BUSINESS AS A SYSTEM
Which of the following represent the ‘ Integrated Whole Thing “ :
Digestive System
Sound System
Music...
BUSINESS AS A SYSTEM
System will:
Draw Input
Process it Internally and

Releases output into environment

Business
Draw In...
Business & Environment Interface
Interaction of Business & its Surroundings

I. Micro environment of business.
1) Supplier...
Business & Environment Interface
Micro environment of business.
2) CUSTOMERS

Different categories of customers
i.

Indust...
Business & Environment Interface
Micro environment of business.

3) Market intermediaries
i.

Middlemen.

ii. Physical dis...
Business & Environment Interface
Micro environment of business.

 4. Competitors:






The Threat of entry of new f...
Business & Environment Interface
Micro environment of business.

 Competitors:
1. The Threat of entry of new firm

1. Eco...
Business & Environment Interface
Micro environment of business.

 Competitors:
1. The Threat of entry of new firm

1. Eco...
Business & Environment Interface
Micro environment of business.

 Competitors:
2. The Power of Buyers:
1. Concentration o...
Business & Environment Interface
Micro environment of business.
Concentration of Sellers
 Competitors:
Small no. of Selle...
Business & Environment Interface
Micro environment of business.

 Competitors:
4. Threat of Substitution:
Non-essential g...
Business & Environment Interface
Micro environment of business.
High fixed costs
 Competitors:
High Fixed cost – High bre...
Business & Environment Interface
Micro environment of business.

 Competitors:
5. Competitive Rivalry:
1. Industry Growth...
Business & Environment Interface
Macro environment of business.

 1. Demography:
 Quantitative aspects of
population.
 ...
Business & Environment Interface
Macro environment of business.
2. Economic environment
i.

Economic conditions-

ii.

Eco...
Business & Environment Interface
Macro environment of business.
3.Political environment

i. Legislature - Labour Laws like...
Business & Environment Interface
Macro environment of business.
4. Socio cultural environment
i.

Attitude of people towar...
Business & Environment Interface
Macro environment of business.
5. Natural environment
i.

Natural resources.

ii. Weather...
Business & Environment Interface
Macro environment of business.
6. Technological environment
i.

Nature of technology

ii....
Business & Environment Interface
Macro environment of business.
7. International environment
i.

Economic

ii. Political
i...
Business & Environment Interface

Uses of environment studies
1) Awarness
2) Policy decisions
3) Demand forecasting
4) Com...
Business & Environment Interface

Techniques for environmental studies
i. Verbal and written information
ii. Search and sc...
Business & Environment Interface

Limitations of environmental analysis
a) Unexpected events
b) Future is not a guarantee
...
Business Sectors

Primary Sector – Agriculture, Mining
Secondary sector - Manufacturing Industries
Manufacturing activitie...
Classification of Business – Based on Scope of Business
1. Business which Produce Goods:
Two categories of Goods:
a.

Comm...
Classification of Business – Based on Scope of Business
2. Business which Produce Services:
Transport , Telephone , Electr...
Classification of Business – Based on the Nature of Activity
1.Extractive Industries:
Extract goods from natural resources...
Classification of Business – Based on Uses of Goods Produced
1. Basic Industries :
Provide essential inputs to other indus...
Classification of Business – Based on Competitive Structure
1.

Monopoly :
Single –Firm Industry
Monopsony – Single Buyer
...
Business Motives & Objectives

Objective:
The end actions

Motive:
The desire which stimulate action

Motive – Profit, Non...
Business Motives & Objectives
Importance of Objectives
1. Justifies existance
2. Provide Direction
3. Help coordination
4....
Business Motives & Objectives

I. Economic Objectives
a) Earning of adequate profit.
b) Creation of customers
c) Innovatio...
Business Motives & Objectives

II. Social Objectives
a) Supply of goods and services.
b) Good treatment of customers.
c) F...
Business Motives & Objectives

III. National Objectives
a) Implement of government laws.
b) Payment of taxes.
c) Democrati...
Business Ethics

Study of good and evil ,right and
wrong actions of Business
Dishonesty – Unethical , then being dishonest...
Business Ethics
Sources of Business Ethics :
Religion

Culture &
Law
Religion : Advocate orderly social system
Culture : R...
Business Ethics
Codes of Business Ethics :
Codes of conducts of business

FICCI
1.

