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**NOTE** Ma’m divided motivational theories in 2 questions, but I’ve combined it, so that makes total 9 questions. Please don’t get confuse that there are only 9 Answers here. ***ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR** Ans.1 Organizational Behaviour Importance OB provides a way for understanding human behaviour in the organisation. For shaping human behaviour in a definite direction for achieving predetermined objectives, managers must know how the people in the organisation behave. OB provides for understanding human behaviour in all directions in which human beings interact. So, OB can be studied at individual level, interpersonal level, group level and intergroup level. Individual Level: - The behaviour of human beings as a social man is the first issue in behavioural science. It provides for analysing why and how an individual behaves in a particular way. OB integrates all the factors which affect the human behaviour so as to understand it. Interpersonal Level: - Human behaviour can be understood at the level of interpersonal interaction. Such interpersonal interaction is normally in paired relationship which represents man’s most natural attempt at socialism. OB provides means to understand these interpersonal relations with the help of different methods. Group Level: - Though people interpret anything at their individual level, they are often modified by group pressure which then becomes a force in shaping human behaviour. OB helps in understanding the human behaviour in a group as how the group behaves in its norms, consistency, goals, procedures, communication pattern, leadership and membership. Intergroup Level: - The organisation is made up of many groups. Intergroup relations may be in the form of co-operation or competition. Understanding this behaviour is very important for the managers in the organisation as it is this relationship which helps the organisation in achieving its objectives. OB helps in understanding and achieving co-operative group relationships through interactions, rotation of members among groups, avoidance of win-lose situations, and focus on the total group objectives. Ans 2. Learning is the process by which new behaviours are acquired. It is generally agreed that learning involves changes in behaviour, practicing new behaviours, and establishing permanency in the change. Nature of Learning
Learning involves a change in behaviour though, not necessary that the change is an improvement over previous behaviour.
The behavioural change must be based on some form of practice or experience.
The practice or experience must be reinforced in order for learning to occur.
Theories of Learning
Conditioning Theory: - Conditioning is the process in which an ineffective object or situation becomes so much effective that it makes the hidden response noticeable. In the absence of this stimulus hidden response is the natural or normal response. Conditioning has 2 main theories: -
Classical Conditioning: - It states that behaviour is learned by repetitive association between a stimulus and a response. Elements always present in this theory are: -
1. Unconditional Stimulus like food which causes to react in a certain way.
Unconditional Response takes place whenever the unconditional stimulus is presented.
Conditional Stimulus – The object that does not initially bring about the desired response.
Conditioned stimulus – a particular behaviour that the organism learns to produce.
Ivan Pavlov’s demonstration: - When Pavlov presented a piece of meat to a dog it salivated (Unconditional Response). On the other hand, when he merely rang a bell (neutral stimulus), the dog had no salivation. This shows ringing of bell is having no effect on the dog. Then Pavlov accompanied meat with ringing of bell. Dog salivated. The experiment was repeated several times. Now, Pavlov just rang the bell without presenting the meat. The dog now salivated. Now in the new situation, the dog has been classically conditioned to salivate to the sound of the bell.
Operant Conditioning: - Operant is defined as behaviour that produces effects. This conditioning suggests that people emit responses that are rewarded and will not emit responses that are either not rewarded or punished. Operant conditioning implies that the behaviour is voluntary and it is determined, maintained and controlled by its consequences. The operant conditioning involves the relationship between the three elements: -
Stimulus situation (Important event in the situation),
e.g. Application of brake by a vehicle driver to avoid accident. Here, the possibility of accident without application of brake is stimulus situation, application of brake is behaviour and avoidance of accident is the consequence of behaviour.
Cognitive Learning Theory: - Cognition approach emphasises the positive and free will aspect of human behaviour. Cognition refers to an individual’s ideas, thought, knowledge interpretation, and understanding about himself and his environment. Cognition in learning implies that organism learns the meaning of various objects and events and learned responses depend on the meaning assigned to stimuli. Tolman’s Demonstration: - A rat was trained to turn right in T – Shaped maze in order to obtain food. Then the rat was started from the opposite side of maze. The rat as trained (conditioned) should have turned right but the rat turned toward where the food was placed. Tolman concluded that, the rat formed a cognitive map to figure out how to get the food and reinforcement was not a precondition for learning to take place.
