• Save
C Dot Pp Tfinal 14 09 09 Cbc
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

C Dot Pp Tfinal 14 09 09 Cbc

on

  • 2,529 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
2,529
Views on SlideShare
2,521
Embed Views
8

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

2 Embeds 8

http://www.slideshare.net 7
http://www.linkedin.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Rural India: 65% of population 150.000.000 farmers 25% of GDP (Europe .. 4%?) Pilot will start in June 2008 500-1000 farmers until March 2009 Objectives: Yield increase Cost reduction (Pestiside & Fertilizers) Farming efficiency Quality & Price increase

C Dot Pp Tfinal 14 09 09 Cbc C Dot Pp Tfinal 14 09 09 Cbc Presentation Transcript

  • 25 Years of Excellence in Telecom R&D
  •  
  •  
  • Dr. Surendra Pal Associate Director, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore Shri. Jayant Bhatnagar Director, C-DOT Dr. Rekha Jain Professor, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad Dr. Surendra Prasad Director, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi Dr. Abhay Karandikar Professor, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai Dr. Anurag Kumar Professor, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Shri. D.K. Agrawal Advisor (T), Telecom Commisssion, Minister of Communication & IT, Govt of India Distinguished Speakers Future Trends in Satellite Communication Projects on C-DOT’s Anvil Rural Telecom – The Next Wave in the Indian Telecom Market VDSL-The Future Access The Next Generation Wireless Network Sensor Networks Challenges & Opportunities in Indian Telecom & Summary of Proceedings
  • Satellite Communication - Future Trends Dr. Surendra Pal Associate Director ISRO Satellite Centre, BANGALORE - 560 017
  • The word ‘ Communication ’ comes from Latin word ‘ Communico’ - meaning ‘ share ’ . It is communication more than anything else which has been responsible for the shrinking of time and distance and with the development of space technology time and distance have lost their conventional meaning, permitting men and women all over the world to share their experiences, frustrations and successes. Present day the world has become a GLOBAL VILLAGE . Man is in a shrinking Globe and expanding Universe . Society is often described as essentially people in communication - Communication in simple terms is nothing but discriminating response to a stimulus. The " quickness of the response " is increasing in leaps and bounds day by day.
    • There is another word ` information ' which is also closely related to communications means " contents " of message. Claude Shannon defined " information " as " Reduction of Uncertainty ". Information is also described as " any difference that makes a difference ". Information is a notch on the spectrum with raw data on low end and knowledge / wisdom on the high end. It suggests that the raw data when processed becomes information. Information minus noise is intelligence or understanding. Intelligence plus experience is knowledge ; and knowledge when further processed, looked through scholastic eyes, gets philosophized and so becomes wisdom which is adored over ages. The present day society is often referred as information society .
  • In the past few decades, persons and institutions have been progressively unsettled by the rapid pace of social and technological changes brought about by Communications (telephony, TV etc.). In earlier times the world around us seemed more stable and major changes in values, institutions and technology evolved more slowly. It took centuries for the Middle Ages to become the Renaissance , yet many of us have experienced major technological revolution in one life time in the last century.
  • Many technological reversals have been seen like the telephone which should have been on the wired network has become wireless, while the TV which was wireless now works on cable. Many individual spheres of working have become almost universal, like education has come to the drawing room from school and colleges, sectors like banking, medicines, hospitals etc which were location specific are available on net. There is tremendous convergence and fusion of communications, computers and associated technology in the present era.
    • For Communication there are two buzz words
      • Communication
      • Information Technology
  • We are presently getting on the crest of the third wave which is INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION REVOLUTION more appropriately termed as ‘IT ’ -Information Technology, the first being agriculture & the second being ‘Industrial Revolution’. As we become increasingly networked, our worlds will grow smaller and bigger simultaneously.
    • The communication tools are
      • Conventional (Telegraph, Telephony, Radio / Wireless communication, TV, News Papers, Books, Means of transport)
      • Not so conventional – Emerged 1970 onwards (Space Communications, VSAT, Electronic Mail, Audio / Video Conferencing, Auto text service, PCS, WLL, ISDN etc)
      • Emerged in last 15 years (Mobile services, Card Phone service, Tele health, Tele Education, Tele Shopping, Interactive Video and Video On Demand, Multimedia system, SATNAV, Digital TV, DTH, Mobile Satellite Communication, Ultra Broad Band Services, e-Governance, e-Commerce, e-Banking, e-Library, etc.)
      • Most important – INTERNET AND WORLD WIDE WEB
    • New Trends
      • Major shift from Analog to Digital, Increase in value of S/W as opposed to H/W, Extensive use of Spread Spectrum, Use of Optical Technology (Switches, LL, Communication), etc.
    • All these need either terrestrial or satellite channels to serve the user. The present day scenario in near future may look like:
    A FUTURE COMMUNICATION SCENARIO Video Camera Printer PDA Desktop PC Cable TV Television DVD AUDIO SYSTEM Cellular Telephone Fax Pager Internet Cellular Internet TV Video on Demand Home Banking Internet Telephony Network Computing Video conferencing Smart Card Space World Wide Web Terrestrial Credit Card
    • Everyday we manage to bounce radio waves off “ Artificial repeater ” that we have put into space at around 36000 kms height over the Earth. It is no magic that all these “ Artificial Radio Repeaters ” termed as “ Communication Satellites ” are found at that altitude.
    • The situation changed considerably in eighties and the communications requirements became really nerve-racking. Imagine the transmission reception of signals to satellites from:
        • A ship pitching and rolling on the high seas
        • An aeroplane flying at a speed of >800 kms per hour
        • An orbiting space vehicle/satellite with speeds >7 to 8 kms per
        • second
        • An aeroplane or a ship in distress
        • A mountaineer/A trekker / A forest guard / An elephant /A tiger /
        • A bird / A turtle / A dolphin
        • A man always on move / A motor vehicle.
    • If using satellites to communicate is a great marvel, doing the same without stopping or even slowing down is almost miracle.
    SATELLITE COMMUNICATION
    • VARIOUS CONVENTIONAL SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SERVICES:
      • Telephony / TV Broadcasting / Data reception and distribution / Direct Television broadcasting / Disaster warning / Continuous weather monitoring / Spacecraft Vehicle Tracking and Commanding / Intersatellite links / Mail / Internet / Data mining
      • Position (GPS) and time determination / Moving motor vehicle tracking etc.
