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Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
Elucine coracana  ragi
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Elucine coracana ragi

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  1. 1
  2. RAGI (Eleusine coracana L.) Varsha Gayatonde ID No. PALB-2235 Jr. M.Sc. Dept. of Genetics and Plant Breeding 2
  3. INTRODUCTION  Scientific name ;Eleusine corocana.  Family ;poaceae Ragi or finger millet (Eleusine coracana.) has known by many names in English as birds foot, coracana, and African millet, Finger millet, crow-footed millet.  Among the millets of the world, ragi ranks fourth after the pearl millet.  Major cultivating area is Africa and southern Asia.  3
  4. Contd……  India alone produces between 40 and 45% of the total world production, and most of the rest of ragi millet is produced in Central Africa.  In India, the states of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh produce most of the ragi crop.  The southeastern area of Karnataka adjoining regions of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh produce the bulk of the Indian crop.  Karnataka and Tamil Nadu produce about 61% of the total crop. 4
  5. Contd…… Cont…..  Ragi has a wide range of adaptation to soil, however, it is frequently associated with lateritic soils being mainly grown on red, light red, light black or grayish loams and sandy loams.  The grain is very highly resistant to storage insect pests, even without any special care or attention. It is reputed to remain in good condition even when stored as long as fifty years (Ayyangar, 1972). 5
  6. RAGI-Karnataka  The most important districts of Karnataka include Bangalore where over 40% of the cultivated area is sown to the millet  Kolar where almost 50% of the cultivated land is under ragi, and Tumkur and Hassan where about 40% of the cropped area is in millet.  The temperatures range from 26.7o to 32.2o C. 6
  7. Contd…  Grows well with very small amount of irrigation, pesticides or fertilizers.  Can be stored for exceptionally long periods without any insect damage occurring, and so is extremely important in times of famine.  it is rich in calcium, iron, protein and some rare nutrients such as methionine . 7
  8. Cont….  Digests easily from infancy through old age, and its nutrients are highly absorbed.  Easy cultivation, low input requirements, free from major pests / diseases, rejuvenating capacity after alleviation of stress conditions.  It is used for malting and brewing. 8
  9. Contd…  Grain is ground into flour and malt into stiff mush or porridge.  Malted grain dried, roasted and ground.  Used for preparing bread and other baked products.  Much finger millet in Africa is used in preparing beer.  Straw can be used as fodder. 9
  10. Classification  Kingdom: Plantae  Subkingdom: Tracheobionta  Super division : Spermatophyta  Division: Magnoliophyta  Class: Liliopsida  Subclass: Commelinidae  Order: Cyperales  Family: Poaceae  Genus : Eleusine Gaertn  Species: Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn. 10
  11. DIFFERENT SPECIES. Diploid species Tetraploid species. 1. Eleusine indica 2. Eleusine oligostachya 3. E.tristachya 4. E. poranansis 5. E. jaegeri 6. E. flacifolia 1.Eleusine coracana 2. E. africana 3. E. Longipoides 4. E. verticillata 5. E. cagopoides 11
  12. There are two cultivated types of ragi.  Indian ragi (2n = 4x = 36) E. coracana (tetraploids) - Short fingers, small grains, photo insensitive.  African ragi ( 2n = 4x = 36) E. africana (tetraploids) It has long fingers, bold grain, stiff straw, photosensitive and uneven grain maturity phase. 12
  13. Eleusine indica Eleusine coracana Eleusine africana 13
  14. NUTRIENT COMPOSITION. Major Nutrients. g/100g Minerals. mg/100g Protein. 7.43 Calcium. 344 Carbohydrate. 74.0 Copper. 0.5 Fat. 1.3 Iron. 9.9 Crude fiber. 3.6 Manganese. 140 Ash. 2.6 Phosphorous. 250 Food energy (kj). 1403 Potassium. 314 Sodium. 49 Zinc. 1.5 Chloride. 84 Source;www.wikipedia.com 14
  15. Source;www.wikipedia.com 15
  16. Origin.  Uganda and neighboring regions.  Introduced to India approximately 3,000 years ago. 16
  17. Distribution..  Is an important staple food in both Eastern and Central Africa and South Asia.  The cultivation of finger millet widely distributed extending from Tamil Nadu in South to Uttaranchal in North; ,Gujarat in West to Orissa in East and even extending to north – eastern regions including Sikkim. 17
  18. Physical quality • Sound marketable conditions • Dry,sweet,clean,good food value. • Uniform in color ,free from mould,weevils,smell and other admixtures. 21
  19. Parameters adopted to study • Grain dimensions-Appearanca,cooking quality,keeping quality,endosperm nature. • Cooking and eating quality-Peiiatability ,stickyness,amylase,amylopectin content. 22
  20. Ecological aspects  Can be practically grown in all 12 months of the year.  120-130 days duration crop.  Grows on a wide variety of soils from very poor to very fertile ones. Thrives best on good arable, well drained loam or clay loam soils.  Can also tolerate a certain degree of alkalinity.  500-1000mm rainfall. 23
