Scrum under PRINCE 2

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Scrum under PRINCE 2

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Scrum under PRINCE 2

  1. 1. Scrum - Agile Model Under PRINCE 2Agile is an iterative and incremental (evolutionary) approach to software development which isperformed in a highly collaborative manner by self-organizing teams with just enoughceremony that produces high quality software in a cost effective and timely manner whichmeets the changing needs of its stakeholders. • Agile Principles of Agile Model Flavors of Agile Model SDLC Process Overview Under Agile • Scrum - Agile Model Uderlying principles of Scrum Flow of activities in a Scrum Scrum SDLC Overview Under PRINCE2 Scrum SDLC And Artefacts Under PRINCE2 • Demystifying Scrum SDLC Stages Project Approval Pre Analysis Initiating Execution Managing Stage Boundaries Closing Post Production • AuthorAgileThe modern definition of agile software development evolved in the mid 1990s as part of areaction against heavyweight methods, as typified by a heavily regulated, regimented, micro-managed use of the waterfall model of development. The processes originating from this use ofthe waterfall model were seen as bureaucratic, slow, demeaning, and inconsistent with theways that software engineers actually perform effective work. A case can be made that agileand iterative development methods are a return to development practice seen early in thehistory of software development.Initially, agile methods were called lightweight methods. In2001, prominent members of the community met at Snowbird, Utah, and adopted the nameagile methods. Later, some of these people formed The Agile Alliance, a non-profitorganization that promotes agile development.More on Agile can be found herePrinciples of Agile ModelAgile Model is a family of various development processes, its not a single approach to softwaredevelopment. These processes under agile umberella are driven by Agile Principles known as
  2. 2. Agile Manifesto, widely regarded as the canonical definition of agile development.Some of the principles behind the Agile Manifesto are: • Customer satisfaction by rapid, continuous delivery of useful software • Working software is delivered frequently (weeks rather than months) • Working software is the principal measure of progress • Even late changes in requirements are welcomed • Close, daily, cooperation between business people and developers • Face-to-face conversation is the best form of communication • Projects are built around motivated individuals, who should be trusted • Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design • Simplicity • Self-organizing teams • Regular adaptation to changing circumstancesMore on Agile Manifesto can be found hereFlavors of Agile ModelUnder this broad umbrella sits many more specific approaches such as Extreme Programming Scrum Lean Development Feature Driven Development
  3. 3. SDLC Process Overview Under AgileScrum - Agile ModelScrum is a term which comes from the game of Rugby where high-performing teams form thescrum.Uderlying principles of Scrum A product backlog of prioritized work to be done; Completion of a fixed set of backlog items in a series of short iterations or sprints; A brief daily meeting or scrum, at which progress is explained, upcoming work is described and impediments are raised. A brief sprint planning session in which the backlog items for the sprint will be defined. A brief sprint retrospective, at which all team members reflect about the past sprint.Flow of activities in a ScrumScrum is used as an Agile Model of Software Development. The governing process frameworkaround this development model isa project management methodology known as Prince 2 - Projects in ControlledEnvironments (PRINCE).Under the PRINCE2 governing process framework SCRUM SDLC is defined in 7 Steps.
  4. 4. Scrum SDLC Overview Under PRINCE2Following are the stages/steps : 1. Project Approval - Mandate 2. Pre Analysis 3. Initiating 4. Execution 5. Managing Stage Boundaries 6. Closing 7. Post ProductionScrum SDLC And Artefacts Under PRINCE2Shown below is a full overview of all the stages and artefactes required.Note: Processes are in yellow color and SDLC artefacts are in pink color.
  5. 5. Demystifying Scrum SDLC StagesProject ApprovalPre AnalysisInitiatingExecutionManaging Stage BoundariesClosingPost ProductionProject ApprovalThis stage is all about having a vision for what is to be achieved in coming years and how thiscan be realized.Note: Items in yellow are not artefacts, they represent the process which takes place duringthis stage. Artefacts are the outcomes from these process. Item in orange is a Gate for Prince2. • ArtefactsArtefactsNo artefacts are required for this stage.