      • The commercial communication satellite services are rapidly becoming a large & global business increasing $20 billion in 1996 and $75 billion by year 2005. (Projections have come down to $$66.5 billion due to Iridium failure and overall slump in the market). For 2010 the projections are for $100 billion
  • Current and Trends in Worldwide Satellite Services- 2010 300 commercial satellite systems Near 7500 transponders VSAT - near 1.2 million BSS TV - 125 million users MSS - 1.75 million users BSS - (Sound) - near 15 million
  • Communication Trends - 2020
    • Broadband for All
    • Access Everywhere
    • Future is mainly wired
    • Fiber to the Home: It will become affordable
    • Convergence between wireless access, wireless mobile, wireless LAN.,
    • Satellite links and Fixed Radio for Access in remote and sparingly populated areas - using LEO, MEO and GEO systems
    • Satellite links for security networks
  • Before one goes ahead with communication satellites, it will be quite important & relevant to talk about latest arrival on the communication technology scene: the INTERNET & THE WEB. Internet the new incarnation of mass communication is becoming quite popular. Internet the parasite which has almost eaten away the host - the telecom channels, is influencing our every sphere of life.
  • Internet which we know today has come to Asia a couple of years back and in 2000 to India also will play an important role at least till 2015 AD. The internet provides a vast array of services and acts like a multimedia system, information resource and ways to perform work and engage in commerce. It has an estimated 600 million users which gets doubled every year. The safest prediction is that by 2015 the Internet, as we know it, will no longer exist. There will just be the Net a ubiquitous, broadband data dial-tone provided by a cable telephone, wireless or satellite operators.
      • How big according to The Economist, a conservative and perceptive publication not normally known for exaggeration, the impact is likely to be “ ahead of the telephone and television but behind the printing press and the motorcar”.
      • The point is that the Net is a phenomenon that cannot be ignored. It is an agent of change in all sectors of society.
  • The changes won't occur in isolation, but they will be going on simultaneously, resulting in unpredictable, unanticipated synergy. In turn, this will lead to truly profound changes in society & the present technological paradigm. To help all these & to spread the net at a faster pace even to inaccessible & remote places Satellite Communication plays a major role, besides the conventional terrestrial links, optical links etc., which cater to cities and larger population bases owning to the economics.
  • Having talked about INTERNET let us come back to space communications. The most popular one is going to be: MOBILE PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
      • The ground stations which are becoming smaller and smaller day by day will be of pocket size calculator. The size of the ground station & that of satellites have gone a tremendous change over years.
      • In the foreseeable future new equipments and techniques will be used in satellite technology which will extend and improve the possibilities of satellite communications beyond our present imaginations. Some of these we discuss today:
    • The size of Geo satellite will continue to increase. Incremental improvements are foreseen in intelligent bus design which takes care of the spacecraft control traffic control and particularly the thermal control to allow the use of prime power beyond 10 to 15 KWS.
    • Small GEOs for smaller capacity routes will also be used (one may seriously start thinking about I-2000 and even Met Sat bus for Indian conditions).
        • Efficient signal processors and switching equipment will enable signal processing to be performed onboard right down to operations similar to switching in exchanges which will provide better mesh connectivity. ATM switches onboard space crafts may be used. Onboard multiplexing of digital TV transmission may be done.
        • Networking technology for the seamless integration of high data rate communication satellites & terrestrial facilities.
        • Direct connections between satellites (Inter satellite links) will shorten the transmission routes. The ISLs could be in millimeter waves or even in optical domain.
      • The use of higher frequency bands (Ka band and V band) & frequency reuse by multiple beams will enlarge the available bandwidths and thus the transmission capacity. Future even space laser communication technique may be employed to increase the data rates to giga bits.
      • Miniaturization of electronics will enhance the launch capabilities & reduce the cost.
      • High speed two way INTERNET-through VSAT. This avoids the installation of broad band access through terrestrial network. It can provide upto 40 MBPS links.
        • The new breed of satellites will be agile, flexible, intelligent & powerful. They will have digital bandwidth. This makes the services they carry an easy fit in the present digital networks with a specific provider ground equipment. They will:
        • Switch & route high data rates instantaneously among thousands of users.
        • Continuously change the antenna beam patterns/eirp as traffic demands
        • Buffer and multiplex data
        • Null interference, providing a strong, clear signal & use of adaptic arrays & processing.
        • Cross link to other satellites (ISL: Optical or V-band)
        • Use of Soft radio
    • The future satellites will be :
      • Small Geo - co-located at a single point. Suitable for small transponder demands even suitable for DTH-Ka Band
      • Large Geo - Suitable for multiple established services/Ku & Ka Band.
      • Mini/micro/mono & pico satellites.
    • The satellite driven broadband system become more popular because it provides the last mile solution which is a great boon for developing countries.
      • Satellites have innate advantage that make them an attractive alternative or complement to terrestrial broadband circuits. First is speed they can be built, launched and put into service in as little as 12 to 24 months providing the last mile connection. It also provides bandwidth on demand. User pays for the time which he utilizes.
      • Although broad band satellites are considered to be poor cousins of OFC - No country requires more than what satellite cannot give. Europe requirement is 450 Mbits/s and US bound capacity is 3.5 Gbits/S.
      • Many times one feels that for the over capacity of the fibre one has to pay while for space based links you pay for the time you use.
  •  
  • 2010
    • In my opinion SPACE COMMUNICATION SCENARIO will be:
    • The future Telecommunication spacecraft will be developed from transmission in to Information Satellites ( INFOSAT ). They will be given many of the properties of terrestrial telephone exchanges and signal processing equipments and it will be possible to integrate them directly into future global networks.
    • They will thus permit immediate applications of many existing and future services. Because of their inherent built up flexibility, these satellites will be able to support and speed up the initial experimental phase of many new services before their trial on terrestrial networks. These type of satellites will enable new services to be tried out over a large area before being put in to the market and optimally adapted to suit the most appropriate transmission medium.
    • The satellite platform will have multiple reconfigurable antennas/transmitters with dynamic power sharing / Receivers in various frequency ranges / large reconfigurable switching matrices at baseband and at RF level / intersatellite links permitting signals to be exchanged between satellites according to changing requirements / complex and efficient analog / optical / digital signal processors / New modulation technique and multiple access techniques.
    • It will be sufficiently broadband systems & may have even optical space communication components.
    • The satellites besides their autonomous control and power generation equipment may have sensors to observe the earth’s atmosphere and pass the data to an appropriate station after processing. This will help to deal with the situation like Orissa Cyclone. Such a system will obviously have Geo synchronous spacecraft with some orbiting satellites to take care of North/South pole regions.
  •  
  • INDIAN SCENARIO
  • Journey from SITE to DTH INSAT-2E INSAT- 4C SITE INSAT-3B
  • INDIAN SCENARIO
    • Major role in broadcasting, business communication using, VSAT, communication for societal applications, last-mile connectivity in remote locations and islands.
    • Advanced Satellite bus and Ground Systems technologies are poised for large improvements in
    • performance and reliability at low cost.
