Change mgt assignment
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  • 1. Module name: Strategy and Change Management Title of the assignment: Change Management Student name : Submission Date :
  • 2. Table of Contents1. How organizations may learn from change and subsequently adopt change behaviors and patterns. 32. Force field analysis for New Plan .......................................................................................................... 53. Types of person who is suited to lead the change and key skills are useful to see the project throughto completion. ............................................................................................................................................... 74. Applying a change model .................................................................................................................... 115. Reference ............................................................................................................................................ 14CHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 2
  • 3. 1. How organizations may learn from change and subsequently adopt change behaviors and patterns.Change is inevitable thing that is faced by every object in the world, even for human being. It is said thatchange is the only thing that is not changed in the universe. Change is a greater challenge to anorganization. Especially to the management and to the employees. Despite being a greater challengechange is essential in order to survive in the business world and achieve organizations goals andobjectives.Change is a great challenge for many perspectives. The change may affect people’s customs, capabilities,cultural values, routine work and so on. Some may think that it is a threat. They are status quo peopleand they are resistant to change. They always see the negative side of the change never seeopportunities. They feel when a change occurs they have to get away from their comfort zone, andsome may feel they lose their status and feel job insecurity.Change management refers to the structured and systematic method of transforming an organizationfrom its current status to the status that it’s expected to achieve in the future. In the context of thechange management it ensure that when an organization adopt a change, Such control activity does not take place out of the control of the organization. The problems associated with the change such as operational failures and un budgeted cash outflows will not take place.When consider the organizational changes there are several types of organizational change. Those are, Mission change Technological change Strategic change Operational change Changing the attitudes and behavior of the organization’s personnelIn order to perform an effective change process, organization should make sure that following aspectsare addressed properly. Benefits and outcomes of the change process needs to be updated to the employees and management Effective communication covering all the stake holders of the organization Providing counseling for individual personnel When an organization understood that in order to survive in the business that they need to change company take necessary steps to change their strategies. Accordingly they adopt relevant change models such asCHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 3
  • 4. Kurt Lewin change management model Kubler –Ross Five stage Model Stephen Covey 7 Habit model ADKAR ModelFurther organization can be obtained following advantages through change Properly planned change helps the organization to improve value of the organization and increase its shareholders value The company can make fast and effective response to the customer demands Change helps to re-align its existing resources in the organizations. Effective change helps to develop best practices with regard to leadership and team work Helps to eliminate un necessary cost and improve profitability Increase the organizational effectiveness and efficiency by listening to the concerns of the staff Improved customer service through knowledgeable staff.CHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 4
  • 5. 2. Force field analysis for New Plan Force field analysis is a technique whereby organization can analyze a give change and consider forces that are support for such change and forces against those. The following force field analysis is prepared assuming that a change in a goal with regard to the cost reduction. Accordingly a plan to launch a new web site along with the news paper is proposed and evaluated Forces to change Forces against change Plan- Launch a NewsYounger generation wish the web site aiming to Only the younger generation isaccess information electronically reduce the cost of the interested in latest technology. operation of District Dispatch and increase 4 4 the customer base. Loss of jobs in the pressCost on paper and other costs canbe saved 4 4 Accuracy of the instant News provided.Instant communication ofinformation to customers 2 Web site crash may affect to the 3 good name and profitability.New technology can be obtained 2easily Initial cost may be high due to 3 the introduction of latest technologyCan obtain the first mover benefit 1among the regional competitors Exposed to risk by being the first 1 company to launch such a site in the region. 1 15 14 1 1 CHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 5
  • 6. By the force filed analysis it can be noted that there are critical forces to change as well as there areforces against to change. However after considering the rankings it is noted that forces to change ishaving 15 points while forces against change amounted to 14 points. Thus it can be concluded thatforces to change with regard to the plan considered are stronger than the forces against to change.CHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 6
