10motivation

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  • 10motivation

    1. 1. Motivation Chapter 11 William G. Huitt Last revised: May 2005
    2. 2. Summary • A human being is inherently – biological – conditioned by the environment – able to gather data about the world through the senses and organize that data – emotional – intelligent (adapt to, modify, and select environments) – able to create and use knowledge – able to form concepts, think rationally – able to use language – social
    3. 3. Defining Motivation • Internal state or condition – activates behavior – gives it direction • Desire or want – energizes – directs goal-oriented behavior
    4. 4. Defining Motivation • Influence of needs and desires – intensity – direction of behavior • Process that – initiates – directs – sustains behavior – to satisfy physiological or psychological needs or wants
    5. 5. Defining Motivation • Why is the concept of motivation necessary? – Achievement = Aptitude * Opportunity * Effort – Motivation explains activation, direction, and persistence of effort
    6. 6. • Extrinsic motivation – The desire to perform an act to meet external demands or requirements • Classical conditioning—associated stimuli • Operant conditioning—consequences • Social learning—models and imitation • Social cognition—influence of others on thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Defining Motivation
    7. 7. • Intrinsic motivation – The desire to perform an act because it is satisfying or pleasurable in and of itself – Satisfies internal need or desire • Biology • Cognition • Emotion • Volition • Spiritual • Moral Defining Motivation
    8. 8. Instinct Theories of Motivation • The notion that human behavior is motivated by certain innate patterns of action that are activated in response to stimuli • Not the same as genetic tendencies • Most psychologists today reject instinct theory – human behavior is too richly diverse – often too unpredictable
    9. 9. Drive-reduction Theory • A theory of motivation suggesting that a need creates an unpleasant state of arousal or tension called a drive, which impels the organism to engage in behavior that will satisfy the need and reduce the tension • Popularized by Clark Hull – Believed that all living organisms have certain biological needs that must be met if they are to survive
    10. 10. Drive-reduction Theory • Drive-reduction theory is derived largely from the biological concept of homeostasis • Homeostasis – The tendency of the body to maintain a balanced internal state with regard to oxygen level, body temperature, blood sugar, water balance, and so forth – Everything required for physical existence must be maintained in a state of equilibrium, or balance • When this state is disturbed, a drive is created to restore the balance • Cognitive dissonance derived from this theory
    11. 11. • In the Navajo religion and culture, there is an emphasis on how you relate to everything around you. Everything has to be measured, weighed, and harmonious. We call it nizhoni— walking in beauty. – American Indigenous Religions, Lori Cupp (Navajo) Drive-reduction Theory
    12. 12. Primary Drives • A state of tension or arousal arising from a biological need; one not based on learning – Oxygen – Thirst – Hunger – Sleep – Sex – Comfort
    13. 13. Primary Drives • Internal and external hunger cues – Hypothalamus • Of central importance in regulating eating behavior and thus affect the hunger drive – Other internal hunger and satiety signals • Some of the substances secreted by the gastrointestinal tract during digestion act as satiety signals • Changes in blood sugar level and the hormones that regulate it also contribute to sensations of hunger – External signals • Sensory cues, such as the taste, smell, and appearance of food, stimulate the appetite
    14. 14. Primary Drives • Eating disorders – Anorexia nervosa • An eating disorder characterized by an overwhelming, irrational fear of being fat, compulsive dieting to the point of self-starvation, and excessive weight loss – Bulimia nervosa • An eating disorder characterized by repeated and uncontrolled episodes of binge eating, usually followed by purging, which is self-induced vomiting and/or the use of large quantities of laxatives and diuretics
    15. 15. Arousal Theory • A theory suggesting that the aim of motivation is to maintain an optimal level of arousal • Arousal – A state of alertness and mental and physical activation – When arousal is too low, animals and humans seek to increase stimulation – When arousal is too high, animals and humans seek to decrease stimulation
    16. 16. • Yerkes-Dodson law – Performance on tasks is best when the arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task • higher arousal for simple tasks • moderate arousal for tasks of moderate difficulty • lower arousal for complex tasks – Performance suffers when arousal level is either too high or too low for the task Arousal Theory
    17. 17. • Abraham Maslow – Attempted to develop a theory of motivation that would synthesize multiple theories – Proposed two sets of needs • Deficiency needs • Growth needs – Growth needs develop after deficiency needs are met – Lowest unmet need will receive attention – Believed that these motivational processes were central to the human personality Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    18. 18. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    19. 19. Social Motives • Motives acquired through experience and interaction with others (McClelland, Murray) – Need for achievement (n Ach) • The need to accomplish something difficult and to perform at a high standard of excellence – Need for affiliation • The need to have harmonious relationships with other people and to be accepted by others – Need for power • Personal – want to direct others • Institutional – want to organize efforts of others to meet the needs of the institution
    20. 20. Need for Achievement • Characteristics of achievers – High n Ach • pursue goals that are challenging, yet attainable through hard work, ability, determination, and persistence • see their success as a result of their own talents, abilities, persistence, and hard work – Low n Ach • not willing to take chances when it comes to testing their own skills and abilities • when fail, usually give up quickly
    21. 21. • Parents can foster n Ach – give children responsibilities – teach them to think and act independently from the time they are very young – stress excellence, persistence, and independence – praise them sincerely for their accomplishments Need for Achievement
    22. 22. Expectancy Theory • Motivation to engage in a given activity is determined by: – Expectancy – a person’s belief that more effort will result in success – Instrumentality – the person’s belief that there is a connection between activity and goal – Valence – the degree to which a person values the results of success • Motivation = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valance
    23. 23. Work Motivation • The conditions and processes responsible for the arousal, direction, magnitude, and maintenance of effort one puts forth in one’s job • Two of the most effective ways to improve – reinforcement – goal setting
    24. 24. • Examples of reinforcement in the workplace include: – Recognition awards – Praise – Posting of individual performance – Time off – Better offices – More impressive titles – Promotions – Bonuses Work Motivation
    25. 25. • Goal setting – Have employees participate in the goal setting – Make goals specific, attractive, difficult, and attainable – Provide feedback on performance – Reward employees for attaining the goals Work Motivation

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