Business must maintain highest standar...
Business Ethics
UnEthical Actions :
1.Kentucky Fried Chicken ( KFC ) – Use of Harmful
hormons & Monosodium glutamate to fa...
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Business.environment

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Business.environment

  1. 1. BUSINESS AS A SYSTEM Which of the following represent the ‘ Integrated Whole Thing “ : Digestive System Sound System Music System Computer System Digestive Method Sound Method Music Method Computer Method Digestive Process Sound Process Music Process Computer Process Political System Social System Cultural system Economic System Technological System Legal System 26/01/2014 vashusuman@yahoo.com 1 Contd …
  2. 2. BUSINESS AS A SYSTEM System will: Draw Input Process it Internally and Releases output into environment Business Draw Input – Material , Energy , Information Process it Internally - Into different Material , energy and Information Releases output into environment – Tangible, Intangible and Information vashusuman@yahoo.com 2 Contd …
  3. 3. Business & Environment Interface Interaction of Business & its Surroundings I. Micro environment of business. 1) Suppliers Supply raw materials and other components (Inputs) Importance - Reliable supply – continuous supply for smooth functioning vashusuman@yahoo.com Contd … 3
  4. 4. Business & Environment Interface Micro environment of business. 2) CUSTOMERS Different categories of customers i. Industrial customers ii. Wholesale customers iii. Retail customers iv. Government customers v. Foreign customers vashusuman@yahoo.com Contd … 4
  5. 5. Business & Environment Interface Micro environment of business. 3) Market intermediaries i. Middlemen. ii. Physical distribution Firms: (warehouses and transport firms) iii. Marketing service agencies (Advertising agencies market research firms, media firms, consulting firms) iv. Financial intermediaries vashusuman@yahoo.com Contd … 5
  6. 6. Business & Environment Interface Micro environment of business.  4. Competitors:      The Threat of entry of new firms The Power of Buyers The Power of Suppliers The Power of Substitutes The Intensity of Rivalry among existing firms vashusuman@yahoo.com Contd … 6
  7. 7. Business & Environment Interface Micro environment of business.  Competitors: 1. The Threat of entry of new firm 1. Economies of scale 2. Capital Requirement 3. Access to Channel 4. Absolute cost advantage 5. Expected Retaliation 5. Government Policy 7. Differentiation • Economies of Scale • Unit cost Inverse to units produced Measured by ‘ Minimum Efficient Scale ‘ Or Market share MES volume is necessary to compete at minimum cost. Strategy : ‘Just in time ‘ & Lean manufacturing to counter economies of scale • Capital requirement • Internet / Knowledge based services less costly vashusuman@yahoo.com 7
  8. 8. Business & Environment Interface Micro environment of business.  Competitors: 1. The Threat of entry of new firm 1. Economies of scale 2. Capital Requirement 3. Access to Channel 4. Absolute cost advantage 5. Expected Retaliation 5. Government Policy 7. Differentiation Access to Channel Self help groups / Social networks – New channels of distribution Absolute cost advantage ‘Learning curve effect’ – Cost advantage Expected Retaliation GSM Players like NTC,NCELL ,Smart retaliated entry of CMDA player UTL to operate in GSM field Government Policy Import of sugar, Edible oils, Steel , Liberation of Insurance & other sectors Differentiation Existing company – Strong brand image, wide range of products to cover all segments vashusuman@yahoo.com 8
  9. 9. Business & Environment Interface Micro environment of business.  Competitors: 2. The Power of Buyers: 1. Concentration of buyers 2. Alternative source of supply 3. Component cost as a percentage of total cost 4. Possibility of backward integration Concentration of buyers Small no. of buyer + High Volume purchase – High buyer power Coca-Cola – cannot bargain with Malls Alternative source of supply More supply source – high buyer power Bajaj Scooter – Honda, Suzuki, TVS etc Component cost as a % of total cost High proportion of component/material cost to finished goods leads to looking for alternatives. Possibility of backward integration Buyer’s own supply chain – more buyer power – Co-opratives , Self help groups, MLM vashusuman@yahoo.com 9
