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Managing financial principles


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  • 1. Managing Financial Principles andTechniques
  • 2. Contents3. Be able to participate in the budgetary process of an organisation......................................................... 4 3.1 select appropriate budgetary targets for an organisation.................................................................. 4 3.2 participate in the creation of a master budget for an organisation ................................................... 7 3.3 compare actual expenditure and income to the master budget of an organisation ....................... 11 3.4 evaluate budgetary monitoring processes in an organisation ......................................................... 144 Be able to recommend cost reduction and management processes for an organisation....................... 16 4.1 recommend processes that could manage cost reduction in an organisation ................................. 16 4.2 evaluate the potential for the use of activity-based costing ............................................................ 18 2
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  • 4. 3. Be able to participate in the budgetary process of an organisation3.1 select appropriate budgetary targets for an organisationIn the modern business it is vital for organisations to maintain a appropriate budgetary controlsystem to carry out its business in an efficient and effective manner and to survive in thebusiness. More specifically cost and revenue targets needs to be set in an effective manner sothat such companies are able to obtain a competitive advantage over the other companies.The XYZ Company is in the process of preparing its annual budget for the financial year 2012and has prepared the following budget.XYZ manufacturing company budget for the financial year 2012 2010 2011 2012 Variance % Actual Actual BudgetedRevenue 14,375 15820 18193 2373 15Cost of Sales 8734 9520 10758 1238 13Gross profit 5641 6300 7435 1135 18Selling & 1325 1458 1603 146 10distributionexpensesAdministrative 537 550 565 15 3expensesOther 268 275 270 (5) (2)administrativeexpensesProfit before 3511 4017 4997 980 24taxTaxation @ 878 1004 1249 245 2425%Profit after tax 2633 3013 3748 1225 41 4
  • 5. RevenueOver the two year period the revenue of the company has grown by 10% annually and thereforetaking into consideration the past trend and the future opportunities by the management therevenue is expected to increase more that previous years. According revenue is expected to begrown by 15% compared to previous years.Cost of salesEven though the revenue has increased by 10% in the past cost of sales has increased only by9% due to the improvement taken place in the organisation and due to the economies of scalesexperienced by the company. Therefore with the aim of further improving these benefits thecompany has budgeted a 13% increase in cost of sales which will further improve the grossprofit margin.Gross profit marginWith the increase in the revenue and the increase in the cost of sales lower than revenue thecompany is expected to increase the gross profit margin in the financial year 2012.Selling and Distribution expensesThe company expects to increase the selling and distribution expenses same as previous yearsby 10%. Though the revenue is expected to increase only by 15% selling and distributionexpense in expected to increase only by 10% by improving efficiency and the effectiveness ofthe marketing activities.Administrative expenseThe company is targeting to maintain the same administrative expenses level in the current yearby way of cost reduction activities to compensate the expenses increased due to the generalinflation prevail.Other expenses 5
  • 6. The company expects to maintain same level of other expenses by means of cost reductionactivities.Profit after taxThe company is expecting a increase in the profit after tax by 41% compared to the previousyear by increasing sales and increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of manufacturingprocess. 6
  • 7. 3.2 participate in the creation of a master budget for an organisationThe master budget of the organisation comprise following budgets. Budgeted income statement Budgeted cash flow Budgeted balance sheetBudgeted income statementThe company prepares its budgeted income statement as follows,XYZ manufacturing company budget for the financial year 2012 2010 2011 2012 Variance % Actual Actual BudgetedRevenue 14,375 15820 18193 2373 15Cost of Sales 8734 9520 10758 1238 13Gross profit 5641 6300 7435 1135 18Selling & 1325 1458 1603 146 10distributionexpensesAdministrative 537 550 565 15 3expensesOther 268 275 270 (5) (2)administrativeexpensesProfit before 3511 4017 4997 980 24taxTaxation @ 878 1004 1249 245 2425% 7
  • 8. Profit after tax 2633 3013 3748 1225 41Budgeted cash flowThe budgeted cash flow statement of the company for the financial year 2012 is as follows,XYZ manufacturing company budget for the financial year 2012 2010 2011 2012 Actual Actual ForecastedCash balance at the beginning 625 450 796Add ReceiptsCollection from customers 10,750 14,750 17,350Total cash available 11,375 15,200 18,146Less: ExpensesDirect material 3,345 3,755 4,506direct labour 2,300 2,530 3,036manufacturing overhead 2,893 3,434 4,121selling and distribution 1,300 1,430 1,716expensesAdministrative expenses 537 555 570Purchase of Property Plant & 2,000 500 1,500 8
  • 9. EquipmentsTax 800 1,100 1,250Total disbursements 13,175 13,304 16,699Excess or Deficiency over (1,800) 1,896 1,447disbursementsFinancingBorrowings 2,500 2,000payments 1,000 500Interest 250 100 200Total financing 2,250 (1,100) 1,300Cash balance at the end 450 796 147It is assumed that the customer collection will be taken place in the same manner which tookplace in the past two year of 2010 and 2011.Further a capital expenditure of 1500 is expected in the year of 2012 to ensure that themanufacturing facilities are operates in most effective and efficient manner using cutting edgetechnology that the industry has.All the other manufacturing related expenses such as direct material, direct labour andproduction overheads are assumed to pay as an when they incur.Operating expenses such as selling and distribution expenses, administrative expenses alsopaid when they incurred. 9