Social Learning Theory: - It combines and integrates both behaviouristic and cognitive concepts. It points that learning can also take place via modeling. Modeling process involves observational learning. Learning does not result from discrete stimulus-response-consequence connections. Instead, learning can take place through imitating others.
According to Social Learning Theory, learning occurs in two steps:
1. The person observes how others act and then acquires a mental picture of the act and its consequences. (Rewarding or Punishment)
2. The person acts out the acquired image and if the consequences are positive he will tend to do it again. If the consequences are negative, the person will not do it again.
Motivation is the complex forces starting and keeping a person at work in an organisation. Motivation is something that moves the person to action, and continues him in the course of action already initiated.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory: - According to Maslow, there seems to be a hierarchy into which human needs are arranged.
Physiological Needs: - As these are the basic needs and they tend to have the highest strength until they are reasonably satisfied, they are at the top of the hierarchy. These needs are like food, clothing, housing etc.
Safety needs: - Once the physiological needs are satisfied to a reasonable level, then comes the safety needs. This is a need for being free of physical danger, job security etc.
Social Needs: - After safety needs, social needs becomes important. As man has always been a social being, he has a need to belong and to be accepted by various groups. When social needs become dominant, a person will strive for meaningful relations with others.
Esteem Needs: - The esteem needs are concerned with self-respect, self-confidence, a feeling of personal worth, feeling of being unique and recognition. Satisfaction of these needs produces feeling of self-confidence, prestige, power and control.
Self-actualization needs: - It is the need to maximize one’s potential, whatever it may be. This is related with the development of built in capabilities which lead people to seek situations that can utilise their potential.
Herzberg’s Motivation – Hygiene Theory: - According to Herzberg, there are two categories of needs essentially independent of each other affecting behaviour in different ways. There are some job conditions which operate primarily to dissatisfy employees when the conditions are absent, their presence does not motivate them in a strong way. Another set of Job conditions operates primarily to build strong motivation and high job satisfaction, their absence does not dissatisfy them. First job conditions are Hygiene Factors and second set of job conditions are motivational factors.
Hygiene Factors: - Ten maintenance or hygiene factors are – Company policy and administration, technical supervision, interpersonal relationship with supervisors, interpersonal relationship with peers, interpersonal relationship with subordinates, salary, job security, personal life, working conditions and status. These factors are necessary to maintain at a reasonable level of satisfaction in employees. Any increase beyond this level won’t provide any satisfaction in to the employees and any cut will really dissatisfy them.
Motivational Factors: - These factors are: - Achievement, recognition, advancement, work itself, possibility of growth, and responsibility. Most of these factors are related with job contents. An increase in these factors will satisfy the employees but any decrease will not affect their level of satisfaction.
McClelland’s Needs Theory: - McClelland has identified three types of basic motivating needs. Need for power, need for affiliation and need for achievement.
Power Motive: - The ability to influence behaviour is power. Need of power is the need to manipulate others. People with high power need have a great concern for exercising influence and control. Such individuals generally seek positions of leadership; they involve in conversation; they are forceful, outspoken, hard headed, and demanding.
Affiliation Motive: - Since people are social animals, most individuals like to interact and be with others in situations where they feel they belong and are accepted. People with high need for affiliation usually derive pleasure from being loved and tend to avoid the pain of being rejected. They are concerned with maintaining pleasant social relationship, enjoying a sense of closeness and understanding, and enjoy consoling and helping others in trouble.
Achievement Motive: - Some people have an intense desire to achieve. The need for achievement is a distinct human motive that can be distinguished from other needs. McClelland has identified four basic characteristics of high achievers: -
Moderate Risks: - Taking moderate risk is probably the simple most descriptive characteristic of the person possessing high achievement need. This is against the commonsense that a high achiever would take high risks.
Immediate Feedback: - Person with high on achievement needs desires activities which provide immediate and precise feedback information how he is progressing towards a goal.
