Coaching For Happiness


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Coaching For Happiness

  1. 1. Coaching For Happiness: Understanding The Drivers of Well-Being And Success Presented by Jill Macnaught Psychologist and Executive Coach Principal of C ENTRE FOR C OACHING & P OSITIVE P SYCHOLOGY Director of The Executive Coach 2 nd Health Coaching Symposium Newcastle, NSW 13th October 2006
  2. 2. Outline of Session <ul><li>Review Key Principles Of Positive Psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Positive Psychology - Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>The Notion Of Human Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Visions and Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Important Principles Of Goal Striving and Goal Attainment </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Well-Being </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Research with Positive Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>How To Build Positive Emotions – Help People be Happier </li></ul><ul><li>Building Happier Workplaces </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Positive Psychology? <ul><li>Positive Psychology asks seven types of inter-related questions. </li></ul><ul><li>1.Existential questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What makes life worth living? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean to live a life of dignity and significance? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should I strive in the face of suffering and death? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the positive givens of human existence? </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Positive Psychology? <ul><li>2.Structural questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the defining characteristics or criteria of positive mental health or physical health? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the essential components of quality of life? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the components of the good life? </li></ul><ul><li>What constitutes happiness? </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is Positive Psychology? <ul><li>3.Functioning questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What makes us fully functioning individuals? </li></ul><ul><li>What contributes to optimal functioning? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the functions of meaning seeking, meaning making and values clarification in optimal functioning? </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is Positive Psychology? <ul><li>Meaning and purpose </li></ul><ul><li>necessary conditions for </li></ul><ul><li>happiness </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>positive mental health </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is Positive Psychology? <ul><li>4. Process questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What makes life worth living? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean to live a life of dignity and significance? </li></ul><ul><li>Why should I strive in the face of suffering and death? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the positive givens of human existence? </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is Positive Psychology? <ul><li>5. Outcome questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the outcomes and correlates to answers to the above questions? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we measure these outcomes in a reliable and valid way? </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is Positive Psychology? <ul><li>6. Societal questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of community and society will support individual positive psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we create such a social ecology? </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is Positive Psychology? <ul><li>7. Cultural questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the cultural differences to the above questions? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the cultural universals? </li></ul><ul><li>Ref: Wong, Paul (1998) The Human Quest for Meaning </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Post Growth Society <ul><li>“ Instead of higher incomes, the central objective of a post growth society is to provide opportunities for human fulfilment and self-realisation. Pursuit of wellbeing – which for many will require abandonment of the money obsession and rejection of the pursuit of identity through consumption – would allow the emergence of authentic (rather than manufactured) individuality and the flowering of human potential.” </li></ul><ul><li>Clive Hamilton (2003) Growth Fetish p. 240 </li></ul>
  12. 12. History of Positive Psychology <ul><li>Rogers (1951) The fully functioning person </li></ul><ul><li>Jahoda (1958) Mental Health </li></ul><ul><li>Allport (1961) Mature Individuality </li></ul><ul><li>Erikson (1963) Stages of Development </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow (1954-1971) Self Actualisation </li></ul><ul><li>Vaillant (1977) Positive Defenses & Exceptional Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Deci & Ryan (1985) Self Determination Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Csikszentmihalyi (1990) Flow – Optimal Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Ryff & Singer (1996) Psychological Well-Being </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman (1991-2006) Learned Helplessness, Optimism </li></ul>
