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A Billion Snapshots: Principles and Processes in the Census of India
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A Billion Snapshots: Principles and Processes in the Census of India

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An overview of the principles and processes in the Census of India which make it a source of comprehensive, clean and thoroughly reliable data. …

An overview of the principles and processes in the Census of India which make it a source of comprehensive, clean and thoroughly reliable data.

Published in: Technology, Economy & Finance

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  • These slides were used in a talk I gave at the Hasgeek Fifth Elephant Big Data Conference last year. The video of the talk with Q&A is here https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=f_KcyqXgem4
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  • As far as my experience in Government Service goes, one must have thorough knowledge about the insights of happenings in rural areas. What happens, we try to imagine the happenings in rural areas by sitting in urban areas. Rural areas particularly in remote areas are totally ignored. For comparison of two areas for say, literacy status, until and unless we understand the social, economic and other status of the two areas separately by staying there, no medicine for development can be prescribed for the two areas separately. We cannot give Crocin tablets to both for diagnosis of illness. We must have 'pathological test' for both separately to know the type of illness and then only prescribe the right medicine to each, which will definitely be different because of the heterogeneities involved . By sitting in Delhi, the 'pathological test' is not possible by seminars and presentations. For example, NE region is completely unexplored region. No body likes to visit there even by availing LTC. Thanks.
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  • As far as my experience goes in Government Service goes, one must have through knowledge about the insights of happenings in rural areas. What happens, we try to imagine the happenings in rural areas by sitting in rural areas. Rural areas particularly in rural areas are totally ignored. For comparison of two areas for say, literacy status, until and unless we understand the social, economic and other status of the two areas separately by staying there, no medicine for development can be prescribed for the two areas separately. We cannot give Crocin tablets to both for diagnosis of illness. We must have 'pathological test' for both separately to know the type of illness and then only prescribe the right medicine to each, which will definitely be different because of the heterogeneities involved . By sitting in Delhi, the 'pathological test' is not possible by seminars and presentations. For example, NE region is completely unexplored region. No body likes to visit there even by availing LTC. Thanks.
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  • Based on the specific shortcomings of Census 2011 , preparation for the 2021 census should start with intensive field visits by Census officials to States . They should stay in the remote areas of India to understand the people there. Census taking does not mean only data collection blindly but data collection with understanding. In every state the material for construction of houses are unique. So we have to recognise them physically in order to avoid confusion at the time of census.
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  • Our Census is the most plausible source of information on demography........a huge task successfully implemented .....we at least know that our growth rate in population in the last decade was 17.64%though it had showed a sharp decline, but very astounding that the growth rate of population in rural was 12.18% and in urban areas was 31.80% respectively!!!!!!!!!!
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  • 1. A BILLION SNAPSHOTS: PRINCIPLES AND PROCESSES IN THE CENSUS OF INDIA Varsha Joshi, Director of Census Operations Delhi13.07.2013
