Ai manual chapter 16


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inseminação Artificial em bovinos -Abspecplan

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  • In this chapter we’ll explore udder care. Follow along in your manual by turning to page 16-1.
  • Cows that had a case of mastitis within 30 days after breeding had a significantly lower conception rate than cows that had no mastitis. The loss ranges from $45 to over $100 per animal.
  • Many infections occur in the 3 weeks prior to and after calving.
  • Simple economics.
  • Oxytocin is the let down hormone.
  • Timing milking to coincide with this natural process, means you get the fastest and most complete milkouts.
  • Figure 1. Structure of the mammary gland showing teat and gland cisterns, milk ducts, and glandular tissue (A). Glandular tissue is made up of many small microscopic sacs called alveoli that are lined by milk-producing epithelial cells (B). Millions of alveoli are within each mammary gland.
  • Go forward to next slide discuss A, then back up to emphasize B, then forward to diagram. Repeat for each point.
  • Refer to previous slide for notes.
  • Mastitis falls into these two categories.
  • There are three types of mastitis.
  • Acute can be life threatening, the quarter will be hot, inflamed and the cow may be severely depressed. It should be treated by a Vet; if left untreated the cow may die.
  • Clinical is less severe than acute; recognized by flakes, clots, watery milk, slight swelling or hardness, and a sudden decrease in production.
  • Subclinical is the most prevalent of the three. No outward signs of mastitis, but an elevated SCC.
  • Ensuing slides discuss each point.
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  • Ai manual chapter 16

    1. 1. CHAPTER 16 <ul><li>UDDER CARE </li></ul>
    2. 2. Why Worry About Udder Care? <ul><li>Mastitis Impairs Reproductive Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of Proper Udder Care Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Udder Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in Days to First Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in Days to Conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in Services Per Conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cows Infection-Free at First Service Compared to Herdmates Infected Prior to First Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Value Extends Beyond Quality Milk Premiums and Increased Milk Production </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Focus Efforts on Management of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close-Up Heifers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh Cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early Lactation Cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most Infections Originate 3 Weeks Pre- and Post-Calving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention Equals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean, Dry, Comfortable Loafing and Calving Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Milking Hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Treatment With Approved Udder Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly Functioning Milking Equipment </li></ul></ul>Avoid a Negative Effect
    4. 4. Economics:
    5. 5. <ul><li>Udder Continuously Takes Blood Components and Converts Them Into Milk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected in the Alveoli Until Let Down Occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oxytocin = Hormone Signals Milk Let Down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes Muscles Surrounding Alveoli to Contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Squeezes Milk Into Lower Ducts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced in Response to External Stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nature’s Stimulus = Suckling by Calf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy Farm Stimulus = Entering the Parlor, Sound of Milking Machine, Cleaning, Forestripping and Drying Teats </li></ul></ul></ul>How Cows Make Milk
    6. 6. Structure of Cow’s Udder: <ul><li>Time Milking to Coincide With Process For Fastest, Most Complete Milkout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes 30 Seconds − 1 Minute From Udder Stimulation to Let Down </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fear or Pain Causes Adrenaline to Enter Blood Stream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks Action of Oxytocin and Slows Milkout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mastitis Occurs When Microorganisms Enter a Cow’s Udder Through the Teat Canal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damages the Delicate Milking Tissue . </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Structure of Cow’s Udder:
    8. 8. Mastitis: <ul><li>Presence of bacteria, toxins, and leukocytes in the affected tissue area (A) may cause milk-producing cells to revert to a resting state. </li></ul><ul><li>Alveoli shrink in size and no longer produce milk (B). </li></ul><ul><li>In other areas, clotted tissue debris, leukocytes, and bacteria clog ducts, which drain areas of glandular tissue (C). </li></ul><ul><li>If clots remain, milk accumulates in alveoli, which swell, exerting pressure on milk-producing cells (D), and alveoli revert to a resting state as in (B). </li></ul><ul><li>If bacteria and their toxins remain in contact with alveoli, milk-producing cells are destroyed, and the structures are replaced by scar tissue (E). </li></ul>
    9. 9. Mastitis:
    10. 10. <ul><li>Contagious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>− Live in the Udder and are Passed From Cow to Cow During Milking by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Milkers’ Hands • Milking Equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Contaminated Milk • Wash Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Udder Towels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><ul><li>− Live in Cow’s Surroundings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>− Enter Teat Canal When Teats Contact: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Soil • Manure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>• Contaminated Bedding • Bacteria-Laden Water </li></ul></ul></ul>Microorganisms Cause Mastitis
    11. 11. <ul><li>Mastitis You Can See </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute Clinical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mastitis You Can’t See </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subclinical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refer to Page 16-3 for a Breakdown of Mastitis-Causing Organisms </li></ul>3 Forms of Mastitis:
