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GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN  CENSUS OF INDIA 2011   WORK PARTICIPATION AND         MIGRATION                VARSHA JOSHI      ...
FEMALE WORK PARTICIPATION• ALL INDIA TREND OVER TIME    35    30                            30.8                       26....
Male Work Participation Ratio- All      India trend overtime5554        53.7753        52.62      52.5852                 ...
• Female work participation rate is increasing  slowly but steadily. It is far lower in urban  areas than in rural areas. ...
Value of further analysis• Since there is a wealth of previous Census data  available, it is worthwhile to analyse by vari...
GEOGRAPHICAL TREND50.0       47.545.0          43.7                     40.040.0                        39.0 38.7 38.6    ...
Geographical trend• North East and other tribal population states  tend to show highest FWP, followed by  Southern and the...
Worker’s sex ratio• Number of female workers per 100  male workers• Direct and useful indicator to  compare female and mal...
WORKERS’ SEX RATIO :Female WF per 100 Male WF (Total)90     7980        78   77                    75                     ...
Female Work Force per 100 Male WF (Rural)100 90      86           84   84                     82   82 80                  ...
Female Work Force per 100 Male WF (Urban)80     72          70706050               4740                    33             ...
Labour force sex ratio• Females per 100 males in 15-59 age group  who are either main or marginal workers or  are non work...
Female Labour force available for work per 100 male Labour Force - INDIA90     84          7980             78            ...
Female Labour force available for work per 100 male Labour Force - Rural100 90      87           86   85   84             ...
Female Labour force available for work per 100 male Labour Force - Urban90     8180          727060               57      ...
MALE & FEMALE WPR ACROSS    AGE GROUPS-INDIA 110 100                                                                      ...
WPR ACROSS AGE GROUPS-     INDIA (RURAL)110100                                         96   97   97                       ...
WPR ACROSS AGE GROUPS-     INDIA (URBAN)110100                                                96   96                     ...
WPR across age groups• While the peak work participation is in the  35-49 age group both for males and  females, there is ...
FWPR ACROSS NIC CATEGORIES-INDIA          FWP A+B           C      D       E       F      G       H       I    J &K L to Q...
FWPR ACROSS NIC CATEGORIES-INDIA35.0030.0025.0020.00                                                                      ...
Female workers per 100 males over Industrial                                Categories - INDIA45                     41 41...
URBAN AREAS:FWPR ACROSS EDUCATIONAL LEVELS- INDIA               Educational level                  FWPR  Total            ...
60.0050.00                                                         48.92                                              46.5...
Education and work participation• Females who have acquired technical  qualifications are more likely to be returned  as w...
Why is FWPR so low in Delhi?• Economic reasons: similar to other urban  areas• Social reasons: similar to neighbouring  st...
FWPR FOR DELHI35                                  30.830                       26.7925                                25.7...
FEMALE WORKERS PER 100 MALE WORKERS           ACROSS NIC CATEGORIES-DELHI4540                                             ...
Work Participation across categories A to Q             L to Q      J&K              I        H           G            F  ...
Categories returning unexpectedly        low worker sex ratio• Household manufacturing• Non- household manufacturing• Cons...
Strategies for Census 2011• Encourage enumerator to interact with at  least one male member and one female  member of the ...
More strategies: for urban areas• Identify localities where female manual labour  and female household manufacturing is  e...
MIGRATION In-migration to urban areasOut- migration from rural areas
DELHI• IN- MIGRATION IN URBAN AREAS: ARE  SINGLE MALES COMING IN MORE THAN  FAMILIES?• IS THERE ANY DIFFERENCE IN FWPR AMO...
Female Migrants from other States of India           with reason for Migration                              60   Reason fo...
Female migrants over 100 male migrants from         different States & U.Ts in NCT of Delhi140      133120            113 ...
Strategy for Delhi• “Netting the tenants”• Targeted publicity in urbanised villages and  unauthorised colonies of Delhi• T...