  21.  Habit : Annual or Perennial, herbaceous. .  Height : about 1m.  Root system: Adventitious. spik e  Stem : Compressed, elliptic. stem leave s 24 roots
  22. Cont…..  Culm : Compressed and culms are typically green in colour. Culm nodes are glabrous. Culm internodes solid or hollow.  Leaf sheath : Leaf sheaths are prominently flattened.  Leaf blade : Leaf blades linear, narrow, flat or folded, without cross veination. 25
  23.  Inflorescence : It consists of a group of digitally arranged spikes in a terminal umbel form.  Spikelet : Spikelets are strongly compressed laterally, curved into two over lapping rows on the outer sides of the spike.  Each spikelet has 4-6 flowers, flowers per ear head 1500 – 3000. 26
  24.  Lemma : Pointed, awnless, hairless.  Palea : Present,awnless.  Lodicules : Present and two in number joined or free, fleshy.  Glumes : Two, more or less equal. Lower glume 1 nerved. Glumes, Lemma and Palea, Stamen and Stigma 27
  25. Cont….  Stamen: Flower contains 3 stamens, short anthers and long filament.  Pistil: Ovary glabrous. Styles free to their bases. Branched stigma with white or brown in colour.  Fruit : The grains are globose. 28
  26. 1, stem part with leaves; 2, inflorescence; 3, part of inflorescence branch; 4, spikelet; 5, floret without lemma and palea; 6, grain within lemma and palea; 7, grain. 29
  27. Ragi Floral Biology 30
  28. Floral structure  Terminal whorl bearing 2 to 10, but averaging 5 or 6 spikes arranged like a birds foot at the top of the peduncle.  The lowest spike is separated by 2 to 5 cm from the other spikes and which arise from the same point at the end of the stem Coleman (1960) and Ayyangar (1972) 31
  29. Contd…. Cont…..  In each finger there are about 70 spikelet's, each spikelet having five to seven complete flowers.  In the spikelet the flowering proceeds from bottom to top and in a finger the order of flowering is from the top spikelet downward.  An ear head contains 1,500 to 3,000 flowers, and the flowering period varies from six or seven to ten days. Coleman (1960) and Ayyangar (1972) 32
  30. Inflorescence types TOP INCURVED OPEN TYPE INCURVED TYPE 33
  31. Seed development  The dry matter accumulation in the seed gradually increases from the milk stage and attain a maximum a physiological maturity.  The maximum dry matter accumulation is recorded in short duration varieties at their physiological maturity, as compared to medium and long duration varieties. 34
  32. Floral biology  Anthesis commences from top spikelet and progress downwards. Each spikelet contains 4 to 6 flowers, the opening of the florets starts from bottom to top.  One floret in the spikelet opens per day.  Flowering takes place simultaneously in all fingers. 35
  33. Cont….  Complete emergence of the inflorescence requires 7 -8 days.  Depending upon the ear shape –Flower opening period will vary Compact : 2-3 a.m. Fisty : 3-5 a.m. Open : 1-2 a.m.  Pollen viability is very short, 10 – 15 min. 36
  34.  Anthers require about 45 minutes for dehiscence after emergence  The stigma is receptive for about five minutes after emergence from the glumes  Self pollination is the general rule because the period of anthesis is very short.  Cross fertilization by wind and insects is less than 1 per cent. 37
  35. Important pests.  Grass hoppers (Heiroglypus baniana)  Bihar Hairy Caterpillar.(Spylosoma obliqua)  Stem borer (Sesamia inference) 38
  36. IMPORTANT DISEASES.  Seedling blight.  Blast.  Downy mildew. 39
  37. STORAGE PEST.  Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella Hubner.  Larger grain borer Prostephanus truncatus  Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum 40
  38. Breeding Goals  To enhance the productivity.  Improving the quality of the grains.  Elimination of toxic substance in grains and straw.  To develop genotypes resistance to biotic and abiotic stress.  Early maturity.  Agronomic characteristics:1.Height: Medium 50-75cm is best. 2.Tillering: Professed basal tillering. 41
  39. Breeding methods  Introduction Inter state- Indaf 5 and sarada from karnataka.  Pure line selection AKP 6 from the base material am No. 159 Paiyur 1 from the base material PR 722 42
  40. Cont…..  Mutation Breeding Hagari 1( H1) [From Gidda Aryam] (gamma rays) Shubra[ Mutant from Co 9 ] (gamma rays)  Hybridization followed by selection CO 6 [EC 1540 X EC 2945] Poorna [ Co 1 X Aruna ] Indaf 8 [ Cauvery X IE 927 ] Indaf 9[K1 X IE 980 R ] 43
  41. SELFING AND CROSSING TECHNIQUES SELFING TECHNIQUE: The panicle before commencing anthesis is covered with paper cover.  Retained till the blooming is over. 44
  42. EMASCULATION.  It is nothing but the process of removal of male part from the flower.  In Ragi, two methods of Emasculation are being followed. 1. Hand Emasculation. 2. Hot Water Treatment. 45
  43. Hand emasculation  Selection of panicles and florets that would open the next day.  Selected panicle is covered by a polythene bag after spraying the plant with cold water and fixed air tight.  The glumes slowly open and expose the premature anthers and pistil. 46