  13. 13. Four Major Imperatives of Positive Psychology <ul><li>Rise to life’s challenges, make the most of </li></ul><ul><li>setbacks and adversities </li></ul><ul><li>Engage and relate to other people </li></ul><ul><li>Find fulfillment in creativity and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Look beyond oneself and help others to find lasting meaning, satisfaction, and wisdom in life </li></ul><ul><li>(Keyes & Haidt, 2004) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Purpose of Positive Psychology <ul><li>Positive Psychology aims to understand the human strengths that enable individuals and human communities to thrive </li></ul><ul><li>How do we cultivate what is best within ourselves and enhance our experiences of life and work? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Applied Positive Psychology <ul><li>Applied positive psychology, which includes coaching, is the application of positive psychology research to the facilitation of optimal functioning </li></ul><ul><li>(Linley & Joseph, 2004). </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is Coaching? <ul><li>One unifying definition: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Coaching is a collaborative process of facilitating a client’s ability to self-direct learning and growth, as evidenced by sustained changes in self-understanding, self-concept and behaviour.” </li></ul><ul><li>Stober, D. & Parry, C. (2003) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Coaching Psychology <ul><li>“ Coaching Psychology is for enhancing well-being and performance in personal life and work domains underpinned by models of coaching grounded in established adult learning or psychological approaches.” </li></ul><ul><li>(BPS Coaching Psychology Interest Group, 2005) </li></ul>
  18. 18. In Essence….. <ul><li>Coaching moves the client from awareness to </li></ul><ul><li>responsibility to action and to results ! </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness Responsibility Action Results </li></ul>
  19. 19. Levels of Coaching <ul><li>Four Levels Of Coaching: </li></ul><ul><li>Level 1: Primary Skills: method used is that of </li></ul><ul><li> instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Level 2: Secondary Skills: method used in </li></ul><ul><li>facilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Level 3: Developmental: method used is insight and awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Level 4: Transformational: method used is critical </li></ul><ul><li>reflection </li></ul><ul><li>(Carroll, M. 2004) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Positive Psychology & Coaching <ul><li>Focus is on: </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Visions and Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and Wellbeing </li></ul>
  21. 21. Positive Psychology A Study of Human Strengths <ul><li>The notion of good character has been revived </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as six virtues all of which have a set of underlying strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Virtues identified are common to all philosophical and religious traditions </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Six Virtues <ul><li>Wisdom and Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Courage </li></ul><ul><li>Love and Humanity </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Temperance </li></ul><ul><li>Spirituality and Transcendence </li></ul>
  23. 23. What is a Strength? <ul><li>A natural capacity for behaving, thinking or feeling in a way that allows for optimal functioning and performance in the pursuit of valued outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>(Linley & Harrison, 2006) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Strengths Based Psychology <ul><li>“ I do not believe that you should devote overly much effort to correcting your weakness. Rather, I believe that the highest success in living and the deepest emotional satisfaction comes from building and using your signature strengths.” </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Seligman </li></ul>
  25. 25. Building Strength and Virtue <ul><li>What are your signature strengths? </li></ul><ul><li>VIA survey - Identify your Signature Strengths </li></ul><ul><li>Go to: </li></ul>
  26. 26. The 24 Strengths Sit Under Virtue Clusters <ul><li>Wisdom and Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity/Interest in the World </li></ul><ul><li>Love of Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment/Critical Thinking/Open-Mindedness </li></ul><ul><li>Ingenuity/Originality/Practical Intelligence/Street Smarts </li></ul><ul><li>Social Intelligence/Personal Intelligence/Emotional Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Perspective </li></ul>
  27. 27. Research on Strengths <ul><li>Key strengths associated with well-being: </li></ul><ul><li>Hope </li></ul><ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Zest </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>(Peterson, Park & Seligman, 2004) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Research on Strengths <ul><li>Key strengths associated with goal success: </li></ul><ul><li>Patience – “the ability to dwell gladly in the present moment” (Roberts, 1984) </li></ul><ul><li>Prudence – “the use of reason to correctly discern that which helps and that which hinders realising the good” (Jeffries, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Perseverance – “the ability to keep commitments, to be steadfast, to endure despite obstacles, to make sacrifices, and to resist temptations to give up” (Brickman, 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>(Keyes & Haidt, 2003) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Visions to Goals FUZZY VISION SMART Goals
  30. 30. A Vision of the Future <ul><li>Benefits of developing a “fuzzy vision” are: </li></ul><ul><li>  Utilises the “attentional bias” i.e. primes us to identify opportunities to ensure goal attainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows brain to disengage from worry and anxiety about the future – allows mindfulness. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Exercise on Visioning <ul><li>Work in pairs </li></ul><ul><li>One of the pair is to share a concern </li></ul><ul><li>Other is to explore the concern – listen, question for understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Create a shift in the conversation - Question </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a picture of the desired scenario </li></ul><ul><li>CURRENT REALITY DESIRED REALITY </li></ul>