  6. 6. Pre AnalysisPre Analysis is a stage to provide a full and firm foundation for the initiation of the project. Thecontents of the Initiative Brief will be extended and refined into the Project Initiation Document(PID), which is the working document for managing and directing a project. The Project Briefcontains the outline plan for the Initiation process and forms the basis of the schedule andresource requirements for that process. The Project Brief is a document in its own right and isthe basis of the PID.Note: Items in yellow are not artefacts, they represent the process which takes place duringthis stage. Artefacts are the outcomes from these process. Artefacts marked as Mandatorty arerequired from project management perspective. They are required under Prince 2 GovernanceFramework, they are not SDLC deliverables. Item in orange is a Gate for Prince 2. • Artefacts High Level Business Case/ Initiative Brief Buisiness Case Initiative Brief Project Approach Recommendation Risks LogHigh Level Business Case/ Initiative BriefBuisiness CaseA high level business case represents what benefits will the business get out of this project,how much will it cost to the business and what are the risks associated with it. The businesscase will forecast effort and time and whether it is worth the expenditure. This analysis is a partof inititaive brief.Initiative BriefThis is to provide a full and firm foundation for the initiation of the project. The contents of theProject Brief will be extended and refined into next stage M2 - Project Initiation Document,which is the working document for managing and directing a project. The Initiative briefcontains the outline plan for the Initiation process (M2) and forms the basis of the schedule and
  7. 7. resource requirements for that process. The Initiative brief is a document in its own right and isthe basis of Next Stage M2 (PID)Both are mandatory artefacts produced by PMO.Project Approach RecommendationThis is to define the type of solution (what) to be developed by the project and/or method ofdelivering(how) that solution. It should also identify any environment into which the solutionmust fit.This is a mandatory artefact produced by PMO and is a part of InitiativeBrief/Project Breif.Note: For smaller projects this may form part of the Project Brief. This needs to be agreed withthe Corporate Program Office when Starting Up a Project.Risks LogThe purpose of the Risk Log is to contain all information about the risks, their analysis,countermeasures and status. Risks should be considered during the creation of key documents.There should be a check for new risks every time the Risk Log is reviewed, minimally at the endof each stage. The Project Steering Committee has the responsibility to check external eventscontinually for external risksThis is a mandatory artefact produced by PMO and is a part of InitiativeBrief/Project Breif.InitiatingTo define the project, to form the basis for its management and the assessment of overallsuccess. The Project Initiation gives the direction and scope of the project and forms thecontract between the project management team and corporate program management. It isessentially a compilation of key project information and documents to date, including thedetailed Business Case (evolved from initial Business Case); Product Backlog (evolved fom UserStories), Risk ans Issues Log, Architecture Solution, Technology Used and DevelopmentRoadmap
  8. 8. Note: Items in yellow are not artefacts, they represent the process which takes place duringthis stage. Artefacts are the outcomes from these process. Artefacts marked as Mandatorty arerequired from project management perspective. They are required under Prince 2 GovernanceFramework, they are not SDLC deliverables. Item in orange is a Gate for Prince 2.Note: SDLC deliverables are marked as non mandatory, this doesnt mean they are not beproduced. SDLC artefacts needs to be produced, only difference is their are nostandard templates required. Whatever can be adapted to deliver it will be fine. • Artefacts Detaild Business Case Product Backlog/User stories Risk and Issues Log High Level Solution Architecture Technology Used Infrastrucure Requirements Development Roadmap EstimatesArtefactsDetailed Business CaseThe justification for undertaking the project based on the estimated cost of development andimplementation against the risks and the anticipated benefits. The total business change mustbe considered, which may be much wider than just the project development cost. The BusinessCase is used to say why the forecast effort and time will be worth the expenditure. The ProjectSteering Committee will monitor the ongoing viability of the project against the Business Case.This is a mandatory artefact produced by PMO and is part of Project InitiationDocument - PID.Product Backlog/User storiesProducts backlog is nothing but a collection of user Stories. This is equivalent of High LevelBuisness Requirement Specification (BRS)This is a mandatory artefact
  9. 9. Risk and Issues LogRisks Log The purpose of the Risk Log is to contain all information about the risks, theiranalysis, countermeasures and status. Risks should be considered during the creation of keydocuments. There should be a check for new risks every time the Risk Log is reviewed,minimally at the end of each stage. The Project Steering Committee has the responsibility tocheck external events continually for external risksProject Issues A generic term for any matter that has to be bought to the attention of theproject team and requires an answer. After receiving a unique reference number, Project Issuesare evaluated in terms of impact on the product, effort, cost, risks, Project Plan and BusinessCase. The Project Manager may make a decision on what action to take or the Project Issuemay be referred to the Project Steering Committee. A Project Issue may have a negative orpositive impact on the project.Issue Log Project Issues are raised as required and are an input into / recorded in the IssueLog.This is a mandatory artefact produced by PMO and is part of Project InitiationDocument - PID.High Level Solution ArchitectureHigh level solution architecture comprises of high level view of componets interacting with eachother in a system (it can be a multiered, distributed, standalone.)Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.An example of High Level Solution Architecture can be found here ?Technology UsedThis is to describe in a system which component will be using what technoloy or itsimplementaion framework/library.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.Infrastrucure RequirementsIt comprises of hardware, software required for development, testing and production. Is alsoincludes system security considerations, network, backup and disaster recovery plans.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.