Accomplishment: - Person with high on achievement needs finds accomplishing a task basically satisfying in and of itself, or he does not expect or want the reward for it.
Preoccupation with the task: - Once a high achiever selects a goal, he tends to be totally preoccupied with the task until it is successfully completed. He will not feel satisfied unless he has put maximum effort in completing the task.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory: - Alderfer has categorised needs into three categories: - Existence needs, Relatedness needs and Growth needs. Existence Needs: - They include all needs related to physiological and safety aspects of an individual. Relatedness Needs: - They include all those needs that involve relationship with other people whom the individual cares. Growth Needs: - They involve the individual making creative efforts to achieve full potential in the existing environment. Equity Theory: - Equity theory of work motivation is based on the social exchange process. The theory points out that people are motivated to maintain fair relationship between their performance and reward in comparison to others. There are two assumptions on which the theory works:
Individuals make contributions (inputs) for which they expect certain rewards (outcomes).
Individuals decide whether or not, a particular exchange is satisfactory, by comparing their inputs and outcomes with those of others and try to rectify any inequality.
Exchange relationship between a person’s inputs/outcomes in relation to those of other persons may be of three types: -
Overpaid Inequity: - Here, the person perceives that his outcomes are more as compared to his inputs in relation to others. In this case, the person experiences guilt feeling.
Underpaid Inequity: - Here, the person perceives that his outcomes are lower as compared to his inputs in relation to others. In this case, the person experiences dissonance.
Equity: - Here, the person perceives that his outcomes in relation to his inputs are equal to those of others. In this case, the person experiences satisfaction.
Carrot and Stick Approach of Motivation: - Carrot – Reward (Financial or non financial) for work done. Stick – Punishment (Non-working or not working properly). Following points should be taken into consideration while using it:
Punishment is effective in modifying the behaviour if it forces the person to select a desirable alternative behaviour that is then rewarded.
If the above does not occur, the behaviour will only temporarily suppressed and will appear when the punishment is removed.
Punishment is more effective if applied at the time when the undesirable behaviour is actually performed.
Punishment must be administered with extreme care so that it does not become reward for undesirable behaviour.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory This theory suggests that there are actually two motivation systems: intrinsic and extrinsic that correspond to two kinds of motivators: Intrinsic motivators: Achievement, responsibility and competence. motivators that come from the actual performance of the task or job -- the intrinsic interest of the work. Extrinsic: pay, promotion, feedback, working conditions -- things that come from a person's environment, controlled by others. One or the other of these may be a more powerful motivator for a given individual. Intrinsically motivated individuals perform for their own achievement and satisfaction. If they come to believe that they are doing some job because of the pay or the working conditions or some other extrinsic reason, they begin to lose motivation. The belief is that the presence of powerful extrinsic motivators can actually reduce a person's intrinsic motivation, particularly if the extrinsic motivators are perceived by the person to be controlled by people. In other words, a boss who is always dangling this reward or that stick will turn off the intrinsically motivated people. Goal Setting Theory According to this theory people are motivated to work toward and achieve goals. Goal setting is an important motivational process. Goals enhance performance by clarifying what type and level of performance is expected or required. Achieving of goals leads to feeling of competence and success. Failing short of goal creates dissatisfaction, so we are motivated to work hard to avoid failure. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y The management’s action of motivating human beings in the organization, according to McGregor, involves certain assumptions, generalisations and hypothesis relating to human behaviour. McGregor has characterised these assumptions in two opposite points, Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X The assumptions are: - Work is inherently distasteful to most people, and they will attempt to avoid work whenever possible. Most people are not ambitious, have little desire for responsibility, and prefer to be directed. Most people have little aptitude for creativity in solving organizational problems. Motivation occurs only at the physiological and security levels of Maslow's Needs Hierarchy. Most people are self-centered. As a result, they must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives Most people resist change. Most people are gullible and unintelligent. Essentially, theory x assumes that the primary source of most employee motivation is monetary, with security as a strong second. Theory Y The higher-level needs of esteem and self-actualization are continuing needs in that they are never completely satisfied. As such, it is these higher-level needs through which employees can best be motivated. In strong contrast to Theory X, Theory Y leadership makes the following general assumptions: Work can be as natural as play if the conditions are favorable. People will be self-directed and creative to meet their work and organizational objectives if they are committed to them. People will be committed to their quality and productivity objectives if rewards are in place that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment. The capacity for creativity spreads throughout organizations. Most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population. Under these conditions, people will seek responsibility. Under these assumptions, there is an opportunity to align personal goals with organizational goals by using the employee's own need for fulfillment as the motivator. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach. McGregor recognized that some people may not have reached the level of maturity assumed by Theory Y and therefore may need tighter controls that can be relaxed as the employee develops. Ans. 4 Perception may be defined as the process by which individuals organise and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Perceptual Process
Selection of Stimuli: - After receiving the stimuli from the environment, some are selected for further processing while others are screened out because it is not possible for a person to select all stimuli which he sees in the environment.
