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Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI
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Introduction to GNU/Linux, Free Software, Open Source Software, FSF, FSM, OSI

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  • 1. Introduction toGNU, Free Software, FSF, Copyleft, GNU/Linux System, Open Source, OSI Author: Varun Mahajan <varunmahajan06@gmail.com>
  • 2. Contents ● Operating System Definition ● Computer System Structure ● UNIX System Architecture (1969) ● Free Software ● The GNU Project (1984) ● Free Software Foundation (FSF) (1985) ● Making a Program Free Software: Copyleft ● Copyleft Implementation ● GNU GPL ● Related Terms ● Monolithic Kernel Vs Microkernel ● GNU Hurd (1990) ● Linux (1991) ● GNU/Linux System ● Open Source Initiative (OSI) (1998) ● Comparison of Free s/w and Open Source s/w
  • 3. Operating System Definition In general, there is no universally accepted definition of what is a part of the Operating System ● A simple viewpoint is that it includes everything a supplier ships when you order The Operating System ● A more common definition is that the Operating System is the one program running at all time (usually called the Kernel which performs the functions of controlling and allocating resources), with all else being System Programs and Application Programs Application/System The latter one is generally followed Programs Operating System (Kernel) H/W
  • 4. Computer System Structure
  • 5. UNIX System Architecture (1969) UNIX System: ● Development started in 1969 at AT&T ● Proprietary Software
  • 6. Free Software Free software is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, one should think of free as in free speech not as in free beer It means that the programs users have the four essential freedoms: ● The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0) ● The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this ● The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2) ● The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others (freedom 3). By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes. Access to the source code is a precondition for this Since “free” refers to freedom, not to price, there is no contradiction between selling copies and free software. In fact, the freedom to sell copies is crucial: collections of free software sold on CD-ROMs are important for the community, and selling them is an important way to raise funds for free software development
  • 7. The GNU Project (1984) ● The name “GNU” is a recursive acronym for “GNUs Not Unix!”; — it is pronounced g-noo, as one syllable with no vowel sound between the g and the n ● The GNU Project was launched in 1984 by Richard Stallman, to develop a complete Unix-like System called GNU which is free software. Unix-like Systems are built from a collection of libraries, applications and developer tools — plus a program to allocate resources and talk to the hardware, known as a kernel ● An Excerpt form Richard Stallmans Initial Announcement: (September 27, 1983 http://www.gnu.org/gnu/initial-announcement.html) “Starting this Thanksgiving I am going to write a complete Unix-compatible software system called GNU (for Gnus Not Unix), and give it away free to everyone who can use it. To begin with, GNU will be a kernel plus all the utilities needed to write and run C programs: editor, shell, C compiler, linker, assembler, and a few other things. After this we will add a text formatter, a YACC, an Empire game, a spreadsheet, and hundreds of other things. We hope to supply, eventually, everything useful that normally comes with a Unix system, and anything else useful, including on-line and hardcopy documentation.” Applications, libraries, Developer Tools Unix-like System Kernel
  • 8. Free Software Foundation (1985) The Free Software Movement (FSM) is a social and political movement with the goal of ensuring software users four basic freedoms (Definition of Free Software) The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a nonprofit founded by Richard Stallman in 1985 to support the Free Software Movement The core work: • Maintains historic articles covering Free Software Philosophy and maintains the Free Software Definition ● Sponsors the GNU Project ● The FSF holds copyright on a large proportion of the GNU system, and other free software ● The FSF publishes different licenses e.g. GNU GPL,etc ● The FSF campaigns for free software adoption and against proprietary software ● The FSF also provides important resources (s/w, h/w) to the community GNU/LinuxOffline
  • 9. Making a Program Free Software The simplest way: Put it in the public domain, uncopyrighted. This allows people to share the program and their improvements The Problem: It also allows uncooperative people to convert the program into proprietary software. They can make changes, many or few, and distribute the result as a proprietary product. People who receive the program in that modified form do not have the freedom that the original author gave them; the middleman has stripped it away The Intention: Anyone who redistributes the software, with or without changes, must pass along the freedom to further copy and change it
  • 10. Copyleft Copyleft is a general method for making a program (or other work) free and requiring all modified and extended versions of the program to be free as well To copyleft a program: ● State that it is copyrighted ● Add distribution terms, which are a legal instrument that gives everyone the rights to use, modify, and redistribute the programs code, or any program derived from it, but only if the distribution terms are unchanged. Thus, the code and the freedoms become legally inseparable Copyleft is a way of using of the copyright on the program. It doesnt mean abandoning the copyright; in fact, doing so would make copyleft impossible. The left in copyleft is not a reference to the verb to leave—only to the direction which is the inverse of right
  • 11. Copyleft Implementation Copyleft is a general concept, and you cant use a general concept directly; you can only use a specific implementation of the concept The FSF defines the following implementations: • GNU General Public License (GNU GPL): Used for most software in the GNU Project ● GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU LGPL): Applies to a few (but not all) GNU Libraries ● GNU Affero General Public License (GNU AGPL): Specifically designed to ensure cooperation with the community in the case of network server software ● GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL): Intended for use on a manual, textbook or other document to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it, with or without modifications, either commercially or noncommercially All these licenses are designed so that you can easily apply them to your own works, assuming you are the copyright holder. You dont have to modify the license to do this, just include a copy of the license in the work, and add notices in the source files that refer properly to the license
