no muscles move. According to Dr. Cotterill, thought itself may be efference copy of looping round and round in a way that allows the brain to
simulate vision, speech and other faculities without actually moving a muscle. Such simulations can lead to new associations of muscular movements - associations which are more commonly known as ideas Dr. Cotterill's arguments, which have just been published in the journal of Consciousness Studies, are unlikely to be endorsed universally. But having identified a loop in the brain which he thinks others have overlooked, he is already toying with a host of possible applications of computers containing an artificial version of it. Video games and stockmarket analysis are two areas where he sees a big potential.The key to such applications will be for the computer to probe its environment in an electronic analogy of motion and, at the same time, warm itself of what it is doing by sending itself artificial efference copy thus keeping constant track of the relationship between its own actions and the reactions of the environment.Dr. Cotterill does not except the first computers of this sort to soliloquise spontaneously. But they should show rudimentry signs of consciousness, such as hesitancy and the ability to change their "minds". Such traits are absent for most forms of artificial intelligence. Their presence, hopes Dr. Cotterill, will make computer games more fun: and financial forecasting more lucrative.
Problem 94 Dr. Cotterill conceptualization of consciousness is based on observation and understanding of muscular movements. a similar belief shared by theologians and philosophers. theory of neural networks. individual sensory skills.
Problem 95 The term deference copy refers to keeping the brain informed about what is happening to muscular system. an early warning system,. which informs the brain about proposed muscle movements. the signal from senses to brain which helps to avoid accidents. one of the signals exchanged between the brain and senses.
Problem 96 According to the passage, Dr. Cotterill differs from other neural network scientists because other scientists are mathmaticians while Dr. Cotterill is a physicist. Dr. Cotterill believes that the human mind can be mimicked using neural networks. Dr. Cotterill believes that complex machines automatically replicate the brain while many other scientists refuse to do so. Dr. Cotterill considers the linkages between brain and the muscles while developing neural networks.
Problem 97 Robots with consciousness differ from those without it because such robots are aware of self control. such robots have better control over movements. such robots can interact with each other. such robots are patented by Dr. Cotter ill.
Problem 98 Computers with built in consciousness will be able to spew out Shakespeare. maintain a constant watch over the mutual relationship between its actions and the environment's reactions. communicate with ease. replicate the signals from brain to muscle thus making them more user friendly.
Problem 99 According to the passage, ideas are the outcome of thinking process, accompanied by sensory action. originate in the absence of muscle movements. stem from the simulation of senses, without accompanying muscle movement. reflect the result of deference copy produced by muscle movements.
Problem 100 It is difficult to tickle oneself because a signal warns the brain to anticipate tickling. a signal warns the brain about the muscle movement which is going to occur. a signal makes the muscles tighten up. such signals are not acknowledged by the brain.
SECTION - III
Directions for questions 101 to 122 :
Problem 101 Four small discs of radius 5 cm. each have been cut out from a circular disc of radius 20cm. What is the ratio of the area left out to the area cut out? 3:1 4:1 1:1 2:1
Problem 102 Consider the following expression What is the value of the expression? 1.5 1 1.25 None of these
Problem 103 What are the values of the digits A and B if the number 79A856776B is divisible by 8 and 9? 1. 1,0 2. 9 3. 9, 8 4. None of these
Problem 104 A man starts from a point A to a point B in a park. He covers 2/5th of the distance AB at a speed of 2a per hour and the remaining 3/5th of the distance AB at a speed of 3b per hour. In the time that he thus took to travel from A to B, he could have run from A to B and back to A at a speed of 5c. Then a + b =c 2a + 36 = 5c
Problem 105 Which of the following ranges of x do not satisfy the inequality x2 - 3x + 2 > 0 at all? -1 < x < 1 -1 < x < 1 -2 <x <2 1 <x £ 2
Problem 106 Each of two very large glass jars contains mixtures of nitric acid and distilled water. In one jar there is 5 times as much acid as there is distilled water, and the other jar contains 3 times as much distilled water as there is acid. In order to fill an empty glass jar of 7 litre volume with half acid and half distilled water, the volume of mixtures in litres to be drawn off from the first jar and the second jar are respectively 1. 3.5,3.5 2. 91/24,77/24 3. 3,4 4. None of these
Problem 107 In the adjoining figure , ABCD is a square BCE is an equilateral triangle. The angle BAE is 15° 30° 45° 20°
Problem 108 If X is strictly positive, then the value of X + 1/X should necessarily be greater than or equal to 2 less than 2 less than or equal to 2 greater than 2
Problem 109 In the adjoining figure ABCD is a rectangle and, a semi-circle with centre O is inscribed inside the rectangle touching side BC and passing through points A and D A circle is inscribed inside the rectangle touching the semi-circle and the sides of the rectangle as shown . The ratio of the area of the circle to the area of the semicircle? (v2 -1)2 / 2 (V2-1)2/4 2(V2-1)2 None of these
Problem 110 In the adjoining figure, ABC is a right angled triangle with angle ABC = 90° and side AC = 6cm. P is the mid-point of the side AC. The length of BP is V6 cms. 6 cms. 3 cms. None of these.
