Rural India: 65% of population 150.000.000 farmers 25% of GDP (Europe .. 4%?) Pilot will start in June 2008 500-1000 farmers until March 2009 Objectives: Yield increase Cost reduction (Pestiside & Fertilizers) Farming efficiency Quality & Price increase
Dr. Surendra Pal Associate Director, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore Shri. Jayant Bhatnagar Director, C-DOT Dr. Rekha Jain Professor, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad Dr. Surendra Prasad Director, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi Dr. Abhay Karandikar Professor, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai Dr. Anurag Kumar Professor, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Shri. D.K. Agrawal Advisor (T), Telecom Commisssion, Minister of Communication & IT, Govt of India Distinguished Speakers Future Trends in Satellite Communication Projects on C-DOT’s Anvil Rural Telecom – The Next Wave in the Indian Telecom Market VDSL-The Future Access The Next Generation Wireless Network Sensor Networks Challenges & Opportunities in Indian Telecom & Summary of Proceedings
Satellite Communication - Future Trends Dr. Surendra Pal Associate Director ISRO Satellite Centre, BANGALORE - 560 017
The word ‘ Communication ’ comes from Latin word ‘ Communico’ - meaning ‘ share ’ . It is communication more than anything else which has been responsible for the shrinking of time and distance and with the development of space technology time and distance have lost their conventional meaning, permitting men and women all over the world to share their experiences, frustrations and successes. Present day the world has become a GLOBAL VILLAGE . Man is in a shrinking Globe and expanding Universe . Society is often described as essentially people in communication - Communication in simple terms is nothing but discriminating response to a stimulus. The " quickness of the response " is increasing in leaps and bounds day by day.
There is another word ` information ' which is also closely related to communications means " contents " of message. Claude Shannon defined " information " as " Reduction of Uncertainty ". Information is also described as " any difference that makes a difference ". Information is a notch on the spectrum with raw data on low end and knowledge / wisdom on the high end. It suggests that the raw data when processed becomes information. Information minus noise is intelligence or understanding. Intelligence plus experience is knowledge ; and knowledge when further processed, looked through scholastic eyes, gets philosophized and so becomes wisdom which is adored over ages. The present day society is often referred as information society .
In the past few decades, persons and institutions have been progressively unsettled by the rapid pace of social and technological changes brought about by Communications (telephony, TV etc.). In earlier times the world around us seemed more stable and major changes in values, institutions and technology evolved more slowly. It took centuries for the Middle Ages to become the Renaissance , yet many of us have experienced major technological revolution in one life time in the last century.
Many technological reversals have been seen like the telephone which should have been on the wired network has become wireless, while the TV which was wireless now works on cable. Many individual spheres of working have become almost universal, like education has come to the drawing room from school and colleges, sectors like banking, medicines, hospitals etc which were location specific are available on net. There is tremendous convergence and fusion of communications, computers and associated technology in the present era.
We are presently getting on the crest of the third wave which is INFORMATION & COMMUNICATION REVOLUTION more appropriately termed as ‘IT ’ -Information Technology, the first being agriculture & the second being ‘Industrial Revolution’. As we become increasingly networked, our worlds will grow smaller and bigger simultaneously.
Conventional (Telegraph, Telephony, Radio / Wireless communication, TV, News Papers, Books, Means of transport)
Not so conventional – Emerged 1970 onwards (Space Communications, VSAT, Electronic Mail, Audio / Video Conferencing, Auto text service, PCS, WLL, ISDN etc)
Emerged in last 15 years (Mobile services, Card Phone service, Tele health, Tele Education, Tele Shopping, Interactive Video and Video On Demand, Multimedia system, SATNAV, Digital TV, DTH, Mobile Satellite Communication, Ultra Broad Band Services, e-Governance, e-Commerce, e-Banking, e-Library, etc.)
Most important – INTERNET AND WORLD WIDE WEB
Major shift from Analog to Digital, Increase in value of S/W as opposed to H/W, Extensive use of Spread Spectrum, Use of Optical Technology (Switches, LL, Communication), etc.
All these need either terrestrial or satellite channels to serve the user. The present day scenario in near future may look like:
A FUTURE COMMUNICATION SCENARIO Video Camera Printer PDA Desktop PC Cable TV Television DVD AUDIO SYSTEM Cellular Telephone Fax Pager Internet Cellular Internet TV Video on Demand Home Banking Internet Telephony Network Computing Video conferencing Smart Card Space World Wide Web Terrestrial Credit Card
Everyday we manage to bounce radio waves off “ Artificial repeater ” that we have put into space at around 36000 kms height over the Earth. It is no magic that all these “ Artificial Radio Repeaters ” termed as “ Communication Satellites ” are found at that altitude.
The situation changed considerably in eighties and the communications requirements became really nerve-racking. Imagine the transmission reception of signals to satellites from:
A ship pitching and rolling on the high seas
An aeroplane flying at a speed of >800 kms per hour
An orbiting space vehicle/satellite with speeds >7 to 8 kms per
An aeroplane or a ship in distress
A mountaineer/A trekker / A forest guard / An elephant /A tiger /
A bird / A turtle / A dolphin
A man always on move / A motor vehicle.
If using satellites to communicate is a great marvel, doing the same without stopping or even slowing down is almost miracle.
VARIOUS CONVENTIONAL SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SERVICES:
Telephony / TV Broadcasting / Data reception and distribution / Direct Television broadcasting / Disaster warning / Continuous weather monitoring / Spacecraft Vehicle Tracking and Commanding / Intersatellite links / Mail / Internet / Data mining
Position (GPS) and time determination / Moving motor vehicle tracking etc.
The commercial communication satellite services are rapidly becoming a large & global business increasing $20 billion in 1996 and $75 billion by year 2005. (Projections have come down to $$66.5 billion due to Iridium failure and overall slump in the market). For 2010 the projections are for $100 billion
Current and Trends in Worldwide Satellite Services- 2010 300 commercial satellite systems Near 7500 transponders VSAT - near 1.2 million BSS TV - 125 million users MSS - 1.75 million users BSS - (Sound) - near 15 million
Convergence between wireless access, wireless mobile, wireless LAN.,
Satellite links and Fixed Radio for Access in remote and sparingly populated areas - using LEO, MEO and GEO systems
Satellite links for security networks
Before one goes ahead with communication satellites, it will be quite important & relevant to talk about latest arrival on the communication technology scene: the INTERNET & THE WEB. Internet the new incarnation of mass communication is becoming quite popular. Internet the parasite which has almost eaten away the host - the telecom channels, is influencing our every sphere of life.
Internet which we know today has come to Asia a couple of years back and in 2000 to India also will play an important role at least till 2015 AD. The internet provides a vast array of services and acts like a multimedia system, information resource and ways to perform work and engage in commerce. It has an estimated 600 million users which gets doubled every year. The safest prediction is that by 2015 the Internet, as we know it, will no longer exist. There will just be the Net a ubiquitous, broadband data dial-tone provided by a cable telephone, wireless or satellite operators.
How big according to The Economist, a conservative and perceptive publication not normally known for exaggeration, the impact is likely to be “ ahead of the telephone and television but behind the printing press and the motorcar”.
The point is that the Net is a phenomenon that cannot be ignored. It is an agent of change in all sectors of society.
The changes won't occur in isolation, but they will be going on simultaneously, resulting in unpredictable, unanticipated synergy. In turn, this will lead to truly profound changes in society & the present technological paradigm. To help all these & to spread the net at a faster pace even to inaccessible & remote places Satellite Communication plays a major role, besides the conventional terrestrial links, optical links etc., which cater to cities and larger population bases owning to the economics.
Having talked about INTERNET let us come back to space communications. The most popular one is going to be: MOBILE PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
In the foreseeable future new equipments and techniques will be used in satellite technology which will extend and improve the possibilities of satellite communications beyond our present imaginations. Some of these we discuss today:
The size of Geo satellite will continue to increase. Incremental improvements are foreseen in intelligent bus design which takes care of the spacecraft control traffic control and particularly the thermal control to allow the use of prime power beyond 10 to 15 KWS.
Small GEOs for smaller capacity routes will also be used (one may seriously start thinking about I-2000 and even Met Sat bus for Indian conditions).
Efficient signal processors and switching equipment will enable signal processing to be performed onboard right down to operations similar to switching in exchanges which will provide better mesh connectivity. ATM switches onboard space crafts may be used. Onboard multiplexing of digital TV transmission may be done.
Networking technology for the seamless integration of high data rate communication satellites & terrestrial facilities.
Direct connections between satellites (Inter satellite links) will shorten the transmission routes. The ISLs could be in millimeter waves or even in optical domain.
The use of higher frequency bands (Ka band and V band) & frequency reuse by multiple beams will enlarge the available bandwidths and thus the transmission capacity. Future even space laser communication technique may be employed to increase the data rates to giga bits.
Miniaturization of electronics will enhance the launch capabilities & reduce the cost.
High speed two way INTERNET-through VSAT. This avoids the installation of broad band access through terrestrial network. It can provide upto 40 MBPS links.
The new breed of satellites will be agile, flexible, intelligent & powerful. They will have digital bandwidth. This makes the services they carry an easy fit in the present digital networks with a specific provider ground equipment. They will:
Switch & route high data rates instantaneously among thousands of users.
Continuously change the antenna beam patterns/eirp as traffic demands
Buffer and multiplex data
Null interference, providing a strong, clear signal & use of adaptic arrays & processing.
Cross link to other satellites (ISL: Optical or V-band)
Satellites have innate advantage that make them an attractive alternative or complement to terrestrial broadband circuits. First is speed they can be built, launched and put into service in as little as 12 to 24 months providing the last mile connection. It also provides bandwidth on demand. User pays for the time which he utilizes.
Although broad band satellites are considered to be poor cousins of OFC - No country requires more than what satellite cannot give. Europe requirement is 450 Mbits/s and US bound capacity is 3.5 Gbits/S.
Many times one feels that for the over capacity of the fibre one has to pay while for space based links you pay for the time you use.
In my opinion SPACE COMMUNICATION SCENARIO will be:
The future Telecommunication spacecraft will be developed from transmission in to Information Satellites ( INFOSAT ). They will be given many of the properties of terrestrial telephone exchanges and signal processing equipments and it will be possible to integrate them directly into future global networks.
They will thus permit immediate applications of many existing and future services. Because of their inherent built up flexibility, these satellites will be able to support and speed up the initial experimental phase of many new services before their trial on terrestrial networks. These type of satellites will enable new services to be tried out over a large area before being put in to the market and optimally adapted to suit the most appropriate transmission medium.
The satellite platform will have multiple reconfigurable antennas/transmitters with dynamic power sharing / Receivers in various frequency ranges / large reconfigurable switching matrices at baseband and at RF level / intersatellite links permitting signals to be exchanged between satellites according to changing requirements / complex and efficient analog / optical / digital signal processors / New modulation technique and multiple access techniques.
It will be sufficiently broadband systems & may have even optical space communication components.
The satellites besides their autonomous control and power generation equipment may have sensors to observe the earth’s atmosphere and pass the data to an appropriate station after processing. This will help to deal with the situation like Orissa Cyclone. Such a system will obviously have Geo synchronous spacecraft with some orbiting satellites to take care of North/South pole regions.
Check on use for Terrorist and Anti Social Activities
Overall effect on the Environment and Biosphere
Interoperability of all communication systems and compatibility of various services
Manufacturing of devices and participation in service by Indian industries in the Global communication paradigm.
CONFUSION CON VERGENCE and FUSION of various Communication Technologies Broad Band Satellite Links Video Conferencing DBS - 300 Channels Mobile Broadband Internet Life Time Movie Network OFC Cable TV E-mail Here X A 0 GEO,MEO, LEO OBP, ISL,Phased Array Adaptive Array GPS WAAS, LAAS SBAS
Each bringing its own ladder to climb the bandwagon
Perfecting Environmental Disaster
More towers than trees
Birds, Animals, Men, Women, Children ….
Increasing carbon debit
How it is today Operator 1 BSC TRAU E1 E1 B T S E1 E1 E1 B T S B T S MSC SGSN OMC-R E1 E1 Operator 2 BSC TRAU E1 E1 B T S E1 E1 B T S MSC SGSN OMC-R E1 E1 Operator N BSC TRAU E1 E1 B T S E1 E1 E1 B T S B T S MSC SGSN OMC-R E1 E1
Motivation - Bridging the Gap CDMA Network Government Servers Weather Servers Bank Servers National Commodities Exchange Expert Advice from Agriculture Universities & Research Institutes Local Markets Soil Sensors Internet Village Knowledge Center
Process Description Data Consolidation Unit 2. Consolidate 3. Parse information & retrieve accurate advice 4. Prepare and Send SMS in Local Language Agriculture expert database 5. SMS to Farmer in Local Vernacular 1. Sensors Collect Soil Data
MIMO Self-Far End Cross Talk Cancellation and alien Cross Talk Cancellation – ensures Data Rate > 100 Mbps.
Vectoring ( Co-operation at the CO) used.
IN Downstream, the transmitted symbols to all the CPEs are known to CO.
Precoding (self-FEXT precompensation) can be done
In the Upstream, the received symbols are known at the CPE.
Hence, Cancellation can be done.
Advantages : Low power, higher rates but higher silicon cost.
DSM Hierarchy SISO Mechanisms MIMO SISO Messaging Contents MIMO SISO Capacity DSP centric MIMO Capacity Network Centric DSP Centric MIMO Processing Platform Centric DSP Centric DSM-1 DSM-2 DSM-3 SISO SNR, PSD Regional Relevant MIMO SNR, PSD Field Relevant MIMO TX & RX signals at CO Real Time Relevant SISO Cross Talk avoidance <50 Mbps MIMO Cross Talks Avoidance 50-100 Mbps MIMO Self FEXT Cancellation 100 Mbps +
DSM 3 US System Overview FEXT Crosstalk occurs due to the electromagnetic interference between surrounding copper wires Crosstalk is the primary factor limiting the bit rate and loop reach achievable by VDSL Technical term : Far End Cross Talk (FEXT) DS has a similar structure CO CPE US Modems in your house
Performance loss due to FEXT * *ODMC FEXT Cancellation method- Conexant Systems inc. AWG 26 Upstream Rate vs. Reach (4 and 5 band) 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 loop length (km) Rate (Mbps) Rate vs. Reach for VDSL2 Plan 998 upstream (M1 PSD) for 4 and 5 band service Average Rate vs. Reach with and without FEXT (49 users) AWGN (-140dBm/Hz) AWGN + 48 disturbers (no mitigation)
Drivers for Broadband Plethora of services causing Internet traffic to grow 50% every year Peer-to-Peer Audio/Video Real Time Games Social Communities Open Source Phone Banking Mobile Banking Mobile Client Search VoIP e-news e-mail
Wireless Broadband GSM / EDGE HSDPA HSPA ADSL ADSL2+ LTE / EVDO-Rev C (UMB) IMT-A VDSL GDON Ethernet WiMAX Fixed Mobile 10x Kbps 1x Mbps 100x Mbps Data Rate
Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks: Pervasive Systems for Measurement & Inference
Department of Electrical Communication Engineering
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
Outline of Talk 1. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2. The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3. The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4. Potential Applications of WSNs 5. WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6. WSNs: The Outlook
Outline of Talk 1.Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2. The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3 . The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4.Potential Applications of WSNs 5.WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6.WSNs: The Outlook
Wireless Networks of Multifunction Smart Sensors (WSNs)
Devices need to alternate through sleep-wake cycles
Future devices: active : 0.1mA to 1mA; sleep : .001mA
Nodes can draw power from their environment,
Using appropriate devices or mechanisms
e.g., from ambient light or vibrations
Need software and algorithms that further conserve energy
Outline of Talk 1.Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2.The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3.The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4.Potential Applications of WSNs 5.WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6.WSNs: The Outlook
The Structure and Operation of a WSN Node Deployment Fusion centre
Smart sensor nodes are distributed over the observation field
Placement at specific locations, or random deployment (if the area is inaccessible)
Sensor coverage, and radio connectivity
Redudancy, and time sharing
The Structure and Operation of a WSN Self Organisation Fusion centre
Nodes discover each other; e.g., “Hello” protocol
Can learn about the “quality” of communication with neighbours
Outline of Talk 1. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2. The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3. The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4. Potential Applications of WSNs 5. WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6. WSNs: The Outlook
Potential Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks The Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, equipped with wireless sensor nodes
Monitoring moisture and nutrients in soil
Detecting and tracking fires in large spaces
Monitoring and tracking hazardous chemical spills
Monitoring the safety of buildings after an earthquake
Monitoring aging in large structures such as large machines, bridges, airplanes and ships
Chemical factories, refineries, power distribution yards
Large amount of wiring for sensors and actuators
Energy and environment management networks in large buildings
Can these networks be replaced by wireless sensor (and actuator) networks?
Emerging ISA 100 standard (IEEE 802.15.4 PHY, TDMA MAC)
(…Contd.) Potential Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks
Ecological monitoring, and wild life management
Tracking animals in conservation areas
Monitoring their numbers, whereabouts, health etc.
Monitoring habitats; endangered species
Care of the sick and ageing
Monitoring mobile patients in hospitals and homes
Body area networks, linked to wireless LANs
A snapper turtle, equipped with a wireless sensor node Wearable motes (to which various health sensor can be attached)
(…contd.) Potential Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks
Locating people in large buildings or public transportation systems
Injured in disasters, or in accidents involving large vehicles
Detecting intruders in border areas (smart fields, electronic “trip wires”)
Detection, location and tracking
Biosensors for soldiers
Battlefield resource tracking and management
Outline of Talk 1.Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2.The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3.The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4.Potential Applications of WSNs 5. WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6.WSNs: The Outlook
WSNs for Industrial Sensing: IISc-CDAC-Dept. of IT
KPTCL, Nelamangala, 440KV switchyard
Several 10s of sensors, distributed over an area 400m × 400m
A large amount of wiring to be installed and maintained
Interest in replacing with a wireless mesh network
WSNs for Agricultural Monitoring: IISc-EPFL, IITB-MSRI
Projects have been executed at IISc and IIT Bombay
Photos show an IIT Bombay demo deployment at the Sula Vineyards in Maharashtra
Outline of Talk 1.Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) 2.The Wireless Sensor Node (“Mote”) 3.The Structure and Operation of a WSN 4.Potential Applications of WSNs 5.WSN Research in India (Some Projects) 6. WSNs: The Outlook
High cost of establishing plants, machinery and related infrastructure
Non-conducive labour regulations and procedural delays
Poor base for electronic component manufacturing
Competitive products available from foreign manufacturing products
Poor base and inadequate focus of R&D
Not able to cope up with fast changing technologies
Easy to import products following globalization
Solutions and Opportunities :
Provide incentive for the manufacture of indigenous R&D products
Build Hardware industry parks and fabrication units for components
Balance levies and taxes vs imports
Training manpower for infrastructure , quality manufacturing
Create incubation centre for manufacturing industry
Value addition and adaptation to Indian condition
Economy of scale
Conclusion India is capable of meeting the challenges of changing paradigm of telecom . The telecom sector has grown very rapidly and we have a strong committed to make the benefits of telecom reach the masses through indigenous efforts. We look forward to Indian scientists and engineers like you to make this happen.