    • Extensive R&D base in the country through the participation of industry and academic institutions.
    • Transform India into a vibrant satellite communication and navigation industrial base in the world and invite international participation.
    • GEOSATS IN ORBIT
    • INSAT-2E, 3B, 3C, 3A, 3E, 4A, 4B, 4CR
    • GSAT-2, 3
    • KALPANA-1
    INDIAN SCENARIO
  • Planned Geostationary Satellites
  • TRANSPONDER AVAILABILITY SCENARIO No DESCRIPTION Nos. 1 Transponder available by end of 10th FYP (S,C,X-C, Ku band) 199 2 Transponders phased out during 11th FYP 89 3 Transponder realization envisaged during 11th FYP 390 4 Transponders availability by end 11th FYP (1+3-2) 500 5 Requirement by end of 11th FYP 460 MISSION C X-C Ku MSS BSS INSAT 2E 12 5 - - - GSAT 2 4 - 4 1 - INSAT 3B - 12 6 - - INSAT 3C 24 6 - 1 2 GSAT 3 - 6 6 - -
    • Constellation of 7 satellites in GSO / GEO
    • Reliable Position, Navigation & Timing services over India & its neighbourhood
    IRNSS: Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (2009-12)
    • GAGAN: Technology Demonstrator Ground segment completed
    • IRNSS: Development of onboard subsystems, navigation software and user receivers in progress.
    SATELLITE NAVIGATION
    • GSO
    • 83 0
    • 111.5 0
    • GEO
    • 34 0
    • 132 0
    • 0
    • 55 0
    Improved positioning accuracies (from 30m to 6m) INRESs INMCC GPS GPS INRESs GEO INLUS User (Navigation Payload) GAGAN: GPS and Geo Augmented Navigation GAGAN Coverage Gagan Uplinking Facility
  • ISSUES
  • ISSUES
    • Privacy
    • Check on use for Terrorist and Anti Social Activities
    • Overall effect on the Environment and Biosphere
      • EMI/EMC
      • Health Hazards
      • Electronic Waste
      • Interoperability of all communication systems and compatibility of various services
      • IPR
    • Manufacturing of devices and participation in service by Indian industries in the Global communication paradigm.
  • CONFUSION CON VERGENCE and FUSION of various Communication Technologies Broad Band Satellite Links Video Conferencing DBS - 300 Channels Mobile Broadband Internet Life Time Movie Network OFC Cable TV E-mail Here  X   A  0 GEO,MEO, LEO OBP, ISL,Phased Array Adaptive Array GPS WAAS, LAAS SBAS
  • THANK YOU
  • Projects on the Anvil Jayant Bhatnagar
  • Objectives
    • Under take projects
      • In new technology areas to deliver cost effective products locally within the country
      • Of social and national importance
  • Focus Areas
    • Next Generation
    • Mobility
    • Broadband
    • Software based projects
    • National Importance
  • Next Generation
  • Next Generation
    • What is the next generation ?
      • Varying perceptions, different definitions
      • Multimedia, Convergence, Legacy integration, User defined services, Quality of Service ….
    • Is Internet the next generation ?
      • Not really
      • It‘s always one generation ahead !
  • Circuit vs. Packet
    • Debate is long over
    • Enter IP in telecom - along with its coterie of Internet technologies
    • No switching voice circuits though telephone exchanges
    • Routing multimedia sessions thorough soft-switches
  • How it is today Local Exchanges Level 4 TAXs Level 1 TAXs
  • How it will be tomorrow DSL / Cable Modem DSLAM/CMTS Fixed Line Network RNC MSC(Server) SGSN GGSN CN MGW BSC UMTS/GPRS Mobile Network Corporate Virtual Private Network WLAN IP Access Network Internet SGW HSS MS MGW MGC NGN C4SS SBC Application Servers C5SS CDMA 2000 Fixed Wireless Network
  • What C-DOT is doing about it
    • IP Multimedia Services (IMS) Implementation
    • Convergence
      • Class 5 for VoIP & Multimedia for IP subscribers
      • Media Servers
      • Session Border Controllers & Media Forwarders
      • Transition Gateways
      • Application servers
    • Legacy Integration
      • Softswitch modules or Class 4 VoIP trunking
      • Signaling Gateways for converting traditional ISUP,INAP,MAP,CAP etc. to SS7 over IP
      • Media Gateways for converting PSTN/GSM/CDMA media to VoIP streams both for trunks & subscribers
    • Connecting Past to the Future
      • Migrating 23 million lines to next generation starting with North East
  • Mobility
    • GSM carried in 400 million pockets
    • Several operators and growing
    • Each bringing its own ladder to climb the bandwagon
    • Perfecting Environmental Disaster
      • More towers than trees
      • Birds, Animals, Men, Women, Children ….
      • Power deprivation
      • Increasing carbon debit
      • Wasted earnings
  • How it is today Operator 1 BSC TRAU E1 E1 B T S E1 E1 E1 B T S B T S MSC SGSN OMC-R E1 E1 Operator 2 BSC TRAU E1 E1 B T S E1 E1 B T S MSC SGSN OMC-R E1 E1 Operator N BSC TRAU E1 E1 B T S E1 E1 E1 B T S B T S MSC SGSN OMC-R E1 E1
  • What this means No Infrastructure Sharing
  • How it will be tomorrow BSC TRAU B T S E1 E1 E1 B T S B T S E1 E1 E1 OMC-R IP FRU Operator 1 MSC SGSN Operator 2 MSC SGSN Operator N MSC SGSN IP E1 E1 E1 IP The Radio Access Network is Shared
  • What that means Only Passive Infrastructure Sharing Op 1 BTS Op 2 BTS Op 3 BTS Op 1,2,3 BTS Passive & Active Infrastructure Sharing Typical GSM Site Is 80% of Networking Cost
  • What is C-DOT doing about it
    • Designing a Shared GSM Radio Access Network (SG-RAN)
    • Implementation based on extensive use of DSPs and FPGAs
    • Built-in modularity to reduce cost for low capacity networks
    • Flexible configuration of signaling channels depending on traffic densities
    • Easy upgrades – feature addition, evolution to spectrum sharing etc can be implemented through simple software upgrades/ hardware additions
    • Suitable for rural, sub-urban environment as non-AC environment supported
    • Reduced power consumption as MCPA is tower mounted, efficient RF converter design
  • Broadband
  • How it is today
    • Fixed Line Broadband
      • Offering ADSL2+ : Largely a upgrade solution for existing copper
      • No further copper expansion
    • Wireless Broadband
      • Offering CDMA : Operators have their own definition
      • 3G : Limited offering. Limited subscribers ?