Problem 111 The lines represented by the three equations 2X + 3Y - 5 = 0; 3X - 5Y + 2 = 0, and -5X + 2Y + 3 = 0 form a triangle have two perpendicular lines pass through a common point are parallel.
Problem 112 For any odd positive integer n greater than 1, the quantity n (n2 -1) is always divisible by 48 24 14 None of these
Problem 113 In the adjoining figure, O is the centre of a circle with radius 6.5 cms. The length of the chord PR is 5 cms. The area of the 65 sq. cms 60 sq. cms 30 sq. cms None of these
Problem 114 When the price of Maruti cars increased by 30% , the number of Maruti cars sold decreased by 20%. The total sales revenue increased by 10% decreased by 2% increased by 4% None of these
Problem 115 There are 5 duplicating machines in an office. The fastest of the machines makes P copies in 10 hours and the slowest of the machines makes P copies in 11 hours. If each machines makes p copies then the average time per machine cannot be 1. 10.7 hrs. 2. 10.1 hrs 3. 10.2 hrs. 4. 10.5 hrs.
Problem 116 The distances from A to B, B to C and C to D, are 12 kms. each. A man runs from A to B at a speed of X kms./hour. After reaching B, he rests for X hours and runs from B to C at double the previous speed. At C he rests for 2 X hours and runs from C to D at double his speed from B to C. He reaches D in 16 hours after starting from Then a possible value of X is 1. 2 kms./hour 2. 5kms./hour 3. 3 kms./hour 4. None of these.
Problem 117 In a road network covering 10 cities , city C can be reached only from city A or city The distance from A to C is 50 Kms. and the same from B to C 25 kms. The shortest distance from a city P to A. is 200 kms. and the shortest distance from city P to B is 230 kms. Then the shortest distance from city P to city C is 250 kms 255 kms 265 kms. 225 kms
Problem 118 I asked for some 5 rupee stamps, some 2 rupee stamps and some 1 rupee stamps at the post office. I asked for more than one of each and handed over a 20 rupee note to the counter clerk. Since he did not have any change, he gave me 3 more 1 rupee stamps in lieu of the change due to me. What is the total number of stamps I got? 7 6 10 9
Problem 119 Swetha and Chaitanya went to a book shop. Swetha purchased 5 pens, 3 notebooks and 8 pencils and used up all the money she had. Chaitanya purchased 6 pens , 6 notebooks and 16 pencils and paid 50 per cent more than Swetha. What percentage of Swetha's money was spent on pens that she bought? 62.5% 75% 12.5% Cannot be calculated.
Problem 120 A cube of side 12 cms. was painted red on all its faces. Then it was cut into smaller cubes of side 3 cms. each. How many of these smaller cubes have none of their faces painted red? 8 24 16 12
Problem 121 A dealer sold 2 watches for Rs. 500 each. On one watch he made a profit of 10% on its purchase price and on the other he incurred a loss of 10% on its purchase price. The overall gain (+) or loss (-) in the two transactions as percentage of total purchase price is nearest to (+) 1 % (-) 10% 0% (-)1%
Problem 122 A certain basketball team that has played 2/3 of its games has a record of 17 wins and 3 losses. What is the greatest number of the remaining games that the team can lose and still win at least 3/4 of the total games played? 4 7 5 6
Directions for questions 123 and 124 : Use the information given in the box below.
Problem 123 If x = 2, y = 3 and z = 5, then value of M(A(S(x, y), M (y, z)), S (A(x, z), S (z, y))) is 112 98 70 105
Problem 124 S(M(D(A(a, b), 2), D(A(a, b), 2)), M(D(S(a, b), 2), D(S(a, b),2))) is equal to (a - b)2 ab (a - b)2 None of these.
Directions for questions 125 and 126 : Each question is independent of the other.
