Ai manual chapter 09


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Inseminacao Artificial em Bovinos ABS Global

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  • In this section we will take a look at how semen is collected, packaged, frozen, and what very important quality controls are used at ABS.
  • Let’s begin with quality control issues. When you inseminate a cow or heifer it is important that the semen be positively identified. Every bull gets assigned an A.I. organization number, letters denoting breed, and 4 or 5 numbers identifying that individual bull.
  • Every bull must pass extensive health tests, prior to being admitted to the stud, and more before he is put on semen collection. These health tests are administered regularly during the bulls stay at the stud to maintain ABS’ high level of healthy semen. These are then electronically scanned before the bull is collected.
  • The artificial vagina is extremely important to getting semen collected. It must be handled and prepared properly to obtain maximum volume and quality collections.
  • Once the bull has been stimulated, he is allowed to mount another animal, and as he thrusts; the collector will insert the penis into the A.V. and the bull ejaculates. Semen is collected in the tube at the base of the A.V.
  • Then the bull’s electronic ear tag is scanned and the information is stored in the scanner.
  • The scanner is then discharged into a computer and the data automatically generates bar coded labels for each ejaculate. Making this information available to the ABS network.
  • The label is attached to the collection tube. The tube is sent to the processing lab, through a pneumatic tube arriving within 2 minutes.
  • Extender is prepared, its primary function is to protect the semen during the freezing and thawing process. Glycerol is the key to this, inhibiting the crystallization of the semen.
  • When the semen gets to the lab the label is scanned again and the sample is visually inspected for debris and blood.
  • The sample is weighed to determine volume, and this value is automatically entered into the bull’s record in the database.
  • Antibiotics and extender are added to the collection.
  • The extended semen is then examined under a microscope to determine if there are any obvious abnormalities.
  • The collection is then placed in a spectrophotometer to determine sperm cell numbers.
  • The semen is then transferred to a cold room where each bull’s ejaculates for the day are pooled.
  • The computer uses the final volume of extended semen to determine how many straws will be packaged from the collection.
  • It is then packaged in ½ and ¼ milliliter straws. Each straw will have the ABS logo, the bull’s full registered name, registration number, stud code number and a collection code number printed on it.
  • Machines then fill the straws and ultrasonically seal them in the cold room
  • After a visual inspection of the straws they are put in the unique ABS straw racks.
  • The semen is then frozen and stored at -320 ° F until needed somewhere in the world.
  • ABS uses photomicroscopy on every collection to insure it meets ABS standards and a photo is on file as a base to check for future changes.
  • Which cells are alive? Only the ones leaving tracks. This is a positive measurement.
  • Ai manual chapter 09