  32. 32. Setting SMART goals <ul><li>Twenty years of research in psychology on goal setting has identified that our chances of success are enhanced when our goals are SMART (Locke, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Specific and Stretching </li></ul><ul><li>Measureable, Monitorable </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive & Authentic </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Time-framed </li></ul>
  33. 33. Personal Goals - Positive Living <ul><li>Personal goals represent the proactive efforts of individuals to satisfy their needs and to shape their lives in positive new directions </li></ul><ul><li>By helping people better identify and pursue personal goals, we support them in the ultimate pursuit of happiness. </li></ul><ul><li>Refs: Locke,.E.A. (1996); Locke, E. A. & Latham, G. P. (2002) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Self Concordant Goals <ul><li>The more clients short-term personal projects reflected their underlying values and interests , and were relevant to possible futures, the more they were likely to attain their goals and experience success. </li></ul><ul><li>(Sheldon, K. et al. 2002) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Self Concordant Goals <ul><li>A person’s goals may not represent that person’s authentic interests and values </li></ul><ul><li>Goals are self-concordant when they are pursued because of either intrinsic or identified motivation </li></ul>
  36. 36. SELF-INTEGRATED VS NONINTEGRATED ACTION Developing Interests SELF- INTEGRATED ACTION Core Values Internal Sanctions NONINTEGRATED ACTION Environmental Pressures EXTERNAL INTROJECTED INTRINSIC IDENTIFIED Ref: Sheldon, K.M. & Elliott, A. J.(1999)
  37. 37. The Self-Concordance Model <ul><li>This model begins when people select and commit to a set of goals. May involve poor goal selection. </li></ul>Goal Self- Concordance Sustained Effort Goal Attainment Need Satisfying Experiences Changes in Well-Being Goal Self-Concordance X Goal Attainment Goal striving is affected by degree to which goals are self-concordant. Ref: Sheldon, K. M. & Elliott, A. J. (1999)
  38. 38. Goal Striving, Need Satisfaction and Longitudinal Well-Being <ul><li>Greater goal striving toward intrinsic vs extrinsic goals (self-concordant goals) </li></ul><ul><li>Attainment of self-concordant goals leads to greater well being </li></ul><ul><li>Goal attainment associated with stronger feelings of autonomy, competence and relatedness (need satisfaction) – this leading to greater well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Success breeds more success </li></ul><ul><li>Refs: Sheldon, K and Elliot, A. (1999); Sheldon K & Houser-Marko, L. (2001) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Outcomes – Well-Being <ul><li>Structure of Psychological Wellbeing </li></ul><ul><li>(Positive Functioning Optimal Performance) </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Growth </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Relationships with Others </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose in Life </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>(Ryff, C.D. & Keyes, C.L.M., 1995) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Values & Vision <ul><li>It is important that the client’s core values are being lived in that future. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of crystallisation & prioritisation of values </li></ul><ul><li>Identify your own core life values </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a fuzzy vision </li></ul><ul><li>Setting self-concordant goals (SDT) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Values <ul><li>Values are who we are </li></ul><ul><li>Values Identification (Life & Work) </li></ul><ul><li>A Peak Moment in Time – What were the values being honoured? </li></ul><ul><li>Suppressed Values </li></ul><ul><li>Values Matrix </li></ul>
  42. 42. Exercise – Personal Strivings <ul><li>Task: Generate one (1) of your personal strivings and respond to a series of items in relation to each. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of your personal strivings as objectives (goals) that you are typically or characteristically trying to attain in your daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Ref: Sheldon, K. M. & Elliot, A. J. (1999) </li></ul>
  43. 43. Paradox of the Growth Society <ul><li>In the past 50 years the standard of living has increased dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>There has been no similar increase in happiness </li></ul>
  44. 44. What Do We Mean By Happiness? <ul><li>Is it the pleasurable life or is it the ‘good’ life? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it momentary or enduring? </li></ul><ul><li>Are some destined to be happier than others? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it determined by good luck and/or circumstance? </li></ul>
  45. 45. The Three Happy Lives <ul><li>The Pleasant Life </li></ul><ul><li>The Engaged Life </li></ul><ul><li>The Meaningful Life </li></ul><ul><li>Seligman, 2002 </li></ul>
  46. 46. The Pleasant Life <ul><li>A life that successfully pursues the positive emotions about the past, present and future. </li></ul><ul><li>Past – satisfaction, contentment, pride </li></ul><ul><li>Future – optimism, hope, confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Present – bodily pleasures (warmth, touch) </li></ul><ul><li> higher pleasures (elation, relaxation) </li></ul>
  47. 47. The Engaged Life <ul><li>Using your signature strengths in all aspects of your life – work, love, parenting, friendships etc </li></ul><ul><li>It’s about finding purpose and meaning </li></ul>
  48. 48. The Meaningful Life <ul><li>Using your signature strengths in the service of something larger than you </li></ul><ul><li>The notion of legacy…our contribution to a better future </li></ul>
  49. 49. What Determines Happiness? ?