  10. 10. Business & Environment Interface Micro environment of business. Concentration of Sellers  Competitors: Small no. of Sellers– High seller power Like Monopoly & Oligopoly 3. The Power of Sellers: Switching Costs 1. Concentration of Sellers High switching cost to other seller source - Seller power increase 2. Switching costs High-Tec & Specialised goods - SAP 3. Brand power Brand Power 4. Possibility of forward integration High brand power – High power 5. Dependence on customers Ariel , Rin - Supermarkets have to sell it Dependence on customers Possibility of forward integration Not depending on High volume small no.of buyers – more seller power Seller’s own distribution operation – More power vashusuman@yahoo.com 10
  11. 11. Business & Environment Interface Micro environment of business.  Competitors: 4. Threat of Substitution: Non-essential goods where there is the ultimate substitute of doing without That: 1. Relative Price & Performance of substitutes 2. Switching Costs 3.Buyer’s willingness to substitute Relative performance & Price of Substitutes Substitutes with same cost – High threat – Email replaced Post Offices Switching costs The Cheaper switching cost - High threat Pet foods , Fast foods , Malls Buyer’s Willingness to substitute Low-cost articles & infrequent purchase of articles – little effort made to go for substitutes Match box – Lighter vashusuman@yahoo.com 11
  12. 12. Business & Environment Interface Micro environment of business. High fixed costs  Competitors: High Fixed cost – High break even point 5. Competitive Rivalry: In depression times – Price war to 1. Industry Growth maintain turnover 2.High Fixed costs 1990 – UK & USA accused each of dumping Steel on Export market 3. Volatile Demand Volatile Demand 4.Product Differentiation 5. Extra Capacity in large increments May lead to intermittent Over-capacity Steel war -1990 6. Balance of firms Product Differentiation 7. High exit barriers Homogeneous products – More intense Industry Growth: the rivalry - Steel Rapid Growth – Competition need Extra capacity in large increments not be intense Maturity Phase- Intense competition Creates short term over capacity . Honda Nissan – plant in UK vashusuman@yahoo.com 12
  13. 13. Business & Environment Interface Micro environment of business.  Competitors: 5. Competitive Rivalry: 1. Industry Growth 2.High Fixed costs 3. Volatile Demand 4.Product Differentiation 5. Extra Capacity in large increments 6. Balance of firms 7. High exit barriers Balance of firms If the no. of firms is large / similar size the rivalry will be intensive. Clear market leader can bring discipline High exit barriers High exit barriers – Excess capacity to persist and rivalry to be intense vashusuman@yahoo.com 13
  14. 14. Business & Environment Interface Macro environment of business.  1. Demography:  Quantitative aspects of population.  Qualitative aspects of population. 1. Population Growth 2. Drivers of Population Changes 3. Ethnicity of Population 4. Implications of Demographic Changes Population Growth: Year 1000 – Estimated 300 million Year 1750 – Actual 728 million Year 1900 – Actual 1500 million Year 1960 – Actual 3 billion Year 2000 – Actual 6 billion Drivers of Population Changes Birth Rate – No. of births per 1000 population Fertility Rate- Av. No. of birth per women Death Rate - No. of deaths per 1000 Migration – Country to Country movement Implication – Consumer, Labour , Employment participation vashusuman@yahoo.com 14
