Corporate Restructuring – Human Dimensions
Training & Development
By :Varsha Desai (Faculty)
IMSR College Hubli
Training and development play an important role in the
effectiveness of organizations and to the experiences of
people in work. Training has implications for productivity,
health and safety at work and personal development. All
organizations employing people need to train and develop
their staff so that they can develop day by day.
Objectives of training and development
Meet organization needs.
Meet individual needs.
Improve productivity satisfaction
WHAT IS TRAINING
Training is the immediate improvement required to
employees i.e. Skills and Knowledge to perform their
task in the organization.
Training is defined as any attempt to improve employee
performance on a currently held job. This usually
means changes in specific knowledge, skills, attitude
WHY1. To improve the skills and knowledge of the
employees to perform the assigned task.
1. New Hires
2. Change of Job (Job Rotation, Promotion)
3. Change to Job (New Technologies)
4. Performance Deficiencies detected
• HCL Tech.
WHAT IS DEVELOPMENT
Development is a process of preparing employees for future position
and improves their personal skills to handle the critical situations in
WHYTo assist employee to sharpen their personal skills to handle the
crucial situations in organization.
Examples: Canara HSBC Oriental Bank of Commerce Life Insurance
Hindustan Unilever Ltd.
Accenture India Services Pvt. Ltd. ( Consulting Capability
Accenture India Services Pvt. Ltd. ( IDC Capability Development )
InterGlobe Enterprises Ltd.
What Does Training Include?
There are three elements of training –
Difference between Training and
Short-term focus/Task Oriented
Long-term focus/Skills oriented
Group based (more often than not)
Focuses on the “today” needs
Leads to the “tomorrow” results
Special Training Programs
Employee Orientation Program
Training for teams
Diversity Awareness training
Training for International assignments
Skills Needed by International Assignees
Training Design Process
Conducting Need Assessment
A needs assessment is a systematic process for determining
and addressing needs, or "gaps" between current conditions
and desired conditions or "wants".
There are three levels of a training needs assessment:
• Organizational assessment
• Occupational assessment
• Individual assessment
Tools to do Need Assessment
• The Difficulty Analysis
• Problem Solving Conference
2)Ensuring Employees Readiness for
• Are Employees ready for the training?
• Motivating employees
• Building self-confidence
• Believe in them
3) Creating a learning Environment
Awareness about the Objectives, Opportunities
4) Ensure Transfer of Training
There are three types of transfer of training:
• Positive Transfer
This is when prior learning or training facilitates
acquiring a new skill or reaching the solution to a new
problem. In this situation the individual performs better
than he would have without the prior training.
• Negative Transfer
This is when prior learning or training hinders acquiring a
new skill or reaching the solution to a new problem. In
this situation the individual performs worse than that he
would have had he not been exposed to the prior training
• Zero Transfer
In this situation, past experience or training neither
enhances nor hinders acquiring a new skill or reaching the
solution of a new problem.
5) Select Training method
1. COGNITIVE METHODS
2. BEHAVIORAL METHODS
6) Monitor & Evaluate the Program
Determine if program met objectives
Determine trainee’s reaction to program
Content and administration
Determine benefits / costs of program
5. Help select the best program
Reasons for Training
Methods of Training
1. COGNITIVE METHODS
2. BEHAVIORAL METHODS
• COGNITIVE METHODS
Cognitive methods are more of giving theoretical training
to the trainees. The various methods under Cognitive
approach provide the rules for how to do something,
written or verbal information, demonstrate relationships
among concepts etc.
FOCUSES- Changes in knowledge and attitude by
• Methods that come under Cognitive approach
COMPUTER BASED TRAINING (CBT)
• This method is used to create understanding of a topic
or to influence behaviour, attitudes through lecture.
• A lecture can be in printed or oral form.
• Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener
or to give him/her the theoretical aspect of a topic.
• It is difficult to imagine training without lecture format.
• There are some variations in Lecture method. The
variation here means that some forms of lectures are
interactive while some are not.
• This method is a visual display of how something
• This method uses a lecturer to provide the
learners with context that is supported,
elaborated, explains, or expanded on through
interactions both among the trainees and
between the trainer and the trainees.
Discussion method is a two-way flow of
• knowledge in the form of lecture is
communicated to trainees
• Then understanding is conveyed back by trainees
Computer Based training
• Providing training to employees through
Intranet or Internet.
• (CBT does not require face-to-face interaction
with a human trainer)
• Behavioural methods are more of giving practical training to
• The various methods in this allows the trainee to behaviour in
a real fashion
• These methods are best used for skill development
GAMES AND SIMULTATIONS
• Game is defined as spirited activity or exercise in which
trainees compete with each other according to the defined set
• Simulation is creating computer versions of real-life games.
• (It is about imitating or making judgment or looking at how
events might occur in a real situation.)
• These are based on the set of rules, procedures, plans,
relationships, principles derived from the research.
• In business games, trainees are given some information that
describes a particular situation and are then asked to make
decisions that will best suit in the favour of the company.
• Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a
role to play.
• Information is given to Trainees related to:
• Description of the role
• Emotions, etc.
• Then, a general description of the situation, and the problem
that each one of them faces, is given. Example,
• Situation could be strike in factory,
• Managing conflict between two parties
• Scheduling vacation days, etc.
In basket techniques
• In this technique, trainee is given some information about the
role to be played such as, description, responsibilities, general
context about the role.
• The trainee is then given the log of materials that make up the
in-basket and asked to respond to materials within a particular
• After all the trainees complete in-basket, a discussion with the
trainer takes place.
Equipment simulators can be used in giving training to:
• Taxi Drivers
• Telephone Operators
• Maintenance Workers
• Product Development Engineers
• The trainee is given with some written material, and the some
complex situations of a real or imaginary organization.
Two parts of development
• ON THE JOB TRAINING
• OFF THE JOB TRAINING
• ON JOB TRAINING
The development of a manager’s abilities can take
place on the job. The four techniques for on-the job
JOB INSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE (JIT)
• Coaching is one of the training methods, which is considered as a
corrective method for inadequate performance.
• Coaching is the best training plan
• It is one-to-one interaction
• It can be done on phone, meetings, through mails, chat etc.
• Mentoring is an ongoing relationship that is developed between a senior
and junior employee.
• (Mentoring provides guidance and clear understanding of how the
organization goes to achieve its vision and mission to the junior employee)
• This approach allows the manger to operate in diverse roles and
understand the different issues that crop up.
• It is the process of preparing employees at a lower level to replace
someone at the next higher level.
Job Instruction Technique (JIT)
• Job Instruction Technique (JIT) uses a strategy with focus on knowledge
(factual and procedural), skills and attitudes development.
OFF THE JOB TRAINING –
• There are many management development
techniques that an employee can take in off
the job. The few popular methods are:
• SENSITIVITY TRAINING
• TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS
• STRAIGHT LECTURES/ LECTURES
• Sensitivity training is about making people understand about
themselves and others reasonably, which is done by developing in
them social sensitivity and behavioural flexibility.
• Transactional Analysis provides trainees with a realistic and useful
method for Analysing and understanding the behaviour of others.
• In every social interaction, there is a motivation provided by one
person and a reaction to that motivation given by another person.
This motivation-reaction relationship between two persons is a
Lecture – A Method of Training
• Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him
the theoretical aspect of a topic.
• Training is basically incomplete without lecture