To explain why and how Saint Xavier University improved its electronic resources, with no increase in funding, through holistic budgeting.
What is Holistic Collection Development?
Strategy to break down the barriers inherent in traditional library budgets that segregate development funds and create inefficiencies.
A proactive approach which applies development funds as a whole to support the educational priorities of the academic institution as a whole.
SXU is a comprehensive, private Catholic university with one of the most diverse student bodies (5,600 persons) in the Chicago metro area.
Two main campuses, and over sixty off-campus teaching sites.
Offers undergraduate and graduate programs in the arts and sciences, business, education, and nursing.
Library was Sinking… Fast
Print collection was dated.
Electronic collection did not match peer institutions, let alone schools of aspiration.
Lack of budget control.
No clear rationale for collection development .
Where We Started Services Facilities Personnel Resources Strategic Plan
Two Immediate Goals
Get the budget under control
Establish priorities for the print and electronic collections
Library’s Budget Priorities Redefining the Hoops
The Process Took Time
Evolved over several years.
Changed in context with other collection issues.
Collection must accurately reflect the curriculum.
Need to accommodate vast majority of students who never enter the library.
No new funding.
Reallocate existing budget.
No Sacred Cows
End the “we’ve always done it this way” approach.
Willing to review all aspects of collection development.
Nothing was off-limits.
Shouldn’t This Be Easy?
The most difficult task was determining:
how funds were spent
which accounts were used
why funds were spent
No breakdown of expenditures for particular academic units.
No previous systematic reviews.
Do you actually need it?
Is the curricular need better served with the items in the print or electronic collection?
Is the curricular need better served with free web-based resources?
Would you buy it again?
Our Answer: the 4 Principles of Holistic Budgeting
Curriculum drives collection development.
Allocate funds by faculty FTE.
No distinction between media or genre.
Avoid duplicating resources.
Principle 1: Curriculum Drives Collection Development Library Budget University Curriculum Annual Review Collection Development
Principle 2: Allocate Funds by Faculty FTE
Existing formulas often are complex, arcane calculations based on enrollment, credit hours, course level, previous usage, cost of materials, and other measures.
The number of faculty FTE assigned to a particular subject area is a significant measure of the importance of that subject to the university’s overall curriculum.
Principle 3: No Distinction Between Media or Genre
Make no distinctions by media format:
Make no distinctions by genre:
Principle 4: Avoid Duplicating Resources
Library purchased standing orders and journal titles in print, microfilm, and in full-text databases.
Some databases, especially indexes, are unnecessary legacy