  • 12. GNU GPL The GNU General Public License is a free, Copyleft license for software and other kinds of works Highlights: ● Developers that use the GNU GPL protect users rights with two steps: ● Assert copyright on the software ● Offer the user this License giving him legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it ● If the user distributes the copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, he must pass on to the recipients the same freedoms that he received. He must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code. And he must show them these terms so they know their rights ● For the developers and authors protection, the GPL clearly explains that there is no warranty for this free software. For both users and authors sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to authors of previous versions ● Every program is threatened constantly by software patents. States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could make it effectively proprietary. To prevent this, the GPL assures that patents cannot be used to render the program non-free ● The GPL does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs. GPL for a library makes it available only for free programs
  • 13. Related Terms Copylefted Software: Copylefted software is free software whose distribution terms ensure that all copies of all versions carry more or less the same distribution terms ● There are many possible ways to write copyleft distribution terms, so in principle there can be many copyleft free software licenses. Two different copyleft licenses are usually incompatible (it is illegal to merge two codes with different copyleft licenses) ● However, in actual practice nearly all copylefted software uses the GNU General Public License ● It has to be Copyrighted Non-Copylefted Free Software: Non-copylefted free software comes from the author with permission to redistribute and modify, and also to add additional restrictions to it ● If a program is free but not copylefted, then some copies or modified versions may not be free at all ● A software company can compile the program, with or without modifications, and distribute the executable file as a proprietary software product ● It may or may not be Copyrighted
  • 14. Related Terms Public Domain Software: Public domain is a legal term and means, precisely, not copyrighted. So, the Public Domain Software is the software that is not copyrighted ● If the source code is in the public domain, that is a special case of non-copylefted free software, which means that some copies or modified versions may not be free at all ● In some cases, an executable program can be in the public domain but the source code is not available. This is not free software, because free software requires accessibility of source code GNU Software: GNU software is software that is released under the auspices of the GNU Project. If a program is GNU software, we also say that it is a GNU program or a GNU package ● Most GNU software is copylefted , but not all ● All GNU software must be free software
  • 15. Monolithic Kernel Vs Microkernel
  • 16. GNU Hurd (1990) By 1990 almost all of the important System/Application programs which were required for the GNU System had been written. The only important program that was missing was the Kernel The GNU Hurd is the GNU projects replacement for the Unix kernel (Development started in 1990) ● Microkernel Based Operating system ● It is a collection of servers that run on the Mach microkernel to implement file systems, network protocols, file access control, and other features that are implemented by the Unix kernel Project Mach was an operating systems research project of the Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science from 1985 to 1994 The Hurd still lacks some important features, so it is not widely used
  • 17. GNU System The GNU System is the Unix-like System, which is entirely free software, that has been developed in the GNU Project since 1984 • Operating System: GNU Hurd Kernel • System/Application Programs: GNU Software and some Non-GNU Software Other packages GNU Software which are not (binutils (ld, as, etc), bash, gcc, g++, GNU software (X glibc, gdb, gtk+, make, GNOME, Window System, EMACS, etc) TeX, etc) GNU Hurd kernel
  • 18. Linux (1991) In 1991 Linus Torvalds started a personal project to implement a new kernel called Linux for his Intel 80386 PC, which was released under GNU GPL (1992) ● Monolothic Kernel Soon it became very popular and filled the gap in the GNU System: The Kernel
  • 19. GNU/Linux System • Operating System: Linux (Kernel) • System/Application Programs: GNU Software and some Non-GNU Software Most of the users wrongly refer to this whole system as Linux (http://www.gnu.org/gnu/why-gnu-linux.html) Other packages GNU Software which are not (binutils (ld, as, etc), bash, gcc, g++, GNU software (X glibc, gdb, gtk+, make, GNOME, Window System, EMACS, etc) TeX, etc) Linux
  • 20. Open Source Initiative (1998) Open source: It is a development method for Software ● People can collaborate on software development without being burdened by the problems of Intellectual Property, Contracts negotiations while buying software, etc ● Sacrifice some of the Intellectual property rights for the sake of Co-operation Open Source Initiative (OSI): It is a non-profit corporation formed by Eric Raymond and Bruce Perens in 1998 and is dedicated to promoting Open Source Software It reviews and maintains a list of Open Source Licenses which comply with the Open Source Definition
  • 21. Open Source Definition Defined by Bruce Perens • Free Redistribution: The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale • Source Code: Must include source code • Derived Works: The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software ● Integrity of The Authors Source Code: The Authors can maintain their honor. For example, changes made by another programmer can be marked in his name so that they dont reflect on the author ● No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups ● No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor: The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor (business or school, etc) ● Distribution of License: The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed ● License Must Not Be Specific to a Product: The rights attached to the program must not depend on the programs being part of a particular software distribution ● License Must Not Restrict Other Software: The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software ● License Must Be Technology-Neutral
  • 22. Comparison of Free S/w and Open Source S/w Basic difference in the philosophy of Richard Stallman and Bruce Perens: ● Richard Stallman: All Software to be free ● Bruce Perens: Free and Non-Free Software should co-exist Free Software Movement and the Open Source movement
  • 23. References ● http://www.gnu.org/ ● http://www.fsf.org/ ● http://www.opensource.org/ ● Operating System Principles, 7th ed, Silberschatz, Galvin, Gagne ● The Design of the UNIX Operating System, Maurice J Bach ● Monolithic kernel vs. Microkernel, Benjamin Roch, TU Wien ● Documentary: Revolution OS
  • 24. END...

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