  • 7. 3. Types of person who is suited to lead the change and key skills are useful to see the project through to completion. In every organization which needs or expect a change should have a person, who has, appropriate capabilities to handle or manage the change process effectively. Accordingly such person needs to have a proper understanding about the current status of the organization and the future status that the company desired to achieve. Further such person involved in the process needs to have a proper understanding of the company’s corporate and social culture within the company. Those persons who are engaged in the change process should carry out their operations with appropriate authority as when they execute some activities they might need certain amount of power of authority to make decisions and provide guidance to employees. It is revealed from a recent research carried out that two third of the employees of the organization who experienced a change in the organization believe that non availability of an in house change management specialist is a problem they face in the change process. In this context it can be said that internal change management specialist is more suitable to carry out and guide the change management process of the organization. Therefore such a person needs to have several skills and competencies to carry out his activities effectively in different dimensions. Those dimensions and necessary skills as follows, Ability to identify company’s needs and expectationsThe change management specialist should have the ability to understand the needs of the organization,in particular he need to have following related skills to identify company’s needs and expectations. o Ability to understand the company’s organizational culture and other specific cultures. o Ability to understand the needs of different stake holders such as share holders, employees, Managers etc o Identifying potential conflicts and contradictions o Ability to perform interview techniques to collect data from company o Ability to gather information both from formal and informal sources. o Skill relating to use tools for monitoring and documentation of activities Ability to provide consultation (contracting) with regard to change activitiesThe change management specialist needs to have relevant consultation abilities in order to provideeffective change activity in the organization. Thus such person needs to have following skill to performsuch task. o Analytical ability in the context of the consultation o Negotiation skills o Relationship management skillsCHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 7
  • 8. Ability to dealing with complexitiesIn the context of modern business world companies are going through complex business environmentand business transactions and activities. Thus when changing such organizational activities alsocomplexities are faced by those companies.Therefore the change management specialist needs to have proper skill in dealing with complexities.Such skill include, o Skill relating to rational and non rational behaviors in the organizations and groups. o Skills relating to identify complex behaviors of organizations o Skill relating to identifying and separating different levels of complexities in the organization. o Involvement, plan and execution of logical and non logical strategies. Ability involve in change activity in different levels in the organization Though it is said that change is taken place in the organization as a whole such change is taking place at different levels in the organization. For example at strategic level and operational level changes are taken place in a different manner, thus change specialist should have the ability to involve in the change of 2 levels in parallel. Therefore he needs to have following skills, o Systematic thinking skills o Ability to communicate at different levels of the organization o Flexibility with regard to the design and redesign of change activities o Ability create a change facilitation plan o Ability use computer models relating to presentation and graphical activities o Sound knowledge in change facilitation techniques. o Skill relating to project management activities. functions and attitude In the context of this dimension the change specialist needs to have following skills, o understanding o objective and achievement orientation o personality expression and insight of one’s own unpredictability o skills relating to recognize and communicate the variation between behavior, position, task and situation in organizational change processesCHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 8
  • 9. Implementation of change processThe most essential ability that a change specialist should have is the ability of the implementation ofchange process. In this context such person should have following skills. o Skill relating to training, coaching and facilitation o Consulting in expertise areas and relevant knowledge o Skills and experience relating to project management activities o Skill relating to management of conflicts and mediation o Ability recognize his own strengths and weaknesses o Ability to tolerance with regard to frustration due to the uncertainty, transparency and struggles to power (either hidden or open). Change modelsThe change facilitator needs to have a vast knowledge on the change models. Models such as kurtLewin’s classical unfreeze change and freeze model to latest change models such as Otto Scharmer’stheory of U needs to be aware by the change facilitator.In this context change facilitator needs to have following skills, o Ability to indentify most suitable change model before starting the change process o Ability to identify different change models in different situations.Apart from the skills required for a change facilitator line managers of the organization also needs tohave several skill and in order to perform a effective change process those are, Ability to work hardIn a change process where cost reduction in one of its plans, line managers should be able to work withlessor people and in tight deadlines. Ability build trust among the employeesWhen the change activities are taken place employees seek information and care from their linemanagers. Thus line managers should be able to share information with them as to how the change willaffect to them and maintain their trust towards the top management and the organization. Ability maintain a network among line managersCHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 9