    2. 2. Sire Identification <ul><li>Every Sire is Assigned a Bull Code Number </li></ul>29 <ul><ul><li>First Number = A.I. Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>29 = ABS (94 = ABS Canada) </li></ul></ul></ul>HO <ul><ul><li>Letters = Breed of Animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HO = Holstein; JE = Jersey; AN = Angus </li></ul></ul></ul>12345 <ul><ul><li>4 or 5 Digit Number = Specific Sire Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Code Specific to Animals in Each Breed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Before Collection <ul><li>Bulls Must Successfully Complete Health Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABS Maintains Highest Level of Herd Health Testing in the A.I. Industry </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Prepare Artificial Vagina (A.V.) <ul><li>Simulates a Cow’s Vagina </li></ul><ul><li>Ridged Outer Shell with a Textured Inner Lining </li></ul><ul><li>Interior Space Filled with 130°F Water </li></ul><ul><li>Lubricated Inner Lining </li></ul><ul><li>Small Plastic Tube Attached to the Collection Cone </li></ul><ul><li>Cover A.V. With a Warm Jacket </li></ul>
    5. 5. Semen Collection <ul><li>Bull is Sexually Prepared in a Collection Arena </li></ul><ul><li>When Prepared, Bull Mounts Teaser Animal </li></ul><ul><li>As Bull Thrusts, Penis Guided Into A.V. </li></ul><ul><li>Ejaculation Occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Semen Deposited in Collection Tube </li></ul>
    6. 6. After Collection <ul><li>Bull’s Electronic Ear Tag is Scanned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanner is Shaped Like a Gun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanner Stores Information Until Discharged Into the Computer </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. After Collection <ul><li>Bull Code is Sent to and Received by the Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal Automatically Creates Record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar-coded Label Prints for Each Ejaculate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection Information Then Available on the ABS Computer Network </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. After Collection <ul><li>Label Transferred to Collection Tube </li></ul><ul><li>Collection Sent to Labs Through Pneumatic Tube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrives in a Warmed Carrier Within 2 Minutes of Collection </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Prior to Processing Semen <ul><li>Extender Prepared </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a Protective Environment for the Sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepared Daily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of Egg Yolk, Sodium Citrate, Glycerol, Sterile Water, and Antibiotics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protect Sperm Cells During Cooling, Freezing and Thawing </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Processing Semen <ul><li>Upon Semen Arrival to the Lab </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bar-coded Label is Scanned by a Technician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opens Bull’s Record on Computer Workstation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample is Visually Inspected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look for Debris and Blood </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Processing Semen <ul><li>Sample Weighed to Determine Volume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value Automatically Entered Into the Bull’s Record in the Computer Database </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Processing Semen <ul><li>Antibiotics Added to Semen </li></ul><ul><li>Warmed Extender Added to Semen </li></ul>
    13. 13. Processing Semen <ul><li>Extended Semen Examined Under Microscope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observe Sperm Motility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine % Motile Sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discard Semen With: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low Motility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extra Cellular Debris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive Abnormal Sperm </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Processing Semen <ul><li>Place Semen Sample in Spectrophotometer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine Number of Sperm Cells in Ejaculate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measures Optical Density </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calculates Number of Sperm Cells per Milliliter </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Semen Processing <ul><li>Semen Transferred to Cold Room (40ºF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After 2 Hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each Bull’s Ejaculates are Pooled Together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Additional Extender is Added </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Processing Semen <ul><li>Final Volume of Extended Semen and Number of Straws to be Packaged is Determined by the Computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Bull’s Previous Semen Quality History and Fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each Collection Must Pass a Morphological Examination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures Normal and Abnormal Sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discard Samples With an Unacceptable Level of Abnormal Sperm </li></ul></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Packaging Semen <ul><li>Packaged in .5 and .25 Milliliter Straws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White Plastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red, White, and Blue Plug </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By Completion of Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straws Have Been Printed With </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ABS Logo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bull’s Full Registered Name ( Bold Short Name) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Country of Registration and Registration Number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stud Code Number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection Code Number </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Straw Package
    19. 19. Packaging Semen <ul><li>Machines Located in Cold Room Fill and Ultrasonically Seal Straws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Machines Print, Fill and Seal Straws </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Packaging Semen <ul><li>After Visual Inspection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straws are Inserted into Specially Designed and Patented ABS Racks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rack Tags are Color Coded by Breed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each Rack has Specific Bull Code Number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Straws Checked and Recorded Before Freezing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.25ml Straws (Mini Straws) are Packaged in Bulk Goblets </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Freezing Semen <ul><li>Exclusive Computer-Controlled Freeze Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent Freeze Rate to All Straws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures Highest Quality Semen in Each Straw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once Frozen, Semen is Stored at -320ºF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stored in Liquid Nitrogen Tanks </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Quality Control <ul><li>Before Distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Collection is Evaluated for Post-Thaw Motility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thawed Samples are Evaluated With an Unique Photographic Technique (Photomicroscopy) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technicians Count Tracks and Non-motile Sperm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Collections Not Meeting ABS Minimum Standards are Discarded </li></ul>
    23. 23. Photomicroscopy
    24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Semen is Collected From Bull </li></ul><ul><li>Semen Sample Sent to Lab </li></ul><ul><li>Extender Added to Semen </li></ul><ul><li>Semen Processed in Lab </li></ul><ul><li>Semen Packaged Into Straws </li></ul><ul><li>Freeze Straws of Semen </li></ul><ul><li>Semen Quality Checked </li></ul>
    25. 25. Question 1 <ul><li>What is the ABS stud code number? </li></ul>29 (USA) and 94 (Canada) ABS may also market semen from its distributors or other bull studs.
    26. 26. Question 2 <ul><li>Semen is weighed, evaluated under a microscope and sampled in a spectrophotometer. </li></ul><ul><li>What is evaluated in these procedures? </li></ul>Semen volume, sperm motility and sperm cell concentration are being evaluated in these procedures.
    27. 27. Question 3 <ul><li>What is the purpose of extender? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the amount of extender added to the collection determined? </li></ul>The extender helps protect the semen during cooling, freezing and thawing. A computer program determines the amount to be added based upon a bull’s previous semen quality history and fertility.
    28. 28. Question 4 <ul><li>Filled straws look pretty much alike. </li></ul><ul><li>How do you tell what bull’s semen you have? </li></ul>Each straw is printed with the bull’s full registered name (with the short name in bold ) and his stud code number.
    29. 29. Question 5 <ul><li>How many cows should be inseminated with the semen in one straw? </li></ul>One (1)