  10. 10. An example of Infrastrucure Requirements can be found here ?Development RoadmapIt describes how a product will be evolved dutring the project life cycle. It will lay out the roadmap for the product life cycle pointing out when various functionalities or features will beavailable.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.EstimatesEstimates are carried out to identify how many man days will be required to undertake theproject. It is always a difficult execrice to predict the accurate numberNote: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.ExecutionAt this stage development phse kicks in with planning and design for the sprint. Developemnt istest driven (TDD) i;e - first write a test case and then develop the component until your tescase passes. System Test and Fucnctional Test are executed in later part of sprint. In additionto this a users guide or operations guide is prouced at end of the sprint/Note: Items in yellow are not artefacts, they represent the process which takes place duringthis stage. Artefacts are the outcomes from these process. Artefacts marked as Mandatorty arerequired from project management perspective. They are required under Prince 2 GovernanceFramework, they are not SDLC deliverables. Item in orange is a Gate for Prince 2.Note: SDLC deliverables are marked as non mandatory, this doesnt mean they are not beproduced. SDLC artefacts needs to be produced, only difference is their are nostandard templates required. Whatever can be adapted to deliver it will be fine.
  11. 11. ArtefactsSprint BackLogThe sprint backlog is the list of tasks that the Scrum team is committing that they will completein the current sprint. Items on the sprint backlog are drawn from the Product Backlog, by theteam based on the priorities set by the Product Owner and the teams perception of the time itwill take to complete the various features.It is critical that the team selects the items and size of the sprint backlog. Because they are theones committing to completing the tasks they must be the ones to choose what they arecommitting to.The sprint backlog is very commonly maintained as an Excel spreadsheet but it is also possibleto use your defect tracking system or any of a number of software products designedspecifically for Scrum or agile.During the Sprint the ScrumMaster maintains the sprint backlog by updating it toreflect which tasks are completed and how long the team thinks it will take tocomplete those that are not yet done. The estimated work remaining in the sprint iscalculated daily and graphed, resulting in a sprint burndown charrt.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.Sprint Burn Down ChartThe Sprint Burndown chart gives the team a daily indication of their velocity and progressagainst the work they have committed to for the current Sprint. Even early on in a Sprint, theburndown chart gives the team a good idea of how theyre progressing against their Sprinttasks and whether they will complete them by the end of the Sprint. This both keeps up themotivation to deliver on the work they have committed to and also provides a planning tool toaid decisions. In simple terms it is graphical the representation of the total tasks undertaken forthe sprint versus sprint time.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.Flow Diagrams, Schema Desgin, Screen Mock UpsAs a result of sprint design phase, flow diagram, class diagrams, schema design or sceen mockups are produced.These are produced in various forms and their is not a standard format ortemplate. As long as they are captured and made visible to team members its fine. Its all aboutvisibility and making sure we are getting on righ track (in design and solution terms).
  12. 12. Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.Code Review ChecklistCode reviews are carried out to make sure that design mistakes are not carried, best practicesare used, components are extensible and robust. Some aspects of the code health check arebuild into Conitnuous integration build tool used for the sprint.Refactoring is mostly carried out after code reviews.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.Unit Test SuiteUnit Test suite is a colloection of all unit tests created during the sprint. These unit tests areautomated test that ensures that the functionality required for a certain area of a project isimplemented, and that there are no breaking changes that have not been taken intoconsideration Their is no tempalte for this, but it is a vital artefact for Test Driven Development(TDD) approach.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.System Test CasesSystem test cases are mapped from Functional Specification.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.UAT CasesUser acceptance test cases are mapped out of BRS. It is an exercise carried out by endcustomer.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.This artefact is maintained by a Business Analyst.Example for UAT can found here.