    12. 12. Acute Clinical Mastitis <ul><li>Easy to Recognize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be Life Threatening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected Quarter May be: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot • Very Hard and Tender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce Watery Milk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow May Show: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Appetite • Reduced Milk Production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depression • High Temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be Treated Immediately by Veterinarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unchecked Infection Destroys Milk-Secreting Tissue </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Clinical Mastitis <ul><li>Less Severe </li></ul><ul><li>Common in Many Dairy Herds </li></ul><ul><li>Signs Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watery Milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight Swelling or Hardness of Udder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden Decrease in Milk Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often Only Some Symptoms Will be Evident </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Subclinical Mastitis <ul><li>Most Prevalent </li></ul><ul><li>Causes Greatest Overall Loss in Most Herds </li></ul><ul><li>“Hidden” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often No Swelling of Gland or Observed Milk Abnormality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes Can be Detected by Special Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic Cell Count (SCC) – Common Measure of Milk Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body Cells That Fight Infection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequently Develops Into Chronic Mastitis </li></ul>
    15. 15. Controlling & Preventing Mastitis <ul><li>Monitor Milk Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain Clean, Dry, Comfortable Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Properly Operate and Maintain Milking Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Proper Milking Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriately Treat Clinical Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Follow a Program of Dry Cow Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Cull Cows With Chronic Mastitis Infections </li></ul><ul><li>Other Management Considerations </li></ul>
    16. 16. Monitor Milk Quality <ul><li>Determine Extent of Your Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Where Does it Exist and What is Causing it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor Bulk Tank Milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect Problem Cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treat Mastitis as Recommended by Veterinarian </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Maintain Proper Environment <ul><li>Keep Cows Clean Between Milkings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps Decrease Environmental Infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases Throughput </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide Comfortable Resting Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages Cows to Lie Down in Designated Areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintain Stalls and Open Lots to Prevent Bacterial Survival </li></ul>
    18. 18. Housing Considerations <ul><li>Adequate Drainage Keeps Cows Out of Mud or Stagnant Water </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Manure Removal and Disposal </li></ul><ul><li>Stalls Designed for Comfort and Cleanliness </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate Space Allowed for Each Animal </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate Amounts of Clean Bedding </li></ul><ul><li>Adequately Lighted and Ventilated Barns </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent Stall Maintenance and Alley Scraping </li></ul>
    19. 19. Other Considerations: <ul><li>Bedding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic or Inorganic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine Maintenance is Required </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hair Removal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clipping or Singeing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Every Other Month </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Mastitis-Causing Pathogens <ul><li>Common sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soiled Bedding Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedstuffs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flies </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Milking Equipment <ul><li>Organism Transfer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine Can Carry Organisms From Cow to Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cross Contamination: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria Can Move Across the Claw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Infected Quarter to Uninfected Quarter of Cow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Teat End Injury: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poorly Functioning System Can Injure Teat End </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impairs Cow’s Ability to Resist Infections </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Teat Ends Healthy Injured
    23. 23. Milking Equipment <ul><li>Vacuum Fluctuations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abrupt Reduction May Cause Air to Move Toward Teat End </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Droplets of Milk to Strike the Teat End </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If Contaminated With Bacteria, Impact May Force Bacteria Into Teat Canal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused By: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improper Positioning of Milking Unit on Cow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worn Out Teat Cup Liners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wet Teats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improper Application and Removal of Machines </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Milking Parlors
    25. 25. Checklist
    26. 26. Proper Milk Machine Standards
    27. 27. Proper Milking Procedures <ul><li>Handle Cows Calmly, Quietly and Slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Use Appropriate Prepping Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wear Gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-dip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forestrip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Teats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Adequate Stimulation Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardize the Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk Infected Cows Last </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Proper Milking Procedures <ul><li>Apply Properly Functioning Milking Units </li></ul><ul><li>Remove Milking Units Correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Use an Effective Post-Milking Teat Dip </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Open Teat Ends Away From Bacteria </li></ul>
    29. 29. Dipping Teats <ul><li>Dipping Teats After Milking Can Reduce New Infections by 50% or More </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Most Effective Mastitis-Prevention Practice! </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Helpful Hints: <ul><li>Dipping in Cold Weather: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Below 20°F (-7°C) With Windy Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take Special Precautions to Avoid Chapped and Frozen Teats. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dip Teats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow 30 Seconds Contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blot Dry With a Single Service Towel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Windbreaks in Outside Holding Areas and Lanes Connecting Barns With the Milking Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take Special Care of Fresh Cows With Swollen Udders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More Susceptible to Chapping and Frozen Teats </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Helpful Hints: <ul><li>Selecting a Teat Dip: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a Germicidal Product That is Proven Effective Against a Wide Range of Microorganisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ask Your Supplier for Research Results </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Dip Should be Compatible With Pre-Milking Product </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Barrier or Non-Barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Barrier Kills Bacteria at Time of Application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Barrier Forms Shield to Prevent Penetration Into Teat Canal </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Helpful Hints: <ul><li>Dip Testing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NMC (National Mastitis Council) Protocols: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental Challenge – Designed to Test a Dip’s Ability to Control New Intramammary Infections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trial Runs 6-8 Weeks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dip is Applied to Either 2 of the 4 Teats of All Cows or to Half of the Herd, the Other Half is Either Not Dipped (Negative Control) or Dipped in a Teat Dip of Known Efficacy (Positive Control) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Exposure – Cows are Exposed to Mastitis-Causing Bacteria Only as They Occur Naturally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trial Runs a Minimum of 12 Months </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluates the Ability of a Teat Dip to Prevent Infections in Dairy Cows Under Commercial Practices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Treat Clinical Cases <ul><li>Veterinarian May Prescribe Antibiotic Treatment or Other Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Infection Quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize Damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent Mastitis Spread if Contagious Organism is Involved </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always Give Full Series of Recommended Treatments! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carefully Read Labels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observe Milk Discard Times and Pre-Slaughter Withdrawal Times </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Dry Cow Therapy <ul><li>NMC Recommends All Cows be Dry Treated </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Cow Therapy Helps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate Existing Infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent New Infections During Dry Period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Treatment Specifically Formulated for Dry Cows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually Contain Higher Level of Antibiotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Longer-Lasting Action </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Chronic Mastitis Infections <ul><li>Cull Cows Suffering From Chronic Infections </li></ul><ul><li>Cows Serve as Reservoirs for Infecting Rest of Herd With Mastitis-Causing Organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Producers Monitor Individual Cow’s SCCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counts in the 20,000 to 100,000 Range Signal Healthy Udders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As Cell Counts Climb Above 100,000, Losses Due to Subclinical Mastitis Increase Dramatically </li></ul></ul>
    36. 36. Other Management Considerations <ul><li>Vitamin E and Selenium Supplementation Boost Immune Defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be Necessary in Some Herds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccines Can be Helpful </li></ul><ul><li>Biosecurity Measures are Critical for Prevention </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>Mastitis is One of Today’s Most Costly Agricultural Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Mastitis is Caused by Microorganisms Entering the Udder Through the Teat Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Mastitis Can be Divided Into Two Categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contagious Organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passed From Cow to Cow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter Teat Canal From Cow’s Environment </li></ul></ul></ul>Summary
    38. 38. Summary <ul><li>There are Three Forms of Mastitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute Clinical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subclinical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mastitis Control Programs Can Reduce the Cost of Clinical and Subclinical Mastitis </li></ul><ul><li>Culturing and Quarantining Herd Additions are Important Biosecurity Measures </li></ul>
    39. 39. Question 1 <ul><li>Which form of mastitis is the most common? </li></ul>Subclinical
    40. 40. Question 2 <ul><li>Through which structure do mastitis-causing organisms enter the udder? </li></ul>The teat end
    41. 41. Question 3 <ul><li>What are the signs of clinical mastitis? </li></ul><ul><li>Acute clinical mastitis? </li></ul>Flakes, clots, watery milk, slight swelling or hardness of the udder and sudden, unexplained decrease in milk production. Affected quarter may be hot, very hard and tender, and produce watery milk. The cow may show a loss of appetite, reduced milk production, depression and high temperature.
    42. 42. Question 4 <ul><li>List the ways contagious mastitis organisms can be transmitted from cow to cow. </li></ul>Milker’s hands, milking equipment, towels
    43. 43. Question 5 <ul><li>What are the main sources of organisms that cause environmental mastitis? </li></ul>Not having clean, dry stalls or areas for cows to lounge
    44. 44. Question 6 <ul><li>Explain what SCC stands for, what it represents, and how it can be used in a mastitis control program. </li></ul>Somatic Cell Counts. Count of body cells - mostly white blood cells – which when present indicate an infection. Can be used to determine the level of infection or milk quality.
    45. 45. Question 7 <ul><li>What three words should you remember about the condition of a cow’s environment? </li></ul>Clean, Dry, Comfortable
    46. 46. Question 8 <ul><li>Fill in the blanks. Always milk _________, ___________, ____________ teats. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this important? </li></ul>clean dry stimulated It helps safeguard milk quality, decrease infection rate, and increase production
    47. 47. Question 9 <ul><li>Explain what happens during a “squawk” or liner slip. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important to prevent one? </li></ul>It causes teat end impacts and machine induced infections. There is an abrupt reduction in milking vacuum that causes air to move toward the teat end.
    48. 48. Question 10 <ul><li>If you were going to take only one precaution against spreading mastitis organisms, which would it be? </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>Post-dip teats The teat sphincter does not completely close for at least 20 minutes after milking, thus it is critical to protect teats from mastitis causing bacteria that might gain entry to the udder at this time.
    49. 49. Question 11 <ul><li>True or False. All teat dips must be proven effective before they are marketed? </li></ul>False
    50. 50. Question 12 <ul><li>Why is it important to dry treat ALL quarters of ALL cows? </li></ul>Helps eliminate existing infections and prevents new ones during the dry period.
    51. 51. Question 13 <ul><li>What purpose does segregation/culling of chronically infected cows serve? </li></ul>They are reservoirs of future infections.