Organisation of stimuli: - After the stimuli are received, these are organised in some form in order to make sense out of that.
Interpretation of stimuli: - The perceptual inputs that have been organised will have to be interpreted by the perceiver so that he can sense and extract some meaning of what is going on in the situation. Interpretation of stimuli is affected by characteristics of stimuli, situations under which perception takes place, and characteristics of the perceiver.
Perceptual Outputs: - After the interpretation of stimuli, perceptual output emerges. These outputs may be in the form of covert actions like development of attitudes, opinions, beliefs, impression about the stimuli under consideration.
Can even draw the diagram of the points as the process Ans.5 The Big Five are five broad factors (dimensions) of personality traits. They are: Extraversion. The broad dimension of Extraversion encompasses such more specific traits as talkative, energetic, and assertive. Agreeableness. This dimension includes traits like sympathetic, kind, and affectionate. Conscientiousness. People high in Conscientiousness tend to be organized, thorough, and planful. Neuroticism (sometimes reversed and called Emotional Stability). Neuroticism is characterized by traits like tense, moody, and anxious. Openness to Experience (sometimes called Intellect or Intellect/Imagination). This dimension includes having wide interests, and being imaginative and insightful. Ans. 6 Attitudes: - Attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness organised through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual’s response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Attitude implies a heightened responsiveness to certain stimuli. Features of attitude: - Attitudes affect behaviour of an individual by putting him ready to respond favourably or unfavourably to things in his environment. Attitudes are acquired through learning over the period of time. The process of learning attitudes starts right from childhood and continues throughout the life of a person. Attitudes are invisible as they constitute a psychological phenomenon which cannot be observed directly. They can be observed by observing the behaviour of an individual. Attitudes are pervasive and every individual has some kind of attitude towards the objects in his environment. Belief A belief is an enduring organisation of perceptions and cognitions about some aspects of individual’s world. A belief is hypothesis concerning the nature of objects, more particularly concerning one’s judgment of the probability regarding their nature. Belief is the cognitive component of the attitude which reflects the manner in which an object is perceived. Values Values that a person has are one of the major forces shaping behaviour. Values are convictions of an individual on the basis of which he judges what is good or bad, desirable or undesirable ethical or unethical. Values represent basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to an opposite mode of conduct. Characteristics: -
Part of culture: - Values are element of culture, and culture is the complex of values, ideas, attitudes, and other meaningful symbols to shape human behaviour in the society.
Learned Responses: - Human behaviour represents learned phenomenon. Human beings have to learn almost everything about how to be human from experience. This is because human beings live in a certain society having a culture.
Inculcated: - Values are inculcated and are passed through generation to generation by specific groups and institutions.
Social Phenomenon: - Values are social phenomenon, that is cultural habits are shared by aggregates of people living in organised society. An individual’s way of thinking and behaving is not culture, rather group behaviour constitutes culture.
Ans. 8 Process A Process may be defined as: 'a particular course of action intended to achieve a result' a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined business outcome An individual goes through 9 processes: -
1. FormingThe group is not yet a group but a set of individuals. This stage is characterised by talk about the purpose of the group, the definition and the title of the group, its composition, leadership pattern, and life-span. At this stage, each individual tends to want to establish his personal identity within the group, making some individual impression.