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  1. 1. GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN CENSUS OF INDIA 2011 WORK PARTICIPATION AND MIGRATION VARSHA JOSHI DIRECTOR CENSUS OPERATIONS DELHI
  2. 2. FEMALE WORK PARTICIPATION• ALL INDIA TREND OVER TIME 35 30 30.8 26.79 25 25.7 23.06 22.27 20 19.67 Total Rural 15 Urban 11.9 10 9.19 8.31 5 0 1981 1991 2001 2
  3. 3. Male Work Participation Ratio- All India trend overtime5554 53.7753 52.62 52.5852 52.11 51.61 51.6851 50.6 Total Rural50 Urban49 49.06 48.92484746 1981 1991 2001 (Table B-1)
  4. 4. • Female work participation rate is increasing slowly but steadily. It is far lower in urban areas than in rural areas. The increase for rural areas is quite high at 7.6% over 20 years.• Male work participation rate is decreasing in rural areas and increasing in urban areas while remaining, overall, fairly static. 4
  5. 5. Value of further analysis• Since there is a wealth of previous Census data available, it is worthwhile to analyse by various factors to pinpoint the areas requiring greater care while netting information for Census 2011• Factors analysed: o Geography & culture of states o Urban vs rural areas o Age groups o Education o Category of work 5
  6. 6. GEOGRAPHICAL TREND50.0 47.545.0 43.7 40.040.0 39.0 38.7 38.6 38.1 36.5 35.1 35.135.0 33.5 33.2 32.0 31.5 30.830.0 27.9 27.3 27.2 26.4 25.6 24.725.0 22.5 22.4 21.1 20.720.0 19.1 18.8 18.6 18.3 17.2 16.6 16.5 15.415.0 14.2 9.410.0 7.3 5.0 0.0 6
  7. 7. Geographical trend• North East and other tribal population states tend to show highest FWP, followed by Southern and then Western states.• UP, Kerala, Bihar and Punjab are major states having FWP below 20%• Delhi and Chandigarh have very low FWP which should be studied with reference to urban segments of other states. 7
  8. 8. Worker’s sex ratio• Number of female workers per 100 male workers• Direct and useful indicator to compare female and male work participation 8
  9. 9. WORKERS’ SEX RATIO :Female WF per 100 Male WF (Total)90 7980 78 77 75 73 7170 64 62 61 59 5960 57 54 54 53 52 5050 47 47 46 46 40 39 3940 39 37 32 32 32 32 3130 25 20 2020 16 15100 9
  10. 10. Female Work Force per 100 Male WF (Rural)100 90 86 84 84 82 82 80 78 76 75 74 74 73 71 69 70 67 66 63 62 62 60 58 56 50 50 49 48 44 43 42 40 39 39 37 36 34 30 28 20 17 17 15 11 10 0 10
  11. 11. Female Work Force per 100 Male WF (Urban)80 72 70706050 4740 33 32 31 31 3030 29 29 28 27 26 25 23 23 22 21 21 21 1920 18 18 18 18 18 18 17 17 15 15 15 15 14 13 13100 11
  12. 12. Labour force sex ratio• Females per 100 males in 15-59 age group who are either main or marginal workers or are non workers willing to work• Gives compensatory knowledge with respect to factors which may prevent correct declaration of work by respondent 12
  13. 13. Female Labour force available for work per 100 male Labour Force - INDIA90 84 7980 78 76 75 7570 67 65 62 62 61 6060 59 59 58 57 53 52 52 51 51 50 5050 49 48 48 48 48 4640 39 38 34 3430 27 2320 1910 0 13
  14. 14. Female Labour force available for work per 100 male Labour Force - Rural100 90 87 86 85 84 83 80 80 78 76 76 75 74 74 72 70 69 68 64 62 61 60 60 59 60 59 58 56 54 54 51 50 50 46 45 41 40 38 36 30 21 20 18 14 10 0 14