  44. Cont…  The 3 anthers can be carefully removed, without injuring the stigmatic lobes.  The emasculated panicle is sprinkled with cold water to prevent drying of the pistil.  In the male parent, the panicles that would open the next day are cut and tied to the emasculated seed parent and covered by a butter paper bag. 47
  45. Hot water treatment  Plants likely to flower during the next 2-3 days are selected  Hot water treatment at 520C for 2 minutes was the best as judged from the percentage of seed-set.  Three fingers retained in the panicle are immersed into thermo flask containing hot water for different period. 48
  46. Contd..  Then the spikelet's are pollinated early in the morning.  The male parent, that would open the next day are tied to the emasculated seed parent and covered by a butter paper bag. 49
  47. Limitations  The necessary equipment to maintain correct temperatures.  The correct and efficient temperature for many species.  The effect of temperature on stigma.  The relatively small amount of seed set that has been reported in many crop species. 50
  48. Pollination  Hand pollination  Approach or Contact method 51
  49. Hand pollination  The inflorescence to be opened will be selected.  Cut with long stalk from the male parent.  This is brought to the emasculated flower.  Male flower as a whole will be tied round with female flower. 52
  50. Contd…  Then they are covered with butter paper bag.  Natural cross pollination takes place in 2 to 5 days.  Marker genes are utilized for identifying the hybrid seedlings in the nursery plot.  53
  51. Contact method The reason for using contact techniques are as follows:  Autogamous nature of crops with very small florets.  Anthesis takes place in the very early hours of the day.  The pollen is viable for a short period. 54
  52. Procedure  Planting date is adjusted so as to synchronize flowering of male and female parents.  Selection of proper stage – just flowered at tip of ear.  Prepare ear and remaining portion of the finger and immature portion of the ear are removed with scissors. Retain only 2 or 3 fingers.  Select male ear which is similar in condition of flowering / just flowered. 55
  53. Cont….  Surround two female fingers with all male fingers very loosely and tie it in such a way to allow proper aeration.  Remove the thread after complete flowering of the ear.  Tag the crossed ear head for identification and collecting the seeds.  Contact method (Karnataka) has been successfully utilised for crossing and the varieties developed are GPU 26, GPU 28and GPU 48. 56
  54. 57
  55. Constraints in hybridization  All small millets have small florets which are not amenable for easy hand emasculation and hybridization.  The floral morphology and breeding behaviour of most of the millets make them more difficult species to work with.  Nearly all the millet cultivars grown were the result of selection from land races rather than designed crosses and selections. 58
  56. GERMPLASM.  At the ICRISAT gene bank.  5949 finger millet germplasm accessions from 24 countries are conserved for use in research and development. 59
  57. Varieties Sl No. Name of the Year of National Adaptation crop/variety release /State level zone 1 Indaf 7 1986 State Karnataka 2 Indaf 8 1986 State Karnataka 3 Indaf 9 1986 State Karnataka 4 HR 911 1986 State Karnataka Special features Cold tolerant, suitable for rabi season Late variety suitable for early kharif planting. Early variety, suitable for late kharif planting as well as for summer season Tall erect plant type, long fingers with semi compact. 60
  58. 5 PR 2614 1990 State Tamil Nadu - 6 MR 1 1992 State Karnataka High seed yield 7 GPU 28 1996 State Karnataka Highly resistant to both finger and neck blast disease, compact ear with tip incurved 8 GPU 45 2001 National Madhya Early duration Pradesh, and highly Gujarath, resistance to blast Jharkhand, disease Karnataka and Maharashtra. 61
  59. 9 GPU 67 2009 National Chhattisgarh, Non lodging (Semi dwarf Jharkhand, stature) resistance to blast Karnataka, diseases Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand 10 GPU 66 2009 State Karnataka Green plant parts with narrow leaves light green, medium compact ears with fingers tip incurved. Resistant to neck and finger blast 11 KMR-301 2010 State Karnataka Open and tip incurved ear head, grains are bold and red in colour. 62
  60. Some mutant varieties. SI.NO MUTANT VARIETY ORIGINAL VARIETY MUTAGEN USED PLACE 1 Dibya Sin ha Sarada _ Orissa 2 CO- 3 CO -1 _ Tamil Nadu 3 B -11 57-A-3 4 Hamsa 5 Annapurna 6 Cauvery _ _ _ Gamma rays Maharashtra Gamma rays _ _ _ _ _ 63
  61. References  AYYANGAR, G. N, R. (1972). The inheritance of characters in ragi, Eleusine coracana Gaertn., Madras Agr. J. 20: 1-9.  S.NARAYANASWAMY. (1980). Studies in physiological maturity in some improved varieties of Ragi. CHAVAN, V. M. AND P. Y. SHENDGE. (1975). Intensive method of cultivation of ragi in Bombay State. Poona Agr. Coll Mag- 4 6 ( 2 ) : 180 82.  Breeding field crops. Harihar Ram Singh.  Crop science(1971, 1980, 1986).  http://www.indiastat.com http://www.faostat.com 64
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