  • 10. Accordingly a borrowing of 2000 is expected to bridge the gap between the available cashbalance and required cash balance.At the financial year end 147 cash balance is expected to prevail with the company.Budgeted balance sheetThe company’s budgeted balance sheet is drawn as follows, 2010 2011 2012 Actual Actual BudgetedNon current assetsProperty Plant & 10350 10500 12,500equipmentsCurrent assetstrade receivables 2300 1893 2,789inventory 750 847 2,194cash and bank 450 796 147balance 3500 3536 5133.2Total assets 13850 14036 17630Share capital 6500 6500 6,500reserves 1000 4013 7,761 10
  • 11. Borrowings 2500 1500 2,500 current liabilities Trade payable 350 2023 869 Total equity and 10350 14036.08 17630 liability The budgeted income statement, budgeted cash flow statement and budgeted balance sheet for the financial year 2012 has prepared in a consistent basis. 3.3 compare actual expenditure and income to the master budget of an organisation 2010 2011 2012 2012 VarianceRevenue 14,375 15,820 18,193 18,668 475Cost of sales 8,734 9,520 10,758 11,043 286Gross Profit 5,641 6,300 7,435 7,624 189Selling & distribution 1,325 1,458 1,603 1,647 44expensesAdministrative 537 550 565 590 25expenses 11
  • 12. Other expenses 268 275 270 290 20Profit before tax 3,511 4,017 4,997 5,097 100Tax @25% (878) (1,004) (1,249) (1,274) (25)Net profit after tax 2,633 3,013 3,748 3,823 75 Revenue The actual revenue of the company for 2012 was 18,668 while the budgeted amount was 18,193 which is an increase of 475 than budgeted. This has resulted in the significant increase in the volume due to the higher demand prevailed for certain product categories backed by the weather condition. Cost of sales Cost of sales has increased by 286 than those budgeted due to the increase in the demand for certain product which is evidenced by the increase in revenue. However gross profit of the company remains in the same position of 41% as budgeted. Though the company expected to increase the cost of sales to be increased by 13% actual increase accounted to 16% due to the Certain lapses faced by the manufacturing facilities. Furthermore certain direct manufacturing expenses such as electricity and overhead costs also increased along with the increase in revenue. Gross profit Gross profit also increased by 189 than budgeted for the financial year 2012. However the gross profit margin shows flat at 41% with the budgeted while it has improved by 1% from previous year of 40%. 12
  • 13. Selling and distribution expensesSelling and distribution expense was amounted to 1647 while the budgeted expense was stoodat 1603 which shows a increase of 44 than budgeted. This is mainly due to the increase in salesvolume and this has resulted in slight increase in distribution expenses of the company.Moreover sales commission expense has also increased due to the increase in the revenue.Administrative expensesAdministrative expense were budgeted at 565 where as actual amount was stood at 590.Accordingly administrative expense has increased by 25 than budgeted. This is mainly due tothe increase in the salary expenses resulted in due to the new recruitments’ taken place in thecompany.Other operating expenseOther operating expenses also increased slightly by 20 compared with actual other operatingexpense.Profit before taxThe profit before tax has increased 100 than budgeted amount due to the increase in the salesvolume. However the company was unable to obtain the full benefit from such increase due tothe increase in the cost of sales and several other operational expenses. 13
  • 14. 3.4 evaluate budgetary monitoring processes in an organisationBudgetary monitoring is a process whereby the organisations sets the budgets to theirorganisations and continuous monitoring of the performance of the organisation compared withthe budget to evaluate whether the operations of the organisation is taken place in an effectiveand efficient manner.The objectives of the budgetary control system is as follows, Determining the goals and objectives of each department of the organisation Assigning roles and responsibilities to each and every employee so that such individual is aware what he is expected to contribute to the organisation. Providing a basis for which performance of the company can be compared and identify any deviations take necessary actions on that on timely manner. Ensuring that all available resources are used in efficient and effective manner. Providing basis for revision of current policies to face to the future.The following advantages can be obtained through a budgetary monitoring and control system, Budgetary control system helps the management of the organisation to carry out its operational activities in an efficient and effective manner. Budgetary control is a efficient tool to control the company’s expenses. Budgetary control can be used as a yardstick or measurement base to evaluate the performance of the individual staff of the organisation. Budgetary control system helps to identify the deviations from the actual output and expected output and to identify the possible reasons for deviations. 14
  • 15. Budgetary control system helps to increase efficient and effective utilisation of resources in the organisation such as production materials, skilled labours, production machinery etc. Budgetary control system helps the organisation to identify the current trends and to formulate future policies based on such information to operate effectively. Budgetary control helps the organisation to implement standard costing system to the organisation in an efficient and effective manner. By implementing a budgetary control system it encourage employees of the organisation to concentrate on the cost when performing activities within the organisation.Budgetary control system has following limitation/ disadvantages Budgets are based on estimates of the future activities and therefore such estimates can be wrong and budgets may not be able to achieve giving a wrong picture. Budgetary controls may affect to the quality of the product and services of the organisation due to the high concentrate on the expenses of the production activities. Budgetary control can gives a wrong impression that achieving budgets of the organisations will solve all the problems faced by the compay Implementation of a budgetary control system may be high cost and in some instances it may not be cost effective. The management may focus on the achieving budget targets rather than achieving the goals and objectives of the organisation. Management may do under budgeting to show that the performance of the company is improved 15
  • 16. 4 Be able to recommend cost reduction and management processes foran organisation4.1 recommend processes that could manage cost reduction in an organisationCompany can reduce costs in various of ways. And these will ultimately helps the organisationsto achieve its goals and objectives.The cost reduction techniques includes following steps, Identify the areas where the cost can be saved in this step the company needs to critically evaluate its cost structure and identify the areas where they can reduce the cost in more efficient and effective manner. Quantify the cost savings in this step the company needs to quantify the amount of cost that they can reduce which they identify in the first step. This helps to identify the most effective areas and concentrate more on such area. Test cost reduction process before implement At this step the organisation needs to consider whether the quantified costs can be reduces in actual scenario and they need to evaluate the impact of such reduction to the other processes such as quality of the product, impact to the brand name from such reduction etc. Implement the cost reduction activities The company must implement the cost reduction activities in the areas where they have identified in the previous steps. Due attention needs to be given to the areas where there is a effective cost reduction is available. Ensure that cost reduction has taken place 16
  • 17. Once the process has implemented the management needs to make sure that thetargeted cost reduction has taken place.With regard to specific costs that has a significant impact on the company can usefollowing techniques and method to reduce the costCompany can enter in to long term supplier contracts with suppliers which helps thecompany to obtain more favourable payment terms and attractive discounts.The company can use several suppliers to purchase goods and thereby reduce oreliminate the bargaining power of the suppliers and obtain the most favourable prices.To minimise the wastage in the production process the company can use the latestcutting edge technology in its manufacturing facilities.To reduce the finance cost the company may grant discount to customers who settletheir dues on time.The companies can discuss with suppliers to obtain more favourable credit periods. 17
  • 18. 4.2 evaluate the potential for the use of activity-based costingActivity Based costingActivity Based Costing (ABC) is a relatively new management accounting model which is amechanism whereby assigning costs of production based on the activities involved in theproduction process and the resources utilized by such activity (The,2011). ABCis an alternative to traditional management costing techniques.According to the ABC technique, company needs to,  Identify the activities involved in the production process.  Allocate the cost to each activity based on the resource requirement  Allocate the cost of each activity to each product based on the requirement of such activity by such product.If company uses Activity Based Costing method to compute its unit cost, it will be able to do aeffective pricing of the products since this method computes the cost of the product based onthe activities involved in the production process instead of using a single basis such as machinehours or labor hours utilized by each product which are used in traditional techniques.Activity based costing has following advantages Activity based costing gives more accurate information about the product cost rather than other cost accounting techniques. Under activity based costing overhead costs can be understand in a better manner. Activity based costing method is a simple costing method which can be understood by everyone. 18
  • 19. Activity based costing take in to account unit cost rather than the total cost of the product and by this cost drivers can be easily identifiable. Activity based costing can be used to implement performance management methods such as scorecards. Activity based costing can be used for benchmarking. By using activity based costing the organizations can identify losses incurred in the production process and is able to identify activities or processes which will not add value to the production process Results obtained from Activity based costing can be used for other modern management techniques such as six sigma Activity based costing asses the cost of individual activities based on its utilisation of resources.Activity based costing has following disadvantages Implementing activity based costing system to the organization can be involved high cost as such costing system needs significant amount if resources such as sophisticated computerized system, skilled labour etc Once the system is implemented the cost incurred to process the data is high. Accordingly in order to obtain the information data needs to be collected, validated, checked and feed to the system which incur high labour cost Activity based costing system produce various information which are significantly difference from information generated by other costing techniques. Owing to this reason the management may tend to use information provided by existing costing technique. Further when evaluating the performance of the management information produced by existing costing technique may used. Therefore the management will pay their attention on existing costing technique rather than the activity based costing Activity based costing method produce data which can be misinterpreted easily by managers. Thus due attention need to be given when interpreting information and making decisions Activity based costing is not in line with the Generally Accepted Accounting principles GAAP) which leads to prepare another set of accounts to comply with Generally Accepted Accounting principles 19
  • 20. Practical implementation of Activity based costing is challenged due to the seriouschallenges faced by the company 20