Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) also formed.Nov 1963: TERLS launched the first sounding rocket
Clients after independenceEntrepreneurs, Private trusts and individual house holders.Artchitects promoted other architectsparticulalry those who were internationally reknown.1) Political leaders were incharge of speccificprojectsa and had a say in what to be built. Nehru was particularly concerned in creating a future image for india.2) Religious organisations sponsored new works. They tended to be conservative. Hindu temples faveouredttraditional forms.3) New industrialists often promoted Modernist architecture, in Ahmedabad they were the first patrons of FLW, then le corbusier and then Louis kahn.
REVIVALISM The immediate architectural response was the rvivalist phase.It took many forms:Replication of traditional forms after a break in its usageThe abstraction of past forms: This type most common in 1970s and 1980s.The buildings designed to look indian.British colonial buildings were faced with stucco and not stone.Colors chosen were different from the colonial palette. (creams & whites). The new buildings were painted pink to loook like sandstone, particularly in New Delhi.Had an overwhelming politival support , reputedly , nehru’s support in the design fofr Ashok hotel in new delhi.Example: Swami MalaiMandir (1960) its replete with dravidian imagery but its layout is not traditional.
BhubaneshwarIt was designed for the population 40,000. following the ideas of Arturo Soria y Mata , the Spanish planner, to allow growth for Koenigsberger’s design that laid the city out in a linear pattern with a central artery forming a main spine to which neighborhood units were attached.It had a clear social agenda in accordance to Nehru’s Policies: neither cast nor socio-economic were to exist and gender equality and education were to be stressed. In physical design climate and context were taken into consideration.By 1961, the population reached 40,000. The plan was revised by Julius Vaz to accommodate eleven neighbourhood units instead of four units.Nehru did not want bhubaneshwar to become a “city of big buildings” . It would accord with the idea of reducing differences between rich and poor.Secratariat building, the staff quarters, the red building , the market building, police building , museum , guest house was designed by Vaz.
Secretariat building, the staff quarters, the red building , the market building, police building , museum , guest house was designed by Vaz.
It was the first building to be finished. It consists of an L-shaped block, framed by a concrete cover that functions as a large umbrella that unfolds gracefully in the shape of arches, and that somehow establishes an reference to the covers of the havelis in Mughal architecture.
Walter Gropius was an inspiration to many works of AchyutKanvinde, who sought tot create buildings that represented modern technology and the machine age.The ATIRA building has an i=open plan, with clearly separated ‘functional areas’ .The administration-cum-laboratory block is a perfect rectangular form .Continuous bands of glass are flush with the wall on the north façade.Southern façade has sun shades running across in a continuous line.Kanvinde pioneered the use of flexible concrete column and beam grid. He introduced waffle slabs in the Bank of India building in bhadra, Ahmedabad.The idea of ATIRA was conceived by Vikram Sarabhai, KasturbhaiLalbhai and Shanti SwaroopBhatnagar. The foundation stone for the ATIRA complex was laid by SardarVallabhbhai Patel on 1 November 1950 which was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of IndiaPandit Jawaharlal Nehru on completion on April 10, 1954.
Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture
Damini Bhardwaj , Varsha Mallya
Studio III- B
Partition Of India
Figure 2: Post-Partition Map Of India
Figure 1: Pre-Partition Map Of India
After India’s Independence, partition of India took place dividing the country into two parts. The
political and the religious conflict between India and Pakistan led to a highly volatile atmosphere.
Political Scenario (1947-1980)
Figure 3: Mahatma Gandhi
Figure 4: Dr. Rajendra Prasad
Death of the 1st President of India
Figure 5: Jawaharlal Nehru
This period was dominated by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and can be
regarded as Nehru Years.
Nehru years was the time of political and social reforms.
Figure 6: Satellite ‘ Aryabhatta’
First Nuclear explosion at Pokhran (1974)
Firing of first rocket (1972)
Launching of satellite ‘ Aryabhatta’ (1975)
Bonded servitude was made illegal
Figure 5: Post-Partition Map Of India
• Political leaders
• Religious organizations.
• New industrialists, Entrepreneurs,
Individual house owners.
It was an immediate architectural response to
the Independence of India.
Revivalism took many forms:
British colonial buildings were faced
with stucco and not stone.
• Replication of traditional forms .
• The abstraction of past forms.
Walter Granville's High Court of 1872,
on Esplanade Row, Kolkata, is a vast
building, standing on land once
occupied by the Supreme Court and
three other residences. It has red brick
facing with stucco dressings.