  50. 50. Psychological Well-Being (Happiness) & Work Performance <ul><li>High psychological well-being associated with: </li></ul><ul><li>- superior decision making </li></ul><ul><li>- effective interpersonal behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>- higher objective performance ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Higher PWB also shown to directly lead to an increase in productivity </li></ul>
  51. 51. Broaden and Build Model <ul><li>Positive emotions expand the thought-action repertoire </li></ul><ul><li>Interest fosters the desire to explore, assimilate new experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Joy creates the urge to play, think outside the box, be creative </li></ul><ul><li>These outcomes bring meaning to the work of employees – not just a job! </li></ul>
  52. 52. Benefits of Positive Emotions <ul><li>Smiling & Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Longer life expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Less self-focused, more empathic, kind </li></ul><ul><li>and generous </li></ul><ul><li>Better relations, strong friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Better health </li></ul><ul><li>Greater personal well-being </li></ul>
  53. 53. Benefits of Positive Emotions <ul><li>Optimism (Problems = transient, specific, controllable) </li></ul><ul><li>Longer life expectancy (19%) </li></ul><ul><li>Better health, more energy </li></ul><ul><li>Higher persistence, productivity and income </li></ul><ul><li>Greater personal well-being </li></ul>
  54. 54. Benefits of Positive Emotions <ul><li>Physical Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Increase immune function </li></ul><ul><li>Improved resilience to adversity </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced inflammatory response to stress </li></ul><ul><li>Increased resistance to viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Lower cortisol </li></ul>
  55. 55. Benefits of Positive Emotions <ul><li>Psychological Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Increase intuition and creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive flexibility, speed and accuracy to stress </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate more sources of information </li></ul><ul><li>Widen our attention </li></ul><ul><li>Take a long term perspective </li></ul>
  56. 56. Human Consequences of Happiness - Summary <ul><li>Increased capacity to thrive, mentally flourish and psychologically grow </li></ul><ul><li>Outcomes: </li></ul><ul><li>- more proactive </li></ul><ul><li> - resilient to adverse situations </li></ul><ul><li>- less prone to stress symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>- better physical health </li></ul><ul><li>Moderates job satisfaction and job performance </li></ul>
  57. 57. Techiques Which Make People Lastingly Happy & Less Depressed <ul><li>Using signature strengths in a new way </li></ul><ul><li>Savouring a beautiful day (present) </li></ul><ul><li>Gratitude visit (past) </li></ul><ul><li>Count your blessings (3 good things in life) </li></ul><ul><li>Letting go of grudges </li></ul><ul><li>One door closes, another door opens (future) crisis = opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>You at your best (Best Possible Self Exercise) </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive restructuring for resilience – realistic or positive attribution for adversity </li></ul>
  58. 58. How To Build A Happier Workforce <ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>– selecting and placing people into appropriate positions (Are they playing from their strengths?) </li></ul><ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><li>– to assist people to ‘fit’ jobs more closely </li></ul><ul><li>– teach self-monitoring to enhance positive mood and emotion (e.g. learned optimism) </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Structuring </li></ul><ul><li>– change work environment to more closely fit the needs of employees (e.g. social support) </li></ul><ul><li>A culture that supports ethics and character building </li></ul>
  59. 59. Well Being in the Workplace A Summary <ul><li>Work is a pervasive & influential part of the individual & the community’s well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>The well-being of employees & their satisfaction with their work & workplace affect citizenship at work, turnover rates & performance ratings. </li></ul>
  60. 60. How does this fit your vision? <ul><li>Happy/Productive Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Serene/Thoughtful Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Caring/Helpful Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Joyous/Honest Workers </li></ul><ul><li>Exhilirated/Creative Workers </li></ul>
  61. 61. Questions? Thank You email:
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