      • Wimax : Too much talking. Little delivery
      • WiFi : Proven fidelity. Local coverage
  • How it will be tomorrow
    • Urban
      • Business : Optical access, Metro Ethernet
      • Residential : Ethernet to the home
    • Rural
      • ADSL where legacy copper is available
      • Wireless for green field installations
  • What C-DOT is doing about it
    • Urban
      • Gigabit Ethernet over Passive Optical Network
        • Subscriber side ONT
        • Network side OLT
    • Rural
      • Combination of Wimax and WiFi for community broadband Access
      • Wimax for backhauling
      • Spectrum ??
  • Software Based Projects
  • Network Management
    • Local Exchange Management for different technology exchanges (CNMS)
    • Trunk Exchange Management for all levels of TAX (TAX NMS)
    • GSM Network Management for MSC, BSC, VLR, HLR components (GNMS)
  • National Importance Projects
  • National Importance Projects
    • ATM based defense applications
      • ATM switching systems
      • Custom Network Access Unit
    • Technology support for law enforcement and other security agencies
      • Monitoring
      • Pattern Analysis
    • Support for USOF projects
      • GIS based location identification, tower design, equipment definition
      • RF Planning, Coverage Analysis
  • Thank You
  • Rural Telecom Markets: The Next Wave in Indian Telecom Challenges and Opportunities Rekha Jain [email_address]
  • Top 20% Rural Households Rural Profile Farm Income Item % of Total Population 70 Income 56 Expenditure 64 Teledensity 15 Savings 33 Consumer goods 30-60 Profile % Land-owning farmers 39 Salary/ wage earners 31 Self-employed in non-agricultural activities. 18 1980 2007 2012 66 40 33 Item % Rural Households No Land 40 Marginal (< 2 h) 30 Medium (<10 h) 25 Large 5
  • Relative Size of Rural Markets
    • There are almost twice as many 'lower middle income' households in rural areas as in the urban areas.
    • At the highest income level there are 2.3 million urban households as against 1.6 million households in rural areas.
    • Middle and high-income households in rural India is expected to grow from 80 million to 111 million by 2007.
    • In urban India, the same is expected to grow from 46 million to 59 million. Thus, the absolute size of rural India is expected to be double that of urban India.
      • Changing fast
      • Large, Comparison with urban
      • Not homogenous mass ( Customized services )
      • Services and products may not be directly be adopted from urban markets
      • For many rural consumers, first experience of service may not be through physical infrastructure (banks, health, education)
    Emerging Profile Rural Markets
  • Extent of Financial Exclusion Source: bda: Overview of Mobile Banking and Convergence, FICCI Communications & Digital Economy Committee, September 2008.
    • Predominantly cash economy, a large informal sector, with many people employed casually.
    • An important proportion of overall economic activity.
  • Enhancing Services: Policy and Regulation
    • Business Correspondent model
    • No Frills Account
    • Financial Inclusion mandates and Fund (support IT)
    • NREGS
  • Rural Banking
    • Focus on opening “no Frill Accounts” (especially since banking correspondent model in January 2006)
      • From 0.5 million in March 2005, at least 33 million by March 2009, (many accounts non-functional).
      • Only 11% of 25.1 million such basic banking accounts, opened between April 2007 and May 2009, are operational.
    • Rural bank branches only 5.2% of the country’s 650,000 villages.
    • Access to credit: very limited
  • Mobile Internet Penetration in IndiaSources: GSM Association of India
  •  
  • Retrieving Data Stored Already
  • Motivation - Bridging the Gap CDMA Network Government Servers Weather Servers Bank Servers National Commodities Exchange Expert Advice from Agriculture Universities & Research Institutes Local Markets Soil Sensors Internet Village Knowledge Center
  • Process Description Data Consolidation Unit 2. Consolidate 3. Parse information & retrieve accurate advice 4. Prepare and Send SMS in Local Language Agriculture expert database 5. SMS to Farmer in Local Vernacular 1. Sensors Collect Soil Data
  • mKRISHI – Mobile Agriculture
      • Provide personalized advice to the farmers on fertilizers / pesticide based on the current parameters like location , crop image, prevailing environment condition in the native language..
    • Benefits
      • Accurate Advice based on facts and prevailing conditions.
      • Empowerment of farmers with current market information.
      • mKrishi knowledge base can be utilized by universities and expert to understand crop, micro and macro pattern in the Indian context.
  • Demand Management from Customer
    • Create Demand (for rural and urban poor) (Mobile as a driver of their development)
      • Lower cost handsets??
      • Platform for transactions: mobile payments/banking / Advisory
      • Awareness, education
      • Developing a Contextual Ecosystem
  • Innovation Ecosystem (Incubators, Seed and Angel Funding ) Rural Citizen Business / Information Ecosystem (what services, cost, intermediaries) R&D (Technical and Market) (Speech recognition, NFC)
  • Challenges for Rural Telecom Services
    • How to link the customers to the services
      • Technology as the enabler
      • But is that enough?
      • Development of an ecosystem
        • Technological innovations (speech recognition, low cost ATMs, tele health devices)
        • Entrepreneurship: Linking the solutions to target village consumer groups (Seed and angel funding, institutional support)
        • Private enterprises (village level entrepreneur), creating several services on a single platform: Mobile: PC (CSC)
        • Integrating services and payments
  • Regulatory Issues
    • Publicly funded research USOF support
    • Facilitating services (banking, proportionate regulation, NREGS)
    • Framework for regulation (Interoperability, security)
  • Thank You
  • VDSL: Access To Future Prof. Surendra Prasad IIT Delhi
  • Broadband
    • Broadband is a ‘broad bandwidth’ connection. It allows a large amount of data to travel through a medium at the same time.
    • Always on (no dial-up modems).
    • Broadband options:
      • Wireless
      • Digital Subscriber line (DSL)
    Multiple options: ADSL, HDSL, VDSL etc. Dedicated Bandwidth
      • Cable
    Uses Traditional Cable TV Systems Shared bandwidth
      • Power-line broadband
    Uses electric utility lines to transfer data Emerging technology, still in testing phase.
  • DSL
    • Copper wire was only supposed to be used for the voice data (<4 KHz), speed <56 kbps
    • To increase the data rate
        • Increase the band-width
        • Increase the transmit power
    • DSL Evolution
      • Basic Rate ISDN – voice band
      • HDSL -- 772 KHz
      • ADSL -- 1.1 MHz
      • ADSL2+ -- 2.2 MHz
      • VDSL2 -- 30 MHz  100+ Mbps rate
    • Typical Loop Lengths
      • more than 12 kft
      • 10-15 kft
      • 8-12 kft
      • 5-10 kft
      • 2-3 kft
  • Broadband is DSL !
    • DSL is largest fraction (over 70% of broadband)
      • And growing faster (even fiber connects are VDSL)
      • It costs a lot less
    • *Graphs – courtesy Proff Cioffi, Stanford University.
