Cotton ppt


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Cotton ppt

  1. 1. 1. Introduction 2. History 3. Types 4. Cultivation 5. Organic Farming of Cotton 6. Harvesting 7. Processing of Cotton 8. Fiber Properties 9. Leading Producers of Cotton 10. Uses of Cotton 11. End
  2. 2. Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersion of the seeds. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the Old and New Worlds.
  3. 3. Cotton was used in the Old World at least 7,000 years ago (5th millennium BC). Evidence of cotton use has been found at the site of Mehrgarh, where early cotton threads have been preserved in copper beads. Cotton cultivation became more widespread during the Indus Valley Civilization, which covered parts of modern eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. The Indus cotton industry was well developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC. Cotton fabrics discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, Mexico have been dated to around 5800 BC, although it is difficult to know for certain due to fiber decay. Other sources date the domestication of cotton in Mexico to approximately 5000 to 3000 BC.
  4. 4. Egyptian Cotton Sea Island Cotton Pima Cotton Asiatic Cotton American Upland Cotton Canton Cotton French Terry Cotton Organic Cotton Bamboo Cotton and many more
  5. 5. Successful cultivation of cotton requires a long frost-free period, plenty of sunshine, and a moderate rainfall, usually from 600 to 1200 mm (24 to 48 inches). Soils usually need to be fairly heavy, although the level of nutrients does not need to be exceptional. In general, these conditions are met within the seasonally dry tropics and subtropics in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, . but a large proportion of the cotton grown today is cultivated in areas with less rainfall that obtain the water from irrigation. Cotton grows in any part of the world where the growing season is long and the climate temperate to hot with adequate rainfall or irrigation Cotton grows best in best climate
  6. 6. Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton, from plants not genetically modified, that is certified to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals, such as fertilizers or pesticides. Its production also promotes and enhances biodiversity and biological cycles. United States cotton plantations are required to enforce the National Organic Program (NOP). This institution determines the allowed practices for pest control, growing, fertilizing, and handling of organic crops. As of 2007, 265,517 bales of organic cotton were produced in 24 countries, and worldwide production was growing at a rate of more than 50% per year
  7. 7. Most cotton in the United States, Europe, and Australia is harvested mechanically, either by a cotton picker, a machine that removes the cotton from the boll without damaging the cotton plant, or by a cotton stripper, which strips the entire boll off the plant. Cotton strippers are used in regions where it is too windy to grow picker varieties of cotton, and usually after application of a chemical defoliant or the natural defoliation that occurs after a freeze. Cotton is a perennial crop in the tropics, and without defoliation or freezing, the plant will continue to grow. Cotton continues to be picked by hand in developing countries.
  8. 8. Processing of cotton Involves: Preparatory Processes Spinning Weaving Finishing Preparatory process Preparatory process involves ginning, Blending, Carding, Combing, Drawing Spinning Most spinning today is done using Break or Open-end spinning, this is a technique where the staples are blown by air into a rotating drum, where they attach themselves to the tail of formed yarn that is continually being drawn out of the chamber. Other methods of break spinning use needles and electrostatic forces. This method has replace the older methods of ring and mule spinning. It is also is easily adapted for artificial fibers.
  9. 9. Weaving The weaving process uses a loom. The lengthways threads are known as the warp, and the cross way threads are known as the weft. The warp which must be strong needs to be presented to loom on a warp beam. The weft passes across the loom in a shuttle, that carries the yarn on a prim. These perms are automatically changed by the loom. Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto perms before weaving can commence. Finishing The woven cotton fabric in its loom-state, not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential. Furthermore, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes.
  10. 10. Property Shape Luster Tenacity (strength) Dry Wet Resiliency Density Moisture absorption raw: conditioned saturation mercerized: conditioned saturation Dimensional stability Resistance to acids alkali organic solvents sunlight microorganisms insects Thermal reactions to heat to flame Evaluation Fairly uniform in width, 12–20 micrometers; length varies from 1 cm to 6 cm (½ to 2½ inches); typical length is 2.2 cm to 3.3 cm (⅞ to 1¼ inches). high 3.0–5.0 g/d 3.3–6.0 g/d low 1.54–1.56 g/cm³ 8.5% 15–25% 8.5–10.3% 15–27%+ good damage, weaken fibers resistant; no harmful effects high resistance to most Prolonged exposure weakens fibers. Mildew and rot-producing bacteria damage fibers. Silverfish damage fibers. Decomposes after prolonged exposure to temperatures of 150˚C or over.
  11. 11. The first industries set up in India us cotton industries. The first modern cotton industries was set by Cawassji Dawar in Mumbai in 1854 AD. The major centers of the cotton industries in India are following PlacesMumbai, Akola, Sholapur, Pune, Nagpur, Sata (Maharashtra); Ahmadabad, Surat, Baroda, Rajkot, Bhavnagar (Gujarat); Indore, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Bhopal (Madhya Prades Kanpur, Lucknow, Agra, Saharanpur, Modinagar, Varan; Rampur (Uttar Pradesh); Kolkata (W. Bengal); Chennai, Coimbator Madurai (Tamil Nadu); Ludhiana, Amritsar (Punjab); Bangalore (Kamataka); Panipat (Haryana) and Delhi.
  12. 12. The five leading exporters of cotton in 2011 are (1) the United States, (2) India, (3) Brazil, (4) Australia, and (5) Uzbekistan. The largest nonproducing importers are Korea, Taiwan, Russia, , and Japan. In India, the states of Maharashtra (26.63%), Gujarat (17.96%) and Andhra Pradesh (13.75%) and also Madhya Pradesh are the leading cotton producing states, these states have a predominantly tropical wet and dry climate. Top 10 Cotton Producing Countries(in million metric tons) Rank Country 2009 2010 2011 1 China 6,377,00 5,970,000 6,588,950 2 India 4,083,400 5,683,000 5,984,000 3 United States 2,653,520 3,941,700 3,412,550 4 Pakistan 2,111,400 1,869,000 2,312,000 5 Brazil 956,189 973,449 1,673,337 6 Uzbekistan 1,128,200 1,136,120 983,400 7 Turkey 638,250 816,705 954,600 8 Australia 329,000 386,800 843,572 9 Turkmenistan 220,100 330,000 330,000 10 Argentina 135,000 230,000 295,000 — World 19,848,921 22,714,154 24,941,738
  13. 13. Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth for highly absorbent bath towels and robes; denim for blue jeans; cambric, popularly used in the manufacture of blue work shirts (from which we get the term "blue-collar"); and corduroy, seersucker and cotton twill. Socks, and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets often are made from cotton. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting Fabric also can be made from recycled or recovered cotton that otherwise would be thrown away during the spinning, weaving, or cutting process. While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester. It can either be used in knitted or woven fabrics, as it can be blended with elastine to make a stretcher thread for knitted fabrics, and apparel such as stretch jeans.
  14. 14. BY: Ramkumar J Sai Sahithi C.H Agneya R N Spoorthi.U.Gujjar Arunima B Srihari Srinivas Kathiresan M Syed Mohammed Zaheer Lubna Rehman Nawaz Mohamed Hasham Varun C