  15. 15. Business & Environment Interface Macro environment of business. 2. Economic environment i. Economic conditions- ii. Economic policies GDP, Business Cycle, Unemployment, Inflation, Balance of Payment, Fiscal Policy, Monetary Policy, Exchange rate Policy, Interest Rate. a) Budget b) Industrial policy c) Trade policy d) Agricultural policy iii. Economic system- Capitalistic, Socilalitic, Mixed vashusuman@yahoo.com Contd … 15
  16. 16. Business & Environment Interface Macro environment of business. 3.Political environment i. Legislature - Labour Laws like Factories Act, EPF Act, ESI Act, Industrial Disputes Act, Minimum Wages Act, Payment of Wages Act, etc MRTP Act, Law of Contracts, Companies act, IDRA Act, FERA, Import & Export Control act, Tax Laws i. Executive- Administrators ii. Judiciary - District, High Courts, Supreme Court, Tribunals vashusuman@yahoo.com Contd … 16
  17. 17. Business & Environment Interface Macro environment of business. 4. Socio cultural environment i. Attitude of people towards work and health. ii. Role of family. iii. Marriage. iv. Religion. v. Education vi. Ethical issues vii. Social responsibility of business vashusuman@yahoo.com Contd … 17
  18. 18. Business & Environment Interface Macro environment of business. 5. Natural environment i. Natural resources. ii. Weather and climatic conditions. iii. Locational aspects. iv. Nearness to port facilities. vashusuman@yahoo.com Contd … 18
  19. 19. Business & Environment Interface Macro environment of business. 6. Technological environment i. Nature of technology ii. Scope for innovation vashusuman@yahoo.com Contd … 19
  20. 20. Business & Environment Interface Macro environment of business. 7. International environment i. Economic ii. Political iii. Legal iv. Demography v. Technology vashusuman@yahoo.com Contd … 20
  21. 21. Business & Environment Interface Uses of environment studies 1) Awarness 2) Policy decisions 3) Demand forecasting 4) Competitor’s strategies. 5) To innovate vashusuman@yahoo.com 21
  22. 22. Business & Environment Interface Techniques for environmental studies i. Verbal and written information ii. Search and scanning iii. Forecasting and formal studie vashusuman@yahoo.com 22
  23. 23. Business & Environment Interface Limitations of environmental analysis a) Unexpected events b) Future is not a guarantee c) Too much of information. d) Overcautions approach vashusuman@yahoo.com 23
  24. 24. Business Sectors Primary Sector – Agriculture, Mining Secondary sector - Manufacturing Industries Manufacturing activities – Electricity Generation and Construction Tertiary Sector – Services industries Trade , Commerce, Insurance, Banking,Repair, Transport vashusuman@yahoo.com 24
  25. 25. Classification of Business – Based on Scope of Business 1. Business which Produce Goods: Two categories of Goods: a. Commodities – Goods produced by Primary sector - Will not undergo any processing - Agriculture , Fisheries, Mining, b. Products - Goods produced by Secondary sector – Conversion of Raw material into another form - Farms, Diaries, -Manufacturing Enterprises – Machinery, Materials for -other business, Producing goods for consumption vashusuman@yahoo.com 25
  26. 26. Classification of Business – Based on Scope of Business 2. Business which Produce Services: Transport , Telephone , Electric Light ,Hotels ,Entertainment 3. Business which Distribute Goods: Wholesale merchants Retail Merchants Importers & Exporters 4. Business which Facilitates Distribution of Goods: Warehouse, Auction Houses, Advertising, Financing 5. Business which Deals in Finance: Commercial Banks, Co-Operative Banks, Development Bankd, Insurance Stock Exchange vashusuman@yahoo.com 26
  27. 27. Classification of Business – Based on the Nature of Activity 1.Extractive Industries: Extract goods from natural resources- Oil extraction, Farming, Fishing 2. Genetic Industries: Produce goods by breeding- Poultries, Bio Tech 3. Manufacturing Industries: Process Raw materials into finished goods – 4 Types 1. Basic Industries : Iron, Steel 2. Capital goods Industries : Machines 3. Intermediate Industries : Tyre , Tubes 4.Consumer goods Industries : Soap 4. Construction Industries Canals, Dams, Road, Buildings, Road 5. Service & IT Industries vashusuman@yahoo.com 27