  • 2. THE LARGEST CENSUS IN THE WORLD 1.21 BILLION PEOPLE COUNTED BY 2.7 MILLION FUNCTIONARIES 2 UNIVERSAL ROUNDS WITH DATA PROCESSING OF 100% SCHEDULES 2
  • 3. UNMATCHED COMPLEXITY 35QUESTIONS IN HOUSELISTING 29QUESTIONS IN POPULATION ENUMERATION SCHEDULES IN 16 LANGUAGES MANUALS IN 18 LANGUAGES 3
  • 4. PRINCIPLES OF CENSUS TAKING4
  • 5. LEGAL BACKING CENSUS ACT 1948 RESPONDING TO CENSUS QUESTIONS IS MANDATORY 5
  • 6. PROTECTION OF PRIVACY THOUGH THERE ARE SEVERAL SENSITIVE QUESTIONS ASKED IN THE CENSUS, THERE IS A GUARANTEE OF COMPLETE CONFIDENTIALITY & ANONYMITY 6
  • 7. INCLUSIVENESS IN THE COUNT THE CENSUS MUST ENSURE THAT EVERYONE IS COUNTED WITHOUT OMISSION OR DUPLICATION AND THIS INCLUDES VULNERABLE PEOPLE & GROUPS 7
  • 8. OPENNESS IN THE PREPARATION DEMOGRAPHERS, PLANNERS, AND OTHER DATA USERS ARE CONSULTED TO DECIDE ON THE QUESTIONS SECTORAL NGOS & UN AGENCIES ARE INVOLVED IN TRAINING AND PUBLICITY MEASURES AND FIELD MONITORING 8
  • 9. OVERCOMING BIASES THE ENUMERATOR IS TRAINED TO ASK EVERY QUESTION FOR EVERY HOUSEHOLD MEMBER WITHOUT MAKING ASSUMPTIONS AND TO PROBE GENTLY TO OVERCOME RESPONDENTS’ ASSUMPTIONS 9
  • 10. REAL TIME FEEDBACK LOOPS 10 FIELD SUPPORT FOR ENUMERATORS AT ALL TIMES FROM SUPERVISORS & MASTER TRAINERS FEEDBACK FROM PUBLIC THROUGH TOLLFREE NUMBER, HELP DESKS, EMAIL, FACEBOOK, TWITTER
  • 11. PROCESSES11
  • 12. GIS MAPPING SHAPE FILES OF ALL 640,000 VILLAGES SATELLITE BASED GIS MAPS FOR 33 CAPITAL CITIES 12
  • 13. ENUMERATOR MAPS 13
  • 14. UNIQUE LOCATION CODE STATE DISTT SUBDTT TOWN WARD EB HSHD 07 08 003 7001 0149 0112 083 14
  • 15. DESIGNING THE QUESTIONNAIRE QUESTIONNAIRE = CONTENT (QUESTIONS) + PHYSICAL FORM (SCHEDULE) 15
  • 16. DESIGNING THE QUESTIONS BACKWARD COMPATIBILTY LOGICAL PROGRESSION GENDER AND CLASS NEUTRAL 16
  • 17. TO CODE OR NOT TO CODE 17
  • 18. DESIGNING THE SCHEDULE EASY TO READ AND WRITE LONG LASTING QUALITY SUITABLE FOR SCANNING & ICR 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. INTELLIGENT CHARACTER RECOGNITION 20
  • 21. DATA PROCESSING- PRE SCANNING 21 PRE SCANNING- PREPARING SCHEDULES FOR SCANNING THROUGH A BARCODE BASED CONTROL SYSTEM
  • 22. SCANNING COLOUR ARCHIVING; COLOUR DROPOUT FOR ICR 22
  • 23. EFLOW TEMPLATE MATCHING 23
  • 24. SEPARATION AND TILING 24
  • 25. COMPUTER ASSISTED CODING 25
  • 26. DATA EDITING IN IMPS/ CSPro 26 COVERAGE CHECKS CONSISTENCY CHECKS ITEM IMPUTATION HOT DECK/ COLD DECK NO UNIT IMPUTATION
  • 27. TABULATION 27 TMF/ TRU UNIVARIATE & MULTIVARIATE TABLES CUSTOMISED TABLES ON REQUEST RECAST DATA OF PREVIOUS CENSUSES
  • 28. PUBLICATIONS 28 HOUSELISTING TABLES: H & HH SERIES POPULATION ENUMERATION TABLES: A, B, C, D, F, SC, ST SERIES ADMINISTRATIVE & THEMATIC ATLASES
  • 29. DATA DISSEMINATION POLICY29
  • 30. COPYRIGHT 30 FREE TO USE WITH ACKNOWLEDGEMENT “Census of India 2011, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner of India” RESALE/ REDISTRIBUTION WITHOUT VALUE ADDITION PROHIBITED
  • 31. MODES OF DISSEMINATION 31 WEBSITE http://www.censusindia.gov.in CENSUSINFO http://www.devinfo.org/indiacensus2011
  • 32. GRANULAR & CUSTOMISED DATA 32 DIRECTORATES OF CENSUS OPERATIONS IN STATE CAPITALS WORKSTATIONS IN UNIVERSITIES JNU & PUNJABI UNIVERSITY PATIALA FUNCTIONAL
  • 33. PRINT PUBLICATIONS- AT DCOs 33 BOOKS, REPORTS, MAPS OF PRESENT & PREVIOUS CENSUSES DIGITAL ARCHIVE OF PUBLICATIONS (UNDER PREPARATION)
  • 34. DATA RELEASES FROM CENSUS 2011 34 RELEASED  PROVISIONAL POPULATION TOTALS  HOUSELISTING & HOUSING CENSUS RESULTS  PRIMARY CENSUS ABSTRACT UPCOMING  AGE GROUPING, DISABILITY  RELIGION, MOTHER TONGUE, MIGRATION  WORKERS BY NIC/NCO CLASSIFICATION
  • 35. UTILITY OF CENSUS DATA35
  • 36. ELECTIONS 36 DELIMITATION OF CONSTITUENCIES RESERVATIONOF SC/ ST SEATS
  • 37. SAMPLING FRAMES 37 ALL MAJOR SURVEYS INCLUDING NFHS SRS AHS SECC CREATE THEIR SAMPLING/ SURVEY FRAMES ON THE BASIS OF CENSUS ENUMERATION BLOCKS
  • 38. PLANNING COMMISSION 38 POPULATION PROJECTIONS RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS ACHIEVEMENT OF GOALS
  • 39. IMPACT ON POLICYMAKING 39 CHILD SEX RATIO IN PUNJAB 2001- 798 2011- 846 MANUAL SCAVENGING ELECTRIFICATION OF VILLAGES
  • 40. THANK YOU dco-del.rgi@censusindia.gov.in @suraiya95 FURTHER QUESTIONS/ INFORMATION ? http://www.slideshare.net/varshajoshi95