  15. 15. Female Labour force available for work per 100 male Labour Force - Urban90 8180 727060 57 56 56 5050 47 46 45 43 42 4240 39 37 36 35 34 34 32 31 3130 29 29 29 28 26 25 24 24 22 22 22 21 2020 19 1910 0 15
  16. 16. MALE & FEMALE WPR ACROSS AGE GROUPS-INDIA 110 100 97 97 95 90 92 89 80 81 70 71 70 60 60 50 52 MWPR 48 49 46 47 FWPR 40 41 41 40 39 39 36 35 30 26 25 26 20 22 21 13 10 9 8 9 0 2 1 Total 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-79 15-59 A.N.S 80+ 60+ 16
  17. 17. WPR ACROSS AGE GROUPS- INDIA (RURAL)110100 96 97 97 94 90 91 83 80 77 76 70 66 60 58 57 56 54 MWPR 50 52 52 49 49 FWPR 45 45 40 37 38 30 31 32 31 26 25 20 16 10 11 10 10 0 2 Total 10-14 20-24 30-34 40-49 60-69 80+ 15-59 17
  18. 18. WPR ACROSS AGE GROUPS- INDIA (URBAN)110100 96 96 93 90 88 83 80 75 70 60 58 MWPR 50 51 51 FWPR 44 40 40 34 30 28 26 23 24 20 21 20 17 18 12 13 13 10 11 8 9 4 6 5 1 2 0 Total 10-14 20-24 30-34 40-49 60-69 80+ 15-59 18
  19. 19. WPR across age groups• While the peak work participation is in the 35-49 age group both for males and females, there is a steep rise for males through age group 20-35 while the curve is much flatter for females. Thus females of child bearing age appear to be disproportionately left behind in work participation, and to a far greater extent in urban areas compared to rural areas. 19
  20. 20. FWPR ACROSS NIC CATEGORIES-INDIA FWP A+B C D E F G H I J &K L to Q RTotal 25.60 19.62 0.08 2.60 0.02 0.32 0.55 0.06 0.09 0.48 1.80Rural 30.77 26.21 0.08 2.43 0.01 0.21 0.40 0.04 0.04 0.32 1.03Urban 11.84 2.07 0.06 3.04 0.04 0.60 0.94 0.10 0.22 0.90 3.87 INDUSTRIAL CATEGORIES: A – Agriculture, Hunting and Forestry; B – Fishing; C – Mining and Quarrying; D – Manufacturing ; E – Electricity, Gas and Water Supply; F – Construction; G – Wholesale and Retail Trade; H – Hotels and Restaurants; I – Transport, Storage and Communications; J – Financial Intermediation; K – Real Estate, Renting and Business Activities; L – Public Administration and Defence, Compulsory Social Security; M – Education; N – Health and Social Work; O – Other Community, Social and Personal Service Activities; P – Private Households with Employed Persons; Q – Extra-Territorial Organisations and Bodies. 20
  21. 21. FWPR ACROSS NIC CATEGORIES-INDIA35.0030.0025.0020.00 Total Rural15.00 Urban10.00 5.00 0.00 FWPR A+B C D E F G H I J &K L to Q 21
  22. 22. Female workers per 100 males over Industrial Categories - INDIA45 41 4140 39 36 35 3535 34 3030 29 2725 22 Total 21 Rural20 19 Urban 18 18 18 1615 12 11 10 1010 9 9 9 8 8 7 7 55 4 4 3 20 22 Main workers A&B C D E F G H I J &K L to Q
  23. 23. URBAN AREAS:FWPR ACROSS EDUCATIONAL LEVELS- INDIA Educational level FWPR Total 11.88 Illiterate 12.88 Literate 11.30 Literate but below matric/secondary 8.19 Matric/secondary but below graduate 9.75 Technical diploma or certificate not equal to degree 46.52 Graduate and above other than technical degree 24.86 Technical degree or diploma equal to degree or post-graduate degree 48.92 (Table B-3)
  24. 24. 60.0050.00 48.92 46.5240.0030.00 24.8620.00 11.88 12.88 11.30 9.7510.00 8.19 FWPR 0.00
  25. 25. Education and work participation• Females who have acquired technical qualifications are more likely to be returned as working compared to females having other educational levels 25