    360M in 2012 Many are FTTB With VDSL to customer
  • Broadband DSL Speeds and Applications 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Mbps 1x HDTV 2 x HDTV 1 x SDTV Internet, VoIP, Gaming 2 x SDTV 1 x SDTV 3 x HDTV New Applications 35 40 100+ time -> *courtesy Proff Cioffi, Stanford University. ADSL1, ADSL2 VDSL2 G.vector ADSL2+ bonded ADSL
  • Technical Challenges in DSL
    • Changing environment
      • with customer adds and drops
      • with daily appliance usage patterns
      • with construction in the community
    • Interference and noise
      • interference from in-home sources
      • interference from outside sources
      • interference from other DSL lines (crosstalk)
      • wiring problems (in-home and outside)
  • DMT DSL
    • Data is transmitted using “tones” by dividing the given frequency range into equally spaced bins.
    • These tones are orthogonal in nature.
    • The binary information sequence is then “modulated” in all the tones
    • This technique is used as OFDM in wireless too.
    • Typically 4000 different tones are employed
  • DSM Overview -1
    • Dynamic Spectrum Management (DSM) aims at increasing the capacity of DSL systems by reducing the impact of “Self Cross Talks” and “alien” Cross-Talks by field driven Spectrum Management.
      • Self-Crosstalk -- Interference arising due to users in the same binder.
      • Alien Crosstalk – Interference due to non-bundled users.
    • DSM runs the mechanisms to reduce the impact of self cross talks in the field on the DSP, possibly during show time.
      • Show time ensures the user is not impacted due to changing environment.
  • DSM – Overview -2
    • DSM-x-- There are 3 levels 1, 2, 3 of DSM that reflect an increasing access to field and real time information about the neighboring self disturbers.
    • From DSM-1 to DSM-3 both mechanisms and protocols evolve from SISO to MIMO schemes
      • DSM 1 is SISO (Single Input Single Output)
      • DSM 2 and DSM 3 are MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple output)
  • DSM – 1
    • Also called SISO Crosstalk avoidance
    • The spectrum of the DSL user can be shaped based on the information of the noise in different channels.
    • The PSD for individuals users shaped.
      • Different tones operated with different power
    • Water filling is used.
      • Power allocation based on different noise conditions on tones.
    • Advantages : Stable lines, reduced training lengths.
  • Water Filling Illustration
  • DSM-2
    • MIMO Crosstalk Avoidance
    • Spectral co-operation among different users.
    • PSD Optimization: Power distribution across the tones for all the users so that disturbance is minimized.
    • Optimum Spectrum Balancing algorithm, Iterative Water Filling (IWF) etc used
    • Advantages : Power control, green DSL
  • DSM - 3
    • MIMO Self-Far End Cross Talk Cancellation and alien Cross Talk Cancellation – ensures Data Rate > 100 Mbps.
    • Vectoring ( Co-operation at the CO) used.
      • IN Downstream, the transmitted symbols to all the CPEs are known to CO.
      • Precoding (self-FEXT precompensation) can be done
      • In the Upstream, the received symbols are known at the CPE.
      • Hence, Cancellation can be done.
    • Advantages : Low power, higher rates but higher silicon cost.
  • DSM Hierarchy SISO Mechanisms MIMO SISO Messaging Contents MIMO SISO Capacity DSP centric MIMO Capacity Network Centric DSP Centric MIMO Processing Platform Centric DSP Centric DSM-1 DSM-2 DSM-3 SISO SNR, PSD Regional Relevant MIMO SNR, PSD Field Relevant MIMO TX & RX signals at CO Real Time Relevant SISO Cross Talk avoidance <50 Mbps MIMO Cross Talks Avoidance 50-100 Mbps MIMO Self FEXT Cancellation 100 Mbps +
  • DSM 3 US System Overview FEXT Crosstalk occurs due to the electromagnetic interference between surrounding copper wires Crosstalk is the primary factor limiting the bit rate and loop reach achievable by VDSL Technical term : Far End Cross Talk (FEXT) DS has a similar structure CO CPE US Modems in your house
  • Performance loss due to FEXT * *ODMC FEXT Cancellation method- Conexant Systems inc. AWG 26 Upstream Rate vs. Reach (4 and 5 band) 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 loop length (km) Rate (Mbps) Rate vs. Reach for VDSL2 Plan 998 upstream (M1 PSD) for 4 and 5 band service Average Rate vs. Reach with and without FEXT (49 users) AWGN (-140dBm/Hz) AWGN + 48 disturbers (no mitigation)
  • DSM 3 Research Issues.
    • How to cancel cross-talk?
      • Will involve the DSM3 or vectoring.
    • How to remove alien noise? –
      • Spatial Correlation reduction among co-operating users.
    • How to allocate power across different tones, also called Optimal Spectrum Balancing
      • DSM level 2 problem
    • Key parameters:
      • To get the best performance ( Data Rate)
      • Minimize the computational complexity
      • Involves efficient receiver and transmitter design
  • DSM 3 Research Focus
    • Full FEXT Cancellation
      • Expectation Maximization based Algorithms (SAGE)
      • Off Diagonal MIMO Precoding/Cancellation (ODMC /ODMP)
    • Partial Cancellation
      • Optimal Choice of what to Cancel and what not to!
    • Alien Noise Cancellation
      • Co-operative MIMO for alien noise cancellation
    • Efficient Crosstalk channel estimation
      • SAGE based, Markov Model based.
    • In addition:
    Main focus is on to keep the complexity of implementation as low as we can
  • Full FEXT Cancellation
    • We employ EM based technique.
    • Basic system model for user no. 1
    • Main Idea :
    • Iterative estimation procedure is employed
    • Rapid convergence
    Estimate FEXT noise and subtract it
  • Partial Cancellation
    • Full Cancellation is desirable
    • But complexity requirements are enormous
      • 4000 tones, 100 Users  billions of flops !!!
    • Main Idea:
    • Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim
    • Constraint: Total complexity is constant
    • Various resource allocation strategies possible
    Cancel only dominant cross talkers, enjoy maximum gain !
  • Conclusion
    • Future of VDSL lies in DSM
      • Key development in the area of the VDSL
      • Involves co-operation among users – called Vectoring.