Problem 125 In a production shop 480 units were required to be produced. The supervisor had appointed 10 workers to do the job. However, some of them did not report for duty. As a result, each of those who did, had to produce 72 units more than originally planned. How many workers did not report for work? 4 5 6 None of these
126 Problem In a certain township, 1/5 of the housing units are equipped with cable television, 1/10 of the housing units are equipped with videocassette recorders, and 1/3 of those having cable television have videocassette recorders. What fraction of the housing units have neither cable television nor videocassette recorder? 7/10 23/30 11/15 1/6
Directions for questions 127 and 128 : Use the information given below A manufacturer makes a seasonal gift item and he spends Rs. 150 for every unit he produces. In addition he incurs Rs. 30,000 which is independent of the number of units he produces. He charges Rs. 250 for every unit he sells. If any unit is not sold during the season, he sells it at Rs. 100 after the season.
Problem 127 If the manufacturer produces 1500 and sells only 1200 during the season, his profit from this activity is Rs. 50,000 Rs. 75,000 Rs. 1,40,000 Rs. 45,000
Problem 128 If he decides to produce 1500 units, what is the least number of units he must sell during the season so that he does not lose any money? 875 925 1000 700
Directions for questions 129 to 133 :Use the information given below. Arun, Bhaskar and Chetan started their journey from City A. to City B at the same time. Chetan took Arun on his moped, while Bhaskar started walking towards City B. Chetan dropped Arun somewhere on the way, asked him to continue walking towards City B, drove back and met Bhaskar walking towards City B. He took Bhaskar on the moped and drove to City B. All three of them reached City B at the same time. While the walking speed of Arun and Bhaskar was a uniform 5 kms. per hour, the speed of the moped was a uniform 20 kms. per hour. The distance between the two cities was 70 kms.
Problem 129 How much time did they take to reach City B from City A ? 3.5 hrs. 4.0 hrs. 6.5 hrs. 14.0 hrs.
Problem 130 How long did Arun walk? 4.0 hrs. 5.0 hrs. 6.5 hrs. 2.5 hrs.
Problem 131 How long did Bashkir walk? 4.0 hrs. 5.0 hrs. 6.5 hrs. 2.5 hrs.
Problem 132 What is the total distance travelled by the moped? 70 kms. 200 kms. 100 kms. 130 kms.
Problem 133 At what distance from A, was Arun when Chetan and Bhaskar met? 57.5 kms. 50.0 kms. 20.0 kms. 32.5 kms.
Direction for question 134 : The question is independent.
Problem 134 The value of A for which the sum of squares of the roots of the equation x2 - (A - 3)x - ( A + 2) = 0 is the least is 1. 3 2. 2 3. 2 4. None of these
Directions for questions 135 to 136:Use the information given below. A sales assistant processing sales orders had to enter the sales quantity and the price of each item in a computer in order to obtain a sales value and balance quantity. For one of the items, which has two digit numbers for both quantity and price, the sales assistant interchanged the digits of the quantity as well as the digits of the price by mistake rid entered in the computer. While this did not a1, iho actual values value of Rs. 1148, the balance quantity after the sale of the item was reduced by 54 units compared to the actual quantity.
Problem 135 The actual price of the item sold is Rs. 56 Rs. 41 Rs. 28 Indeterminate
Problem 136 The actual price of the item sold is 41 82 28 Indeterminate
Directions for questions 137 and 138 : Use the information given below A, B, C, D and E are five villages with the following distances between them : A to B is 2 kms, A to C is 2 kms A to D is 4 kms, A to E is 3 kms, B to C is 2 kms. B to D is 4 kms, B to E is 2 kms, C to D is 4 kms, C to E is 2 kms, D to E is 3 kms. There is a proposal to open some ration shops in these villages.
Problem 137 If every village must have a ration shop within a distance of 2 kms, the minimum number of ration shops that would be needed is 3 2 4 1
Problem 138 If every village must have a ration shop within a distance of 3 kms, the minimum number of ration shops that would be needed is 4 3 2 1
Directions for questions 139 and 140 : Each question is independent of the other.
Problem 139 The six sides of a box were made of half centimetre thick wood. The outer dimensions of the box are 21 cms. long, 11 cms. broad and 6 cms. high. If the total amount paid for painting its inner surfaces was Rs. 70, price paid per square cm. of the painting was Rs. 0.20 Rs. 0.35 Rs. 0.07 Rs. 0.10
Problem 140 The price of any diamond is proportional to the square of its weight. A diamond was broken into four pieces by an accident. The weights of these four pieces were in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3 : 4. The total price obtained by selling four pieces was Rs. 70,000 less than the original price of the diamond. The original price of the diamond in rupees was 1,40,000 70,000 90,000 1,00,000
Direction for questions 141 to 145 :These questions are based on the information below. A manufacturer produces widgets and sends them to the market in lots of 1000 units. The manufacturing process some times produces defective units. Assume p denotes the proportion of defectives in a lot. If a defect ve is found before it is sent to the market, it could be corrected at a cost. On the other hand, the manufacturer has to pay a penalty if a defective unit is received by a customer. The manufacturer was considering which of the three alternative methods of inspection procedures he should choose. The graph below shows cost curve for each of the alternatives as a function of a proportion (P) in a lot.