  28. 28. Classification of Business – Based on Uses of Goods Produced 1. Basic Industries : Provide essential inputs to other industries Iron, Steel, Fertilizer, Chemicals 2. Capital goods Industries : Instrumental in producing goods and services Do not directly produce goods for consumption Capital intensive Machines, Tools, 3. Intermediate Goods Industries : Goods already had undergone manufacturing process but which forms input for other industries for further processing Tyre , Tubes 4.Consumer goods Industries : For consumption – Durable / Nondurable goods Durable – Usage for more than 3 years Non-durable – Usage within 3 years vashusuman@yahoo.com 28
  29. 29. Classification of Business – Based on Competitive Structure 1. Monopoly : Single –Firm Industry Monopsony – Single Buyer Bilateral Monopoly – single Buyer and Single seller MRTP Act 2.Duopoly Two sellers 3. Oligopoly Only few firms holding 80 to 85 % market share 4.Monopolistic competition Large sellers & similar but not Substitute products – Textile 5.Perfect competition Large sellers & Homogeneous & free entry , exit & no single firm has any control over the market & Perfect knowledge about market & no transport cost & complete mobility of factors of production between industries. vashusuman@yahoo.com 29
  30. 30. Business Motives & Objectives Objective: The end actions Motive: The desire which stimulate action Motive – Profit, Non-Profit Objective – Supply Quality Products, Customer Satisfaction, Exploit labour, Tax evation vashusuman@yahoo.com 30
  31. 31. Business Motives & Objectives Importance of Objectives 1. Justifies existance 2. Provide Direction 3. Help coordination 4.Provide standards for assesment & control 5. Help decentralisation vashusuman@yahoo.com 31
  32. 32. Business Motives & Objectives I. Economic Objectives a) Earning of adequate profit. b) Creation of customers c) Innovation d) Generation of employment e) Control of inflation f) Economic development g) Reduction of inequalities of income vashusuman@yahoo.com 32 Contd …
  33. 33. Business Motives & Objectives II. Social Objectives a) Supply of goods and services. b) Good treatment of customers. c) Fair treatment of employees. d) Good working environment e) Customer Counseling f) Social responsibility. g) Pollution control. vashusuman@yahoo.com 33 Contd …
  34. 34. Business Motives & Objectives III. National Objectives a) Implement of government laws. b) Payment of taxes. c) Democratic practices. vashusuman@yahoo.com 34 Contd …
  35. 35. Business Ethics Study of good and evil ,right and wrong actions of Business Dishonesty – Unethical , then being dishonest with employees, Customers and shareholders is unethical. Protecting others from harm – Ethical then recalling defective products is ethical action. vashusuman@yahoo.com 35 Contd …
  36. 36. Business Ethics Sources of Business Ethics : Religion Culture & Law Religion : Advocate orderly social system Culture : Rules and standards transmitted among generations to produce behaviours- Sathi, Child marriage, Untouchability, Joint family Law : Rules of conduct approved by Legislators – Companies act , Labour laws etc vashusuman@yahoo.com 36 Contd …
  37. 37. Business Ethics Codes of Business Ethics : Codes of conducts of business FICCI 1. Business must maintain highest standard of behaviour for the benefit of industry, employees, customers, shareholders 2. Goods and services must conform to committed quality 3. Customers must be treated with respect and fairness vashusuman@yahoo.com 37 Contd …
  38. 38. Business Ethics UnEthical Actions : 1.Kentucky Fried Chicken ( KFC ) – Use of Harmful hormons & Monosodium glutamate to fatten the chicken 2. Neem – Oil : Ptent by U.S company 3. Women Harassment – Sacking of Chief Executive of Infosys vashusuman@yahoo.com 38

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