    • Involves lots of interesting signal processing challenges
    • DSM enables higher speed, needs lower power than the current DSL standards
    • Major telecom growth vehicle, offers broadband, IPTV, HDTV etc
  • THANK YOU
  • Next Generation Wireless Networks Abhay Karandikar Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay Mumbai 400076- India (karandi@ee.iitb.ac.in)
  • Outline
    • Towards 4G
    • Technologies for 4G
    • Research Issues in 4G
    • QoS and MAC Layer Scheduling
    • Cross Layer Design
  • Evolution of Cellular System 3GPP2 3GPP
  • Drivers for Broadband Plethora of services causing Internet traffic to grow 50% every year Peer-to-Peer Audio/Video Real Time Games Social Communities Open Source       Phone Banking       Mobile Banking Mobile Client            Search VoIP e-news e-mail
  • Wireless Broadband GSM / EDGE HSDPA HSPA ADSL ADSL2+ LTE / EVDO-Rev C (UMB) IMT-A VDSL GDON Ethernet WiMAX Fixed Mobile 10x Kbps 1x Mbps 100x Mbps Data Rate
  • IMT-Advanced = 4G = Broadband Wireless
    • Peak Spectral Efficiency
      • 15 bps/Hz - DL
      • 6.75 bps/Hz UL
    • Operating Bandwidth
      • 5 to 100 MHz
    • Cell Edge Spectral Efficiency
      • 0.06 bps/Hz - DL
      • 0.03 bps/Hz - UL
    • Mobility (bps/Hz at Km/hr)
      • 0.55 at 120 Km/hr
      • 0.25 at 350 Km/hr
    • Latency
      • Control plane < 100 ms
      • Data plane < 10 ms
    • VoIP Capacity
      • 40 active users / MHz / sector
    • Spectrum (IMT Bands)
      • 450 – 3600 MHz bands
  • Timelines for IMT-A
  • Outline
    • Towards 4G
    • Technologies for 4G
    • Research Issues in 4G
    • QoS and MAC Layer Scheduling
    • Cross Layer Design
  • Technology Components for 4G - Physical Layer
    • OFDMA
    • Multi-Antenna (MIMO)
    • Link Adaptation (adaptive modulation and coding)
    Beamforming Diversity BS BS Time 2 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 Frequency 2 3
  • Technology Components for 4G - Physical Layer
    • Spectrum flexibility and Carrier aggregation
    • Relaying
    • Coordinated Multipoint transmission
      • Geographically distributed antennae coordinate
    Aggregated carriers = 40 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz access link relay link access link BS RS
  • Technology Components for 4G - MAC Layer
    • Fractional Frequency Reuse
    • Enhanced Quality of Service support
      • End to End delay optimization
    • Self organization and Self optimization
      • Plug and Play form of operation
    • Peer to Peer and Network Coding
      • Originally proposed to increase the information flow by packet combining at intermediate nodes
  • 4G Candidates
    • Two candidates
      • 3GPP LTE-Advanced
      • IEEE 802.16m (Mobile WiMAX)
    • Both are OFDMA based
    • Both have TDD and FDD support
      • WiMAX TDD is mature while LTE FDD is mature
    • We will focus on some features of evolving 802.16m
  • Key Features of IEEE 802.16m Mobile WiMAX
    • High flexibility through support of both TDD & FDD
    • Support of Multi Carrier Operation
    • All IP Core network architecture
    • Support for Advanced Relaying
    • Multicast and Broadcast services
    • Enhanced QoS features
  • Outline
    • Towards 4G
    • Technologies for 4G
    • Research Issues in 4G
    • QoS and MAC Layer Scheduling
    • Cross Layer Design
  • Key Research Issues in WiMAX / 4G
    • High spectral efficiency at Cell Edge
      • Interference coordination and cancellation
      • Adaptive fractional frequency reuse
      • Network MIMO
      • Intelligent scheduling
    • Multi hop Cellular Communication
      • Relay for delay sensitive application
      • Network Coding and Cooperative Communication
    • Self organization
      • Multidimensional / multivariable problem
    • Energy Efficiency
        • QoS
  • Outline
    • Towards 4G
    • Technologies for 4G
    • Research Issues in 4G
    • QoS and MAC Layer Scheduling
    • Cross Layer Design
  • WiMAX (IEEE 802.16m) QoS Classes TDM , T1/E1 Streaming Video IPTV, VoIP Email FTP Web Browsing High Speed FTP VoIP with silence suppression Type Service Flow Parameters UGS
    • Max. Sustainable traffic rate
    • Max. latency
    • Tolerated jitter
    • Request/transmission policy
    rt-PS
    • Min. reserved traffic rate
    • Max. sustainable traffic rate
    • Max. latency
    • Request/transmission policy
    nrt-PS
    • Min. reserved traffic rate
    • Max. sustainable traffic rate
    • Priority
    • Request/transmission policy
    BE
    • Max. sustainable traffic rate
    • Priority
    • Request/transmission policy
    ert-PS
    • Low Delay Tolerance & Variable Bandwidth Guarantee
  • Wireless Uplink Scheduling BS computes non-conflicting schedule
  • Adaptive Granting and Polling Service
    • Allows re-negotiation of traffic and QoS parameters and change of Grant size and Polling interval
    • Adaptation methods
      • Implicit
      • Explicit (Trigger by explicit signaling
    • We recently made contributions to 802.16m standard for Bandwidth Reservation protocol (Contribution accepted into AWD in July 2009- IEEE 802.16m-09/1321r4)
  • Persistent Resource Allocation
    • BS transmits initial assignment message valid in a periodic sequence of future frames
    • Reduces Overhead
    • Two Issues
      • Error Handling
        • Lost assignment message impacts more than single frame
      • Resource Holes
  • Outline
    • Towards 4G
    • Technologies for 4G
    • Research Issues in 4G
    • QoS and MAC Layer Scheduling
    • Cross Layer Design
  • Cross Layer Design
    • Wireless channel characterized by …
      • Signal strength variation (fading) over time, frequency, space
      • Interference
      • Limited battery life at hosts
    • Physical layer no longer viewable as fixed rate bit pipe
    • Resource allocation must account for channel quality
      • Adaptive MAC
      • Adaptive PHY – Modulation and Coding
    Significant performance gains in wireless networks by Cross-Layer Design
  • Cross Layer Scheduling Cross Layer Scheduling in multi user systems presents a new paradigm that takes advantage of fading instead of combating fading
  • SNR Fluctuations in a Multiuser System SNR Time User 2 User 1 User 3
  • Multiuser Diversity: A New Form of Diversity
    • Channel fades independently for each user so …
      • Different users experience different channel gains
    • High probability that some user will have a strong channel
    • BS schedules the user with the strongest (best) channel
    • Hence … “Opportunistic Scheduling”
    • Transmitting in favorable channel condition also minimizes power but at the expense of delay
    • Scheduling- Power is minimized subject to delay constraint
  • Energy Efficient Scheduling
    • Single Receiver (Base Station) and multiple transmitters
    • Base station is the centralized scheduler
  • Energy Efficient Scheduling
    • Queue transition, average queue length, average power for user i
    • Problem: Minimize the power consumption of each user subject to delay constraint of each user
    • Multi-objective constrained optimization problem
  • Uplink Solution
    • Visualize a link between user and base station as a Point-to-Point scenario
    • Each user
      • Determines its transmission rate as if it was the only user
      • Informs this rate to the base station
