Golden rice

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  • This slide demonstrates one of the transformation cassettes used to develop “Golden Rice” was developed. Slowly click through this slide, and you will see each of the components of the cassette.
  • Golden rice

    1. 1. GOLDEN RICE Vitamin A enriched transgenic Rice
    2. 2. What is golden Rice? <ul><li>GM rice with 3 introduced genes </li></ul><ul><li>Capable of b-carotene synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Golden yellow color kernels </li></ul>
    3. 3. Need for GR <ul><li>VAD a major challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Major cause of seeing disorders xeropthalmia to keratomalacia </li></ul><ul><li>124 million children affected worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>1 to 2 million deaths per year among children </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalent in South and SE Asia where rice is a major food staple </li></ul>
    4. 4. VAD in women <ul><li>Night blindness is common among pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal mortality up to 40% </li></ul>
    5. 5. Combating VAD <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary diversification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Fungi γ carotene Tomatoes δ carotene Green leafy veg, many fruits and sea weeds β carotene Carrots, palm oil α carotene Plant sources Common carotenoids
    6. 6. <ul><li>Supplementation </li></ul><ul><li>natural or artificial sources </li></ul><ul><li>Conventional fortification </li></ul><ul><li>commonly consumed item-salt or sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Fortification thro Genetic Engg. </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Rice </li></ul>
    7. 7. Development of Golden Rice <ul><li>1990 Gary Toeniessen realised lack of β carotene in polished rice </li></ul><ul><li>Gene transfer for synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming session </li></ul>
    8. 8. Inventors
    9. 9. Daffodils Gene transfer Golden Rice Erwinia uredovora Gene Sources
    10. 10. Genes transferred Bacteria ( Erwinia uredovora ) Phytoene desaturase ctrl Daffodils Lycopene β cyclase icy Daffodils Phytoene synthase psy Source Enzyme coded Gene
    11. 11. Beta Carotene Biosynthetic Pathway GGDP Tocopherols Gibberellins Chlorophyll Phytoene Phytoene synthase (psy) Phytoene desaturase (ctrl) Lycopene Lycopene β cyclase (icy) β Carotene
    12. 12. pB19hpc (Golden Rice Cassette) T L T R aphIV 35S Gt1 psy 35S rbcS crtl Hygromycin Resistance Phytoene Synthase Phytoene Desaturase T-DNA Border T-DNA Border Selectable Marker Gene of Interest Gene of Interest Insertion Sequence Insertion Sequence
    13. 13. Difficulties <ul><li>Transfer of 3 genes </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation and regeneration problems </li></ul><ul><li>Many patents (70) </li></ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul>
    14. 14. Mile Stones <ul><li>Selection of daffodils </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation and regeneration protocols (Winn 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Transformants with phytoene (Burkhardt et al . 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Agrobacterium based transformation system for many genes (Ye et al . 2000) </li></ul>Golden Rice (Potrykus et al 2000)
    15. 15. Testing the transformants <ul><li>HPLC tests used </li></ul><ul><li>Transformed lines detected beta carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 µg/g β carotene detected (T309) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Accomplishments <ul><li>Biochemical manipulation thro genes (C3 to C4) </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous gene transfer possible </li></ul><ul><li>Biotech for poorest of poor </li></ul>
    17. 17. Benefits of G. Rice <ul><li>Sustainable and cost free solution for VAD </li></ul><ul><li>No additional inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds can be resown </li></ul><ul><li>Local varieties can be converted </li></ul><ul><li>Free for developing countries </li></ul>
    18. 18. Controversies <ul><li>GR is first generation GM crop </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of b-carotene expressed (1.5-1.8 µg/g) is low </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic erosion due to monoculture </li></ul><ul><li>Other problems associated with any other GM crop (stability, silencing and unpredictable products) </li></ul>
    19. 19. Challenges ahead <ul><li>Resynthesis thro latest technology </li></ul><ul><li>Gene transfer to tropical local varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Level of expression </li></ul><ul><li>Technological improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional studies essential </li></ul>
    20. 20. Golden Rice deserves a chance
    21. 21. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>

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