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Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
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Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture

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Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture

Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture

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  • Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) also formed.Nov 1963: TERLS launched the first sounding rocket 
  • Clients after independenceEntrepreneurs, Private trusts and individual house holders.Artchitects promoted other architectsparticulalry those who were internationally reknown.1) Political leaders were incharge of speccificprojectsa and had a say in what to be built. Nehru was particularly concerned in creating a future image for india.2) Religious organisations sponsored new works. They tended to be conservative. Hindu temples faveouredttraditional forms.3) New industrialists often promoted Modernist architecture, in Ahmedabad they were the first patrons of FLW, then le corbusier and then Louis kahn.
  • REVIVALISM The immediate architectural response was the rvivalist phase.It took many forms:Replication of traditional forms after a break in its usageThe abstraction of past forms: This type most common in 1970s and 1980s.The buildings designed to look indian.British colonial buildings were faced with stucco and not stone.Colors chosen were different from the colonial palette. (creams & whites). The new buildings were painted pink to loook like sandstone, particularly in New Delhi.Had an overwhelming politival support , reputedly , nehru’s support in the design fofr Ashok hotel in new delhi.Example: Swami MalaiMandir (1960) its replete with dravidian imagery but its layout is not traditional.
  • BhubaneshwarIt was designed for the population 40,000. following the ideas of Arturo Soria y Mata , the Spanish planner, to allow growth for Koenigsberger’s design that laid the city out in a linear pattern with a central artery forming a main spine to which neighborhood units were attached.It had a clear social agenda in accordance to Nehru’s Policies: neither cast nor socio-economic were to exist and gender equality and education were to be stressed. In physical design climate and context were taken into consideration.By 1961, the population reached 40,000. The plan was revised by Julius Vaz to accommodate eleven neighbourhood units instead of four units.Nehru did not want bhubaneshwar to become a “city of big buildings” . It would accord with the idea of reducing differences between rich and poor.Secratariat building, the staff quarters, the red building , the market building, police building , museum , guest house was designed by Vaz.
  • Secretariat building, the staff quarters, the red building , the market building, police building , museum , guest house was designed by Vaz.
  • It was the first building to be finished. It consists of an L-shaped block, framed by a concrete cover that functions as a large umbrella that unfolds gracefully in the shape of arches, and that somehow establishes an reference to the covers of the havelis in Mughal architecture.
  • Walter Gropius was an inspiration to many works of AchyutKanvinde, who sought tot create buildings that represented modern technology and the machine age.The ATIRA building has an i=open plan, with clearly separated ‘functional areas’ .The administration-cum-laboratory block is a perfect rectangular form .Continuous bands of glass are flush with the wall on the north façade.Southern façade has sun shades running across in a continuous line.Kanvinde pioneered the use of flexible concrete column and beam grid. He introduced waffle slabs in the Bank of India building in bhadra, Ahmedabad.The idea of ATIRA was conceived by Vikram Sarabhai, KasturbhaiLalbhai and Shanti SwaroopBhatnagar. The foundation stone for the ATIRA complex was laid by SardarVallabhbhai Patel on 1 November 1950 which was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of IndiaPandit Jawaharlal Nehru on completion on April 10, 1954.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture Damini Bhardwaj , Varsha Mallya Studio III- B S.S.A.A
    • 2. Partition Of India Figure 2: Post-Partition Map Of India Ref: http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/india-map-prepartition.jpg Figure 1: Pre-Partition Map Of India Ref: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/images/partition_map.gif After India’s Independence, partition of India took place dividing the country into two parts. The political and the religious conflict between India and Pakistan led to a highly volatile atmosphere.
    • 3. Political Scenario (1947-1980) Figure 3: Mahatma Gandhi Ref: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com mons/0/03/MKGandhi.jpg Figure 4: Dr. Rajendra Prasad Death of the 1st President of India Ref: http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-heroes/pics/drrajendra-prasad.jpg Figure 5: Jawaharlal Nehru Ref: http://www.wallpaperswala.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/09/Nehru-Ji.jpg This period was dominated by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and can be regarded as Nehru Years.
    • 4. Nehru years was the time of political and social reforms. Figure 6: Satellite ‘ Aryabhatta’ Ref: http://pib.nic.in/archive/50yrs/50phto/50l/space7.jpg • First Nuclear explosion at Pokhran (1974) • Firing of first rocket (1972) • Launching of satellite ‘ Aryabhatta’ (1975) • Bonded servitude was made illegal
    • 5. Clients Figure 5: Post-Partition Map Of India Ref: http://www.wallpaperswala.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/09/Nehru-Ji.jpg • Political leaders • Religious organizations. • New industrialists, Entrepreneurs, Individual house owners.
    • 6. Revivalism It was an immediate architectural response to the Independence of India. Revivalism took many forms: British colonial buildings were faced with stucco and not stone. • Replication of traditional forms . • The abstraction of past forms. Walter Granville's High Court of 1872, on Esplanade Row, Kolkata, is a vast building, standing on land once occupied by the Supreme Court and three other residences. It has red brick facing with stucco dressings. Figure 7: Walter Granville's High Court Ref: http://www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/granville/2.html
    • 7. - Colors chosen were different from the colonial palette. (creams & whites). The new buildings were painted pink to look like sandstone. Figure 8: Ashok Hotel, New Delhi Ref: http://www.theashok.com/ Figure 9: Swami Malai Mandir, New Delhi Ref: http://incredibleindiaphotogallery.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/07_MalaiMandir.jpg
    • 8. Bhubaneswar City plan from the book Figure 10: City Plan of Bhubaneswar Ref: Architecture and Independence • Koenigsberger’s design laid the city out in a linear pattern with a central artery forming a main spine to which neighborhood units were attached. It was designed for the population 40,000. • Neighborhood units had all the major amenities. Each unit was to house a population for 5,000-6,000.
    • 9. • It had a clear social agenda in accordance to Nehru’s Policies: neither cast nor socio-economic were to exist and gender equality and education were to be stressed. • By 1961, the population reached 40,000. The plan was revised by Julius Vaz to accommodate eleven neighborhood units instead of four units. • Nehru did not want Bhubaneswar to become a “city of big buildings” . It would accord with the idea of reducing differences between rich and poor.
    • 10. Chandigarh Ref: http://www.tripadvisor.in/Tourism-g297596-Chandigarh-Vacations.html Jawaharlal Nehru, decided to build a new city – Chandigarh as a capital for the state Punjab after Lahore was lost to Pakistan. He had envisioned this city to mark India’s entry into the modern world , would represent India’s clean break from the colonial rule of the British.
    • 11. When India became independent, it was found that there were native no trained professionals on city planning. Political leaders hired American architects- Matthew Nowicki, and Albert Mayer to plan the city. Figure 12: Chandigarh Nowicki plan Figure 13: Le Corbusier plan Ref: Architecture and Independence Ref: Architecture and Independence The project was handed over to Le Corbusier in the year 1951 by Jawaharlal Nehru. Le Corbusier led a team that consisted of a French architect Pierre Jeanerette, Englishmen Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew and about twenty Indian architects and developed a new project.
    • 12. Describing Chandigarh city plans . Le Corbusier conceived the master plan of Chandigarh as analogous to human body, with a clearly defined Head (the Capitol Complex, Sector 1), Heart (the City Centre Sector-17), Lungs (the leisure valley, innumerable open spaces and sector greens), Intellect (the cultural and educational institutions), Circulatory system (the network of roads, the 7Vs) and Viscera (the Industrial Area) Figure 14: Plan Ref: landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf
    • 13. •The primary module of city’s design is a Sector, a neighborhood unit of size 800 meters x 1200 meters. •Each SECTOR is a self-sufficient unit having shops, school, health centers and places of recreations and worship. •The population of a sector varies between 3000 and 20000 depending upon the sizes of plots and the topography of the area. Figure 16 Figure 15: Neighbourhood plan Ref: landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf Figure 17 Ref:landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarhqt8.pdf Ref:landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarhqt8.pdf View of typical Roads and Round-abouts in the city
    • 14. HIERARCHY of GREEN AREAS 1.City Level Public Green Space with Artificial Water Body 2.Free- Flowing Green Space, connecting the entire site 3.Semi-Private Green Areas for neighbourhood pockets 4.Private Green Areas for Residential Units Figure 18: Plan demarcating green areas Ref: landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf
    • 15. The Basic Building Typology is observed as extremely Rectilinear with similar proportions. Figure 19: Typology Ref: landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf In both the developments the smaller individual Residential Units are arranged around central common Green Spaces, although the shapes are different. Figure 20: Typology Ref: landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf
    • 16. The Superior Court of Justice Figure 21: Front View Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier
    • 17. Parasol roof extending to form arches Full Height Entrance Coloured Pillars Ref:http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/p lanning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier It consists of an L-shaped block framed by a concrete that in the shape of arches, and that somehow establishes an reference to the covers of the havelis in Mughal architecture.
    • 18. This space between the double cover offers a smooth ventilation in the summer and protection during the rainy season. Figure 23: Ashok Hotel, New Delhi Ref:http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_J0XsQeUu1tE/R5XstFDFjFI/AAAAAAAAEvA/5UwM0 Zyha9w/s400/DSCN6862.JPG Figure 24: Painted Concrete columns dividing the High court from the Supreme court. Ref:http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_J0XsQeUu1tE/R5Xv6VDFjSI/AAAAAAAAEwo/lybwZ v89d-E/s400/DSCN7154.JPG Figure 25: Terrace Ref:http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_J0XsQeUu1tE/R5Xv6lDFjTI/AAAAAAAAEww/mwsl2 5HEOOY/s400/DSCN7164.JPG The building contains 8 high courts and a supreme court . Le Corbusier devised a set of outdoor terraces, which now are used as warehouses.
    • 19. The Secretariat, 1958 Figure 25: Secretariat Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier
    • 20. Roof Garden Projected porticos Figure 28: Front Façade Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier Ramp enclosure Square windows Rough concrete finish Figure 27: Ramp Figure 26: free Facade Ref: Ref:http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planningof-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier
    • 21. The Assembly Hall Figure 29: Assembly Hall Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusie
    • 22. Rough concrete finish ramp Figure 31: View of the ramp Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-ofchandigarh-by-le-corbusier Figure 30: View from the road Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-ofchandigarh-by-le-corbusier Concrete double roof
    • 23. Modernist Architecture Achyut Kanvinde: sought to create buildings that represented modern technology and the machine age. • Open plan, with clearly separated ‘functional areas’. • The administration-cumlaboratory block is a perfect rectangular form . • Southern façade has sun shades running across in a continuous line. • Continuous bands of glass are flush with the wall on the north façade. Figure 32: The Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association building Ref:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Ahmedabad_Textile_Industry%27s_R esearch_Association_building_%2815_05_2006%29.jpg
    • 24. References 1) Jon T. Lang , Madhavi Desai , Miki Desai. Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity - India, 1880-1980 2) http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier 3) http://landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf 4) http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.in/2012/12/chandigarh-and-lecorbusier-ii.html

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