Problem 141 If p < 0.2, then best alternative is not Alt 3 Alt 2 only Alt 3 only Alt 1 only
Problem 142 If p is greater than 0.1 but less than 0.2. then best alternative is Alt 2 only Alt 1 or Alt 2 Alt 1 only Alt 2 or Alt 3
Problem 143 If p = 0.05, then best alternative is Alt 1 only Alt 3 only Alt 1 or Alt 2 Alt 1 or Alt 3
Problem 144 Alt 2 is the best, if O.05 <P< 0.2 p > 0.2 p < 0.05 None of these
Problem 145 Alt 3 is the best, if p < 0.05 p > 0.2 0.05 <p< 0.2 None of these
SECTION - IV
Directions for questions 146 to 150 : Study the following tables and answer the questions that follow. Given below is the number of people required for a software project requiring 15 months to complete. The specific month(s) in which a phase will be executed and the corresponding cost per man month are shown in the table given below.
Problem 146 The average number of people planned per month was the lowest for the phase Specifications Maintenance Code Design
Problem 147 The planned cost of Design phase as a percentage of total planned cost of the project was 15% 25% 14% 19%
Problem 148 Compared of the planned cost, the actual cost. increased by Rs. 20,000/- increased by Rs. 40,000/- did not change increased by Rs. 10,000/-
Problem 149 When compared with the planned man months required, the actual man months required did not change increased by 2 increased by one month decreased by 1
Problem 150 The highest actual total cost incurred was in the phase of Design Specification Test Maintenance
Directions for questions 151 to 155 : Study the following table and answer the questions that follow. The sales and production figures of a few companies in 1995 are given below.
Problem 151 The production capacity (in thousand tons) of Brooke Bond in 1995 was approximately 21.5 25.6 20.1 18.2
Problem 152 The average price per ton of coffee sold was the highest for Nestle India Brooke Bond Consolidated Coffee MAC Industries.
Problem 153 If the four companies given in the data increase their production by 10% each, what is the increase in total production of these four companies (in thousand tons)? 1.1 5.12 6.2 2.6
Problem 154 What is the market share of the four companies in terms of sale value? 11.65% 18.23% 14.55% 16.71%
Problem 155 The quantity produced in 1996 for the industry increased by 10% over that in 1995. If Brooke Bend increased its production by 20% in 1996 over 1995, then the percentage that the production of Brooke Bond forms in total industry production is approximately 8.4% 9.4% 6.3% 7.5%
Directions for questions 156 to 160 : Study the following tables and answer the questions that follow:
Problem 156 From 1989 to 1996 the average starting salary for management graduates employed in Finance went up by about 271% 171% 63% None of these
Problem 157 Assuming that all management students graduating in a year are employed, their average salary in 1989 was approximately Rs. 4,060 Rs. 5,320 Rs. 5,760 Rs. 5, 460
Problem 158 Assuming that all management students graduating in a year are employed, the increase in average salary of management graduates in 1996 over their average salary in 1989 was Rs. 9,330 Rs. 1.950 Rs. 7,170 Rs. 8,930
The average salary at the time of entry is given for years 1989 to 1996.
Problem 159 210 management students graduate in 1996 and 200 in 1991. The decrease in the number of management graduates employed in Marketing in 1996 over those employed in 1991 was 35 69 10 Cannot say
Problem 160 The least salary for an employed graduate who graduate in 1996 was Rs. 10, 000 Rs, 13, 200 Rs. 14, 600 Cannot say
Directions for questions 161 to 165 :Study the table given on the next page and answer the questions that follow.
Problem 161 The ratio of the total cost of major investment projects sanctioned in 1996 compared to 1995 in Chattier district is closest to 3:1 2.3 : 1 2:1 2.7 : 1
Problem 162 The percentage decrease in investment in Thermal Electricity in 1996 compared to investment in 1995 for Chattier district is less than that for Chama district by about 30 20 27 22
Table below gives the cost of major investment projects in two districts of Andhra Pradesh for the years 1995 and 1996.