  26. 26. Why is FWPR so low in Delhi?• Economic reasons: similar to other urban areas• Social reasons: similar to neighbouring states and states contributing most in- migrants 26
  27. 27. FWPR FOR DELHI35 30.830 26.7925 25.7 23.06 22.2720 19.67 Delhi Total India Total15 India Rural India Urban 11.910 9.4 9.19 8.31 6.84 7.3650 1981 1991 2001 (Table B-1)
  28. 28. FEMALE WORKERS PER 100 MALE WORKERS ACROSS NIC CATEGORIES-DELHI4540 3935 32302520 Total 1615 1410 7 7 6 6 6 5 550 Main A&B C D E F G H I J &K L to Q 28 workers
  29. 29. Work Participation across categories A to Q L to Q J&K I H G F E D (HHI) D(NON) C A+BMales 733295 323540 362357 74160 894063 279904 41294 106292 916731 14288 57599Females 288667 51587 17041 4748 44161 19156 2642 18586 57616 817 18481A – Agriculture, Hunting andForestryB – Fishing A+BC – Mining and QuarryingD – Manufacturing CE – Electricity, Gas & WaterSupply D(NOF – Construction N)G – Wholesale and Retail Trade DH – Hotels and Restaurants (HHI)I – Transport, Storage and ECommunicationsJ – Financial IntermediationK – Real Estate, Renting and F MalesBusiness Activities FemalesL – Public Administration and GDefence, Compulsory SocialSecurity HM – EducationN – Health and Social Work IO – Other Community, Socialand Personal Service Activities J&KP – Private Households with L toEmployed Persons QQ – Extra-TerritorialOrganisations and Bodies. 29 0 200000 400000 600000 800000 1000000 1200000
  30. 30. Categories returning unexpectedly low worker sex ratio• Household manufacturing• Non- household manufacturing• Construction• Retail trade 30
  31. 31. Strategies for Census 2011• Encourage enumerator to interact with at least one male member and one female member of the household if they are available at home• The publicity campaign, especially on TV, should emphasise response from female family members even if a male member is present 31
  32. 32. More strategies: for urban areas• Identify localities where female manual labour and female household manufacturing is expected to be high; Charge Officer must ensure proper netting of information• Get specific response regarding willingness to work from female non workers• Make special attempt to get response regarding economic activities not having a formal structure, such as “tupperware ladies”, tuitions, beauty parlours/ boutiques etc 32
  33. 33. MIGRATION In-migration to urban areasOut- migration from rural areas
  34. 34. DELHI• IN- MIGRATION IN URBAN AREAS: ARE SINGLE MALES COMING IN MORE THAN FAMILIES?• IS THERE ANY DIFFERENCE IN FWPR AMONG MIGRANTS COMPARED TO TOTALS? 34
  35. 35. Female Migrants from other States of India with reason for Migration 60 Reason for Percent 48.7 50 Migration age 40 36.2Work/Employment 4.4 30Marriage 36.2 20 10.7 10Moved with family 48.7 4.4 0 Work/Employment Marriage Moved with family Other reasonOther reason 10.7 35
  36. 36. Female migrants over 100 male migrants from different States & U.Ts in NCT of Delhi140 133120 113 107 106 105 101 101 100100 98 98 97 94 92 92 89 88 88 88 85 82 81 81 81 79 7880 77 76 75 74 71 6160 58 58 464020 0 36
  37. 37. Strategy for Delhi• “Netting the tenants”• Targeted publicity in urbanised villages and unauthorised colonies of Delhi• Thorough inclusion of labour huts and similar structures which have come up after 1st phase (HLO) 37
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