    • The base station schedules the user with the highest rate
    • Queue transitions for a user who is scheduled and not for others
    • Power and queue cost are appropriately updated
  • Uplink Solution – Auction Interpretation
    • The base station auctions each time slot
    • The user quoting the highest rate wins the bid
    • User quote rates that are just sufficient to satisfy their delay constraints
    • Quoting unnecessarily high rates not favorable since power minimization is the objective
    • It can be proved that the queue lengths converge to cooperative equilibrium and delay constraints are satisfied
    • Nitin Salodkar, Abhay Karandikar, Vivek Borkar, “A Stable On-line algorithm for Energy Efficient Scheduling” to appear in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
  • Conclusions- Way Forward
    • 4G Standards are evolving
    • Lot of opportunities to contribute in International standards
    • Focus- more spectral efficiency using both physical layer and MAC layer mechanisms
    • Emerging areas
      • Intelligent scheduling for cooperative communications
      • Peer to Peer applications and network coding
      • Distributed antenna system
      • QoS Mechanics for Delay Sensitive and Delay optimization
  • THANK YOU
  • Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks: Pervasive Systems for Measurement & Inference
    • Anurag Kumar
    • Department of Electrical Communication Engineering
    • Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
  • Outline of Talk 1. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2. The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3. The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4. Potential Applications of WSNs 5. WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6. WSNs: The Outlook
  • Wireless Networks: A Taxonomy
  • Outline of Talk 1.Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2. The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3 . The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4.Potential Applications of WSNs 5.WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6.WSNs: The Outlook
  • Wireless Networks of Multifunction Smart Sensors (WSNs)
    • A smart sensor node is popularly called a mote
    • Sensing: temperature, chemicals, light, infrared, biosensors, strain, sound, vibration (often using MEMS technology)
    • Processing: e.g., 16-bit, 8 Mhz, 48KB flash, 10 KB RAM
      • with a simple OS
    • Digital radio: e.g., ISM band; a few Kbps
    • Battery: e.g., 100mAh (“button” batteries) to 2000mAh (2 AA batteries)
  • Getting a Multi-Year Lifetime
    • Today’s devices: active : 5–10mA; sleep : .001mA
      • 1000mAh battery; multiyear life time ) 1% active.
      • Devices need to alternate through sleep-wake cycles
    • Future devices: active : 0.1mA to 1mA; sleep : .001mA
    • Energy scavenging
      • Nodes can draw power from their environment,
      • Using appropriate devices or mechanisms
      • e.g., from ambient light or vibrations
    • Need software and algorithms that further conserve energy
  • Outline of Talk 1.Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2.The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3.The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4.Potential Applications of WSNs 5.WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6.WSNs: The Outlook
  • The Structure and Operation of a WSN Node Deployment Fusion centre
    • Smart sensor nodes are distributed over the observation field
    • Placement at specific locations, or random deployment (if the area is inaccessible)
    • Deployment objectives
      • Sensor coverage, and radio connectivity
      • Redudancy, and time sharing
  • The Structure and Operation of a WSN Self Organisation Fusion centre
    • Nodes discover each other; e.g., “Hello” protocol
      • Can learn about the “quality” of communication with neighbours
    • Self-organise to form a multihop wireless network
    • Nodes also need to learn their coordinates
    • Topology formation objectives
      • Energy efficiency
      • Throughput and delay
  • Why Should We Rely on Self-Organisation?
    • In some applications there will be 1000s of nodes
      • May not be possible to (or may prefer not to) make a planned layout
    • Neighbour discovery
      • In fact, the notion of “neighbour” is defined only in situ
    • Self-Localisation
      • GPS might not be available, or might not be practical in the situation
      • Impractical to program each node with its location
      • Particularly if there is some randomness in the node locations
      • Also true even if nodes are placed in a grid
    • Packet forwarding will need to be adaptive
      • Due to node sleep-wake cycling, energy balancing, node failure
    • Self-organisation may have to be repeated periodically
      • There will be node failures over time
      • Even the environment might change over time
      • There could be jamming and damage
  • The Structure and Operation of a WSN A Distributed Measurement System
    • Each sensor makes measurements in its environment e.g., Acoustics, vibration, temperature, infra-red
    Fusion centre measurements at some sampling rate
  • The Structure and Operation of a WSN Distributed Signal Processing, and Inference Fusion centre flow of partial computations Computation algorithms in nodes measurements at some sampling rate
    • Nodes contain pieces of a distributed signal processing algorithm
    • Computations are performed on the measurements
    • Partial results flow over the links
    • Downstream nodes combine their inputs and forward the results
    • The MAC schedules the transmissions in the network
    • Global objective rather than point-to-point communication
      • These need not be “TCP/IP networks”
  • Stages in the Formation of a WSN
  • Outline of Talk 1. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2. The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3. The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4. Potential Applications of WSNs 5. WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6. WSNs: The Outlook
  • Potential Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks The Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, equipped with wireless sensor nodes
    • Environment monitoring
      • Monitoring moisture and nutrients in soil
      • Detecting and tracking fires in large spaces
      • Monitoring and tracking hazardous chemical spills
    • Self-monitoring structures
      • Monitoring the safety of buildings after an earthquake
      • Monitoring aging in large structures such as large machines, bridges, airplanes and ships
    • Industrial applications
      • Chemical factories, refineries, power distribution yards
        • Large amount of wiring for sensors and actuators
      • Energy and environment management networks in large buildings
      • Can these networks be replaced by wireless sensor (and actuator) networks?
        • Emerging ISA 100 standard (IEEE 802.15.4 PHY, TDMA MAC)
  • (…Contd.) Potential Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks
    • Ecological monitoring, and wild life management
      • Tracking animals in conservation areas
        • Monitoring their numbers, whereabouts, health etc.