Problem 163 For the two districts together, the percentage of total investment in 1996 compared to 1995 in Thermal Electricity and Chemicals decreased by about 44% decreased by about 60% decreased by about 25% increased by about 40%
Problem 164 The total cost of major investment projects sanctioned in Andhra Pradesh in 1995 was Rs. 63,243 crores. This has increased by 16% in 1996. Approximately what percentage of the cost of investment projects sanctioned are for Chittoor and Khammam districts together in 1996? 7.9% 3.5% 8.7% 10.3%
Problem 165 The total cost of major investment projects in Khammam district for the years 1995 and 1996 together was more than for the Chittoor district for the same period by about Rs. 4, 610 crores Rs. 5, 100 crores Rs. 3, 600 crores Rs. 4, 200 crores
Directions for questions 166 to 170 : Study the following chart and answer the questions that follow.
Problem 166 The average revenue (in Rs. crores) per year for the years 1989 to 1995 was nearest to 59.2 55 57.5 54
Problem 167 The percentage increase in expenditure in a year compared to the previous year was highest for the year 1991 1990 1992 None of these
Problem 168 The seven year period 1989-95. the total profit as percentage of total revenue is nearest to 26.7 28.3 32.6 24.1
Problem 169 The expenditure as a percentage of revenue is least for the year 1989 1993 1990 None of these
Problem 170 Which of the following statements is true? For the years 1993 to 1995, the profit as a percentage of revenue is declining From 1989 to 1995, the profits show an increasing trend. For the years 1993 to 1995, the profit as a percentage of revenue is increasing None of the above is true or more than one of the above is true.
Directions for questions 171 to 175 : Study the following graph and answer the questions that follow.
Problem 171 In which year was the sales per employee lowest? 1991 1994 1992 1993
Problem 172 In which year was the growth rate in cost, compared to the previous year, the highest? 1994 1993 1992 1995
Problem 173 The average growth per year in sales from 1991 to 1995, expressed as a percentage of sales in 1991, was nearest to 32.0% 9.5% 11.75% 47.0%
Problem 174 Profit was maximum in the year 1992 1994 1995 1993
Problem 175 The increase in sales, over the pervious year was higest in the year 1995 1992 1993 1994
Directions for questions 176 to 185 : Each question is followed by two statements. You have to decide whether the information provided in the statements is sufficient for answering the question. Mark 1 If the question can be answered by using one of the statements alone, but cannot be answered by using the other, statement alone. Mark 2 If the question can be answered by using either statement alone. Mark 3 If the question can be answered by using both statements together, but can not be answered by using either statement alone. Mark 4 If the question cannot be answered even by using both the statements together.
Problem 176 What should be the ratio of fathers' age and son's age three years from now? The ratio of father's age and son's age now is 5 : 3 and would be 3 : 2 ten years later. The sum of the ages of father and son is 80 and the ratio of ages of father and son was 9 : 5 five years back.
Problem 177 What is the selling price per unit of widget? The percent of profit on sales is 10% . The cost of widget per unit is Rs. 27. The percent of profit on sales is 20% and profit per unit is Rs. 20.
Problem 178 Let a and b be the roots of the equation of 2x - x - 1 = 0. The values of a and b can be obtained from. 2.a + 2.b = 1 2.a . b = -1
Problem 179 What is the perimeter of the front wheel? In travelling a distance of 5 metres, the rear wheel of the tractor revolves V times less than its front wheel. The perimeter of the rear wheel exceeds that of the front wheel by't' metres.
Problem 180 What is the production of widget type 1 this month? The total production of widget of type I and type 2 is 20,000. If the production of type 1 widget is increased by 10% and the production of type 2 widget is decreased by 6%, total number of widgets produced remains the same. The production of type 1 widget is twice the production of type 2 widget.
Problem 181 What is the selling price of the product? The product is sold at a loss of 25% of total cost. The ratio of selling price to total cost is 0.75.
Problem 182 What is the mix. of two liquids A and B in the container in which the contents of three containers 1, 2 and 3 have been mixed. The quantity of liquid in each of the containers is the same. Liquids A and B are in proportions 2 : 3, 3 : 4 and 4 : 5 in containers 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Liquids A and B are in proportions 3 : 2 and 2 : 3 in containers 1 and 2 respectively. The third container has 5 litres of A and 5 litres of B.
Problem 183 If m and n are consecutive positive integers, is m greater than n? m-1 and n +1 are consecutive positive integers. m is an even integer.
Problem 184 If a, b and c are integers, is ( a - b + c) greater than ( a + b - c)? b is negative. c is positive.
Problem 185 How long is the route from Mumbai to Nagpur? It will take 1 hour less time to travel the entire route at an average rate of 90 kms per hour than at an average rate of 80 kms per hour. It will take 11 hours to travel the first half of the route at an average rate of 40 kms per hour.
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