2. StormingMost groups go through a conflict stage when the preliminary, and often false, consensus on purposes, on leadership and other roles, on norms of behaviour and work, is challenged and re-established. At this stage a lot of personal agendas are revealed and a certain amount of interpersonal; hostility is generated. If successfully handled this period of storming leads to a new and more realistic setting of objectives, procedures and norms. This stage is particularly important for testing the norms of trust in the group.
3. NormingThe group needs to establish norms and practices. When and how it should work, how it should take decisions, what type of behaviour, what level of work, what degree of openness, trust and confidence is appropriate. At this stage there will be a lot of tentative experimentation by individuals to test the temperature of the group and to measure the appropriate level of commitment.
4. PerformingOnly when the three previous stages have been successfully completed will the group be at full maturity and be able to be fully and sensibly productive. Some kind of performance will be achieved at all stages of the development but it is likely to be impeded by the other processes of growth and by individual agendas. In many periodic committees the leadership issue, or the objectives and purpose of the group, are recurring topics that crop up in every meeting in some form or other, seriously hindering the true work of the group.
Adjourning, that involves completing the task and breaking up the team. Others call it the phase for mourning.
Group Dynamics refers to the nuances (difference) operating in a group which influences the behaviour of member in a group.
Group dynamics describes how work is done within a group.
Relating pattern shared by people within the group.
The pressure exerted by group members on each other.
Team A team comprises a group of people linked in a common purpose. Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are high in complexity and have many interdependent subtasks. Characteristics of a team are: - MissionEffective teams have a clear mission and purpose. It may be a short-term objective (select a vendor for a project) or a long, ambitious goal (find ways to improve customer satisfaction). Regardless, teams need a defined, mutually agreed upon purpose and mission. Missions give teams direction and purpose Commitment Team members must be committed to the team's mission. Commitment develops as members begin to personalize their involvement and take ownership for the team's success. Commitment may come immediate for some team members, and it may take some time for others. Team members must agree to some level of commitment. Norms/Ground Rules"
You've got to play by the rules."
That old saying applies to teams. Effective teams have explicit and appropriate ground rules and norms. One example might be, "
Team meetings will be held on Wednesday mornings from 9 to 10:30 a.m."
Team members agree to rotate roles from meeting to meeting."
Ground rules provide teams with guidelines and a common set of procedures by which to operate. An Effective ProcessCompetent, goal-oriented teams agree on a process for success. Teams are unique, no two work exactly alike. Regardless of the process a team embraces, team members must agree on the process and understand their role. (Specific roles and responsibilities are covered elsewhere in this program.) Teams should agree on a process by which to function and make decisions. InterdependenceIn a group, people operate independently from one another. One person's progress is not affected by anyone else. Teams however, function interdependently. Every member's role and work complements someone else, and individual progress hinges on the help and input of others. Interdependence is based on valuing and using the skills, knowledge, abilities and perspective of other team members. Effective teams function on the strength and skills of all members. Difference between Group and a Team Quality separates a group and a team. As for any information sharing goes, in a team it is a collective performance and in a group it is individual. Synergy – Ina group synergy is neutral while in a team there is a +ve synergy. Skill Set – It is very complementary with the people in team, whereas, it varies in a group. Trust – Not a major role in group. In a group resource sharing is more than trust sharing. But in a team trust sharing is major. What makes a good Team? Good technical expertise Good problem solving ability Good inter-personal skills Good Decision Making Good Communication Skills Ans. 10 Psychological Contract A psychological contract represents the mutual beliefs, perceptions, and informal obligations between an employer and an employee. It sets the dynamics for the relationship and defines the detailed practicality of the work to be done. It is distinguishable from the formal written contract of employment which, for the most part, only identifies mutual duties and responsibilities in a generalized form. Psychological contract plays an important role in the state and health of relationships shared by the employer and the employees. This contract when positive leads to increased business performance. When the employees sense that the employer is fair towards them then psychological contract is positive. *** In case of mistakes, correct yourself and tell me also**