      • Monitoring habitats; endangered species
    • Care of the sick and ageing
      • Monitoring mobile patients in hospitals and homes
      • Body area networks, linked to wireless LANs
    A snapper turtle, equipped with a wireless sensor node Wearable motes (to which various health sensor can be attached)
  • (…contd.) Potential Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks
    • Locating people in large buildings or public transportation systems
      • Injured in disasters, or in accidents involving large vehicles
    • Defence applications
      • Detecting intruders in border areas (smart fields, electronic “trip wires”)
        • Detection, location and tracking
      • Biosensors for soldiers
      • Battlefield resource tracking and management
  • Outline of Talk 1.Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2.The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3.The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4.Potential Applications of WSNs 5. WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6.WSNs: The Outlook
  • WSN Research in India: Some Projects
    • Indian Institute of Science
      • Intrusion detection into secure spaces: DRDO
      • Industrial sensing: Dept. of IT
      • Agricultural monitoring: Indo-Swiss Program
    • Other institutions
      • Landslide detection: IITB - Microsoft Research
      • Monitoring vineyards: IITB
      • Road condition monitoring: Microsoft Research
      • Forest monitoring: IITD
  • WSN Research in India: Some Projects
    • Multidisciplinary, multifaculty R&D project
    • ECE, CEDT, CSA and Mech. Engg. departments
    • The project objectives include:
      • Sensors
      • Low power electronics
      • Networking and signal processing
      • algorithms
      • System software
      • Security
  • WSNs for Industrial Sensing: IISc-CDAC-Dept. of IT
    • KPTCL, Nelamangala, 440KV switchyard
    • Several 10s of sensors, distributed over an area 400m × 400m
    • A large amount of wiring to be installed and maintained
    • Interest in replacing with a wireless mesh network
  • WSNs for Agricultural Monitoring: IISc-EPFL, IITB-MSRI
    • Projects have been executed at IISc and IIT Bombay
    • Photos show an IIT Bombay demo deployment at the Sula Vineyards in Maharashtra
  • Outline of Talk 1.Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2.The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3.The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4.Potential Applications of WSNs 5.WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6. WSNs: The Outlook
  • WSNs: The Outlook
    • Wireless sensor networks can be used as embedded smart dense instrumentation
      • For pervasive measurement and inference in large systems
      • For providing rich data for scientific research
    • Emerging standards:
      • IEEE 802.15.4, Zigbee, ISA 100
    • There are major challenges
      • Sensors: miniature, low power, and highly sensitive
      • Electronics: low power (for long battery life)
      • Algorithms and systems software
        • Highly cross-disciplinary research effort
        • Signal processing, communications, networking, optimisation, control, distributed algorithms, energy efficient software platforms
  • WSNs: The Outlook a Image from Culler and Estrin (2007)
    • A vision for the future Internet: The Internet of Things
      • Sensor-Web or Internetworked Instrumentation
        • A world instrumented with WSNs internetworked with the Internet
      • Smart power grids; smart buildings; etc.
    • Gordon Bell’s Law: a new computer class emerges every 10 years
      • Based on Moore’s law: the number of transistors on a chip doubles every 24 months
    • Will WSNs provide the next new paradigm for computing a ?
  • THANK YOU
  • Challenges and Opportunities in Telecommunications
    • D.K. Agrawal
    • Advisor Technology Department of Telecommunication
  • The Changing Paradigm in Telecom
    • Telecommunications sector growing at very fast pace in the country even beyond targets & expectations
    • Both urban and Rural tele-densities have shown tremendous growth
    • Smaller towns & remote areas have started getting high attention
    • Apart from Infrastructure; Services, Applications and Content have become the thrust areas
    • Major Shift in terms of network centric to service centric provisioning with QoS
    • Converged delivery platforms are emerging to delver data, voice, video and software services to customers
    • Delivery of services are expected to become global, seamless, always available & affordable
    • Multiple stake holders are interested in level playing field in the era of growing competition
    • New business models and Ecosystems are emerging -resulting in partnerships
    • Lowest Tariff in the world
  • Challenges: Service Providers & Users
    • Fast changing technology: establishing future proof infrastructure with built in migration and upgradeable modularity
    • Containing cost of infrastructure while delivering complex services with required QoS
    • Rollout issues in rural areas due to difficult terrains, power shortage and site acquisition
    • Incorporating high levels of network and information security
    • Users confusions: Multiplicity of services, devices, features & tariff package/plans
    • Abnormally low ARPU
    • Solutions and Opportunities :
    • Sharing Infrastructure both active & passive
    • Usage of spectrum efficient solutions
    • Concentrating on core areas
    • Outsourcing services like operations and maintenance, content development, applications etc.
    • Development of user friendly integrated devices and SLAs
    • Use of green technology
  • Challenges: Regulations & Policies
    • Spectrum Scarcity
    • Ensuring level playing field between incumbent and new operator
    • Promote fair competition
    • Promoting efficiency, technological improvement
    • Monitoring QOS
      • Protecting the customer interest
      • Interoperable standards
    • Mandating security requirement
    • Solutions and Opportunities :
    • Separate Licensor, Regulator and Adjudicator
    • Government already in the process of retrieving spectrum from other agencies.
    • Balancing between spectrum provisioning and its efficient use
    • Utilisation of USO fund for non-remunerative projects
    • Formulating Policies for-
      • Introduction of new Technologies
      • Facilitating Security agencies
  • Challenges: Indigenous Research & Development
    • Foreign vendor dumping telecom equipments in Indian markets
    • Need for hardware component and device industry
    • Need for large manufacturing base
    • Keeping pace with fast changing technology and user expectations
    • Industries limited interests in quick return of investment
    • Exposure of working in large projects (requiring skill enhancement) and R&D Management capability
    • Fragmented approach to R & D by academia, R&D organisations and Industries
    • Need for home grown standards and proactive participation in global standardization
    • Lack of culture for creation, protection and commercialization of products with IPRs
  • Solutions and Opportunities: Indigenous R&D
    • Creating centers of excellence and inter networking them for knowledge creation
    • Skill enhancement and training , in particular : exposure to real field environment to understand industry requirements
    • Incentive to manufacturers for producing indigenously developed products
    • Effective funding of R&D through Public Private Partnership (PPP)
    • Creating a culture of appreciations and incentives for R&D personnel.
    • Recognition of Telecom R&D institutes and efforts
    • Creating groups and individuals on IPR Management
    • Strengthening institutions like C-DOT and making then nodal centers for design and development for projects of rural and strategic sectors
    • Funding “blue sky research”
  • Telecom Manufacturing: Challenges
    • Need for large manufacturing base
    • High cost of establishing plants, machinery and related infrastructure
    • Non-conducive labour regulations and procedural delays
    • Poor base for electronic component manufacturing
    • Competitive products available from foreign manufacturing products
    • Poor base and inadequate focus of R&D
    • Not able to cope up with fast changing technologies
    • Easy to import products following globalization
    • Solutions and Opportunities :
    • Provide incentive for the manufacture of indigenous R&D products
    • Build Hardware industry parks and fabrication units for components
    • Balance levies and taxes vs imports
    • Training manpower for infrastructure , quality manufacturing
    • Create incubation centre for manufacturing industry
    • Value addition and adaptation to Indian condition
    • Economy of scale
  • Conclusion India is capable of meeting the challenges of changing paradigm of telecom . The telecom sector has grown very rapidly and we have a strong committed to make the benefits of telecom reach the masses through indigenous efforts. We look forward to Indian scientists and engineers like you to make this happen.
  • THANKS