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  1. 1. 4G Network Architectures <ul><li>Final report to survey </li></ul><ul><li>System issues </li></ul><ul><li>Selected concepts for 4G </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organizing ,Ad-hoc network for 4G </li></ul><ul><li>林家彬 </li></ul>
  2. 2. “ 4G” Design Challenges <ul><li>Although 3G is an important first step, several basic issues still need to be addressed for next generation wireless systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Fast/reliable broadband radios (PHY/MAC) with QoS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>~100 Kbps  1-10 Mbps with adaptivity, link reliability & Qos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalable system capacity for mass-market services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high service penetration implies ~Gbps/Sq-Km </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of multiple radio technologies into single IP network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unified mobility architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New networking modes, e.g. multicast, multihop & peer-to-peer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...lower-cost infrastructure, networks that grow organically </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 4G System Issues
  4. 4. 4G System Issues: Scaling of Capacity <ul><li>The grand vision of ubiquitous wireless and pervasive computing leads to a serious capacity problem. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 4G System Issues: Scaling of Capacity (cont.) <ul><li>2G cellular: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>avail BW ~ 5 Mhz, spectral eff ~ 0.2-0.3 bps/Hz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>max capacity ~ 100 Kbps avg, 1 Mbps peak (with packet MAC) per sq-Km </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3G Cellular : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>avail BW ~ 25 Mhz, spectral eff ~ 0.3-0.5 bps/Hz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>max capacity ~ 1 Mbps avg, 10 Mbps peak (with packet MAC) per sq-Km </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless LAN (802.11x, Hiperlan): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>avail BW ~ 100 Mhz, spectral eff ~ 0.2-0.3 bps/Hz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>max capacity ~ 100 Mbps avg, 1 Gbps peak per sq-Km </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 4G System Issues: Evolution of Radio Speed vs. Moore’s Law <ul><li>4G systems can exploit Moore’s law advances in radio speed, but need to work with shorter range... </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4G System Issues: Protocol Evolution
  8. 8. <ul><li>Selected Concepts for 4G </li></ul>
  9. 9. Potential “4G” Network Ideas <ul><li>A few techniques for achieving the 4G design goals discussed earlier: </li></ul><ul><li>3G/WLAN Hot-Spots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of WLAN in hot-spots for lower system cost, better end-user performance and more total capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infostations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of “radio caches” for significant reduction in average cost per bit, facilitating qualitatively new mobile services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-organizing, ad-hoc wireless access networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ad-hoc wireless network protocols which support multihop and peer-to-peer service models, particularly for low-tier uses (in-home, sensors, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content-based multicasting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...new network service paradigms for location- and person-aware information delivery to mobiles </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Self-organizing, ad-hoc networks for 4G
  11. 11. 4G Mobile Network features <ul><li>Some desirable new features for 4G networks are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unified IP-based protocol architecture with support for multiple radios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicasting, caching and security features, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical support of high-tier (cellular), med tier (WLAN) and low-tier (personal area, sensor nets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-organizing, ad-hoc wireless discovery & routing </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. 4G Mobile Networks: Hierarchy & Self-Organization <ul><li>Hierarchical, self-organizing network concept currently under consideration, based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 service tiers (cellular, WLAN, personal area) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BS’s, AP’s, FN’s (forwarding radio nodes), user devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>automatic discovery and power management protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hierarchical, ad-hoc multi-hop routing </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 4G Mobile Networks: “network of wireless networks”
  14. 14. 4G Mobile Networks: An Experimental Testbed
  15. 15. Compare 3G & 4G <ul><li>Comparison of 3G and 4G   </li></ul><ul><li>3G: </li></ul><ul><li>--Back compatible to 2G. </li></ul><ul><li>--Circuit and packet switched networks. </li></ul><ul><li>--Combination of existing & evolved equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>--Data rate (up to 2Mbps). </li></ul><ul><li>4G: </li></ul><ul><li>--Extend 3G capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>--Entirely packet switched networks. </li></ul><ul><li>--All network elements are digital. </li></ul><ul><li>--Higher bandwidth (up to 100Mbps). </li></ul>
  16. 16. The NEWS about 4G <ul><li>ASIA : South Korean is already arranging an auction of 4G wireless licenses across wireless and broadband internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful Demo of Beyond-3G Wireless IP </li></ul><ul><li>NEC Europe Ltd announced the successful completion of the three-year “Moby Dick Project”, aimed at developing a seamless converged mobile network architecture based on Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). </li></ul><ul><li>Life After 3G Wireless </li></ul><ul><li>With 3G set for widespread launch in 2004 across Europe, operators are already thinking about the post 3G world and what comes next. </li></ul><ul><li>First Step Towards Full Range of WiMax / 4G Applications </li></ul><ul><li>This successful implementation of the OFDM waveform is the first step in Military Technologies plan to implement the complete IEEE 802.16 family of wireless data applications </li></ul>       
  17. 17. <ul><li>4G Wireless 10 Years Away </li></ul><ul><li>4G? Not in this decade. “I would recommend that the newspaper community forget about 4G,” Dr Keiji Tachikawa, president and CEO of NTT DoCoMo </li></ul><ul><li>Basestation Architectures for 3G Wireless </li></ul><ul><li>picoChip Designs Ltd announced the world's most powerful processing device for wireless infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>The New WiFi Gels With 4G </li></ul><ul><li>more robust standard for high-speed broadband wireless delivery to laptops and desktops will augment the burgeoning WiFi market beginning in late 2004. The position of the 802.16a standard today parallels that of WLAN technology in the late 1990’s, when the market finally grew as 802.11 price vs. performance gains converted WLAN from a niche to mass market. </li></ul>
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