  13. 13. Users/Operations GuideUsers or Operations Guide is a vital artefact delivered to end customer. It covers all the aspectsabout product/system developed during execution phase. For customer its the only documentfor them to guide, how to interact and use the product.This is a mandatory artefact produced by PMO.Managing Stage BoundariesThis is not a stage in SDLC, but it is a checkpoint in SDLC to make further decisions. It is runjust after finishing execution stage sprint and is considered part of execution stage. Once theexecution sprint is finished, busines case is analyzed again with its known risks, issues and costassocaited with it. Risk and Issue logs are updated in tandem with business case. Productbacklog is updated again from Initiating Stage to see what features are covered and what areremaining. A new sprint backlog and burn down chart is created to , priortize tasks and seewhat tasks can be covered in esitiamted time. From second Execution Sprint (i;e; 2.2 not 2.1))onwards regression tests are created and updated from here onwards.After analyzing all these artefacts a decision is made to continue the projcet or close theprojcet. If it continues then Execution Stage (M2.1) is repeated which becomes(M2.2),otherwise project is closed, hence closing stage is reached.Note: Items in yellow are not artefacts, they represent the process which takes place duringthis stage. Artefacts are the outcomes from these process. Artefacts marked as Mandatorty arerequired from project management perspective. They are required under Prince 2 GovernanceFramework, they are not SDLC deliverables.Note: SDLC deliverables are marked as non mandatory, this doesnt mean they are not beproduced. SDLC artefacts needs to be produced, only difference is their are nostandard templates required. Whatever can be adapted to deliver it will be fine. Item inorange is a Gate for Prince 2. • Artefacts Update Business Case Update Risk and Issues log Update Prodcut Backlog Create Sprint Backlog Create Burn Down Chart Add and Update Regression Tests
  14. 14. 1.1 ArtefactsUpdate Business CaseBusines case created in Initiating Stage is updated to see whether the project is still beneficialfor the organization with its known risks, issues and cost assocaited with it.This is a mandatory artefact produced by PMO.Update Risk and Issues logAs the business case is updated, risk and issues log are updated which were created inInitiating Stage.This is a mandatory artefact produced by PMO.Update Prodcut BacklogProduct Backlog created in Initiating Stage is updated to see what features are covered andwhat are remaining.This is a mandatory artefact produced by PMO.Create Sprint BacklogTheir is no activity in SDLC which doesnt consume time and effort. In order to make a gooddecision necessary artefacts are created to to make a decision. Creating these artefacts requiretime and effort. So a new Sprint backlog is created for this stage to see what tasks areremaining and what can be covered.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.Create Burn Down ChartA new Sprint Burn down chart is created for this stage to monitor the progress of the sprint.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fine.
  15. 15. Add and Update Regression TestsRegression testing is any type of software testing which seeks to uncover regression bugs.Regression bugs occur whenever software functionality that previously worked as desired, stopsworking or no longer works in the same way that was previously planned. Typically regressionbugs occur as an unintended consequence of program changes.Regression tests are added and updated further after executing Sprint 2 not Sprint 1, that isafter completing Execution Stage second time. Reason for that is; that at end of Sprint 1(First Execution Stage)all tests were executed, but after completing Sprint 2 (Second ExecutionStage) only new functionality tests are executed. So to make sure that new features dont breakthe old ones, regresion tests are carried out.Note: SDLC Artefact - their is no standard template required for this. Agile is about beingadaptive, its upto you how you want to do it. As along as it is created in some form andvisible to all the team members its fineClosingThis is where the projcet is closed after getting the sign off from custoner and warranty timefinishes. At this stage prouct goes in production environment and if support is in place thansupport group enhances and maintains it.Note: Items in yellow are not artefacts, they represent the process which takes place duringthis stage. Artefacts are the outcomes from these process. Artefacts marked as Mandatorty arerequired from project management perspective. They are required under Prince 2 GovernanceFramework, they are not SDLC deliverables. Item in orange is a Gate for Prince 2. • Artefacts Lessons Learned End Project ReportArtefactsLessons LearnedIt is a repository of any lessons learned during the project that can be usefully applied to other
  16. 16. projects. The Lessons Learned Log is formally written up into the Lessons Learned Report atproject closure. The data in the report will be used by Corporate Program Management in orderto refine, change and improve the standards.This is a mandatory artefact produced by PMO.End Project ReportTo report on how well the project has performed against its Project Initiation Document (PID),including the original planned cost, schedule and tolerances, the Business Case and final versionof the Project Plan.This is a mandatory artefact produced by PMO.Post ProductionNote: Items in yellow are not artefacts, they represent the process which takes place duringthis stage. Artefacts are the outcomes from these process.ArtefcatsNo artefacts are required for this stage.

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