  • 10. Line mangers should be able to build a network among the line managers to share their views and keepstaff and others informed about the developments of change process. Ability to coachingLine managers should have coaching skills to help to those individuals who are struggling to change inorder to change their minds about the change process. Further line managers themselves need to becoached by identifying their reactions to change. Ability to clarify the change processWhen the change process is planned out by the top management the line managers should be able toclarify such change process before it to be implemented by the organization. Ability to Manage other uncertaintyThe resistance to change is arising due to the resistance to uncertainty. Thus if the line managers areable to manager others uncertainty, specially the employees who are below them the change processcan be implemented without resistance from the employees. Organizing abilityLine managers should have strong organizing ability in order for them to carry out the change process orhelps to change process effectively. Ability to follow through to the endThe line manages should have the ability to follow through the change process from the inception to theend as follow up is one of the most critical aspect in a change process.CHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 10
  • 11. 4. Applying a change modelJohn Kotter’s 8 step change process can be used to explain the proposed change process.(Souce, http://www.kotterinternational.com) 1. Create a Sense of UrgencyAt this level in first a conversation needs to be building up as to the reason for a change. Accordingly theboard members of the “District Dispatch” needs to be aware as to what are the changes that are takenplace in the market and what are the plans of the competitors. By doing so it enables to motivate thetop management and other stake holders of the organization to accept that a change is needs in orderto survive in the market. It is said that in order to change to be taken place at least 75% of themanagement needs to be believed that a change is goods and is needed for survive.Accordingly a conversation needs to start as to why it is necessary to start a web based news site tosurvive in the market and to reduce operational cost. 2. Creating/forming a good coalitionIn this step a goop coalition needs to be build up from leaders within the organization who have respectand good recommendations. By doing so the organization can maintain and develop the conversationabout the change and obtain the input of those leaders to the change process.CHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 11
  • 12. After forming a good committee the change process can be implemented effectively. In order to forma good coalition following activities can be used, o Search for leaders within the organization who are respected by the employees o Ask for faith and good dedication o Work as a team to plan the change o Identify strengths, Weaknesses, and opportunitiesOnce the team is build up it should make sure that the team as a whole use one change models to planthe change and team members needs to have sound knowledge on the model apply for the change. 3. Develop/ Crate a change visionIn this step organization needs to develop a change vision. Vision provide 3 valuable purposes o It summarize and simplifies many decisions o It provides motivation to people to execute actions. o It helps to coordinate activities of many persons in an efficient manner.In order to launch a web based news site the company needs to create a vision that has followingcharacteristics, o Imaginable o Desirable o Feasible o Focused o Flexible o Communicable 4. Communicate the vision to buy InThe created vision in the previous step needs to be communicated throughout the “District Dispatch”from board of directors to lower level employees. By communicating the vision to the organization it isvery helpful to perform the change activities effectively. The company may use any type ofcommunication method that is used for internal communications. Methods such as e mails, new letters,and meetings can be used to communicate the vision of the change.The vision such communicated needs to have following characteristics, o Simple – it should b simple without any technical jargons o Vivid – the expression should be done in a way that memorize to audience o Repeatable – the vision should be able to speeded by one person to another 5. Empower people to act on the vision and remove barriersCHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 12
  • 13. In this stage the organization needs to empower the individual to act in order to achieve its vision.Further at this stage organization needs to take steps to remove barriers that act against to changeactivities these may be individuals or processes of the organization. 6. Create short term winsIn the long process of change it is essential to incorporate some short term achievements to motivatethe people involved in the change process. Further by incorporating short term achievements theDistrict dispatch can ensure that change process is take place effectively for example company canincorporate following short term achievements. o Plan out the format and lay out of the new web site o Procure the latest technology and proper people 7. Build on the change/Don’t Let upIt is said that before completing the job declaring the victory is too risky. Thus the work needs to becompleted before the success is declared. For a success is sustainable the organization needs to build upon changes continuously. 8. Institutionalize the changeIn this last step the organization needs to ensure that the change is evidence through every aspect ofthe organization. This will helps to maintain the change activities continuously all parts of theorganization.By following above mentioned eight steps District Dispatch will be able to implement the changeprocess effectively and efficiently.CHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 13
  • 14. 5. Reference John kotter 2011, change management, Kotter international, Cambridge, viewed 18 April 2012,< http://www.kotterinternational.com/kotterprinciples/changesteps> Carnell, C, (2007), Managing change in organizations ,5th edition, Essex ,Pearson Education, Draft, R,(2006), The New era of management, Ohio, Thomson Grundy, T, (1993), implanting strategic change, London, Kogan page Lewin, K, (1947) Frontiers in group dynamics, vol 1, no 5 Burnes, B,(2004),Managing change, Essex, Pearson Education KOtter, JP,(1996) Leading change, Boston, MA, Harvard business school press Duck ,J.D, (1993) Managing change – the art of balancing, Harvard Business review, voi 71, no.6, pp. 109-18CHANGE MANAGEMENT Page 14