Figure 7: Walter Granville's High Court
- Colors chosen were different from the colonial palette. (creams &
whites). The new buildings were painted pink to look like sandstone.
Figure 8: Ashok Hotel, New Delhi
Figure 9: Swami Malai Mandir, New Delhi
City plan from the book
Figure 10: City Plan of Bhubaneswar
Ref: Architecture and Independence
• Koenigsberger’s design laid the city out in a linear pattern with a central artery
forming a main spine to which neighborhood units were attached. It was
designed for the population 40,000.
• Neighborhood units had all the major amenities. Each unit was to house a
population for 5,000-6,000.
• It had a clear social agenda in accordance to Nehru’s
Policies: neither cast nor socio-economic were to exist
and gender equality and education were to be
• By 1961, the population reached 40,000. The plan was
revised by Julius Vaz to accommodate eleven
neighborhood units instead of four units.
• Nehru did not want Bhubaneswar to become a “city of
big buildings” . It would accord with the idea of
reducing differences between rich and poor.
Jawaharlal Nehru, decided to build a new city – Chandigarh as a capital
for the state Punjab after Lahore was lost to Pakistan.
He had envisioned this city to mark India’s entry into the modern world ,
would represent India’s clean break from the colonial rule of the British.
When India became independent, it was found that there were native no trained
professionals on city planning. Political leaders hired American architects- Matthew
Nowicki, and Albert Mayer to plan the city.
Figure 12: Chandigarh Nowicki plan
Figure 13: Le Corbusier plan
Ref: Architecture and Independence
Ref: Architecture and Independence
The project was handed over to Le Corbusier in the year 1951 by Jawaharlal Nehru.
Le Corbusier led a team that consisted of a French architect Pierre Jeanerette,
Englishmen Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew and about twenty Indian architects and
developed a new project.
Describing Chandigarh city plans .
Le Corbusier conceived the
master plan of Chandigarh
as analogous to human
body, with a clearly defined
Head (the Capitol Complex,
Heart (the City Centre
Lungs (the leisure valley,
innumerable open spaces
and sector greens),
Intellect (the cultural and
Circulatory system (the
network of roads, the 7Vs)
Viscera (the Industrial
Figure 14: Plan
•The primary module of city’s design is a Sector, a
neighborhood unit of size 800 meters x 1200 meters.
•Each SECTOR is a self-sufficient unit having shops,
school, health centers and places of recreations and
•The population of a sector varies between 3000 and
20000 depending upon the sizes of plots and the
topography of the area.
Figure 15: Neighbourhood plan
View of typical Roads and Round-abouts in the city
HIERARCHY of GREEN AREAS
1.City Level Public Green
Space with Artificial
2.Free- Flowing Green
Space, connecting the
4.Private Green Areas
for Residential Units
Figure 18: Plan demarcating green areas
The Basic Building Typology is
observed as extremely Rectilinear
with similar proportions.
Figure 19: Typology
In both the developments the
smaller individual Residential Units
are arranged around central
common Green Spaces, although
the shapes are different.
Figure 20: Typology
The Superior Court of Justice
Figure 21: Front View
Parasol roof extending to form
Full Height Entrance
It consists of an L-shaped block framed by a concrete that in the shape of arches,
and that somehow establishes an reference to the covers of the havelis in Mughal
This space between the double cover
offers a smooth ventilation in the
summer and protection during the rainy
Figure 23: Ashok Hotel, New Delhi
Figure 24: Painted Concrete columns dividing the High court from
the Supreme court.
Figure 25: Terrace
The building contains 8 high courts
and a supreme court .
Le Corbusier devised a set of outdoor
terraces, which now are used as
The Secretariat, 1958
Figure 25: Secretariat
The Assembly Hall
Figure 29: Assembly Hall
Rough concrete finish ramp
Figure 31: View of the ramp
Figure 30: View from the road
Concrete double roof
Achyut Kanvinde: sought to create buildings that represented modern
technology and the machine age.
• Open plan, with clearly
separated ‘functional areas’.
The administration-cumlaboratory block is a perfect
rectangular form .
• Southern façade has sun shades
running across in a continuous
• Continuous bands of glass
are flush with the wall on the
Figure 32: The Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association building
1) Jon T. Lang , Madhavi Desai , Miki Desai. Architecture and Independence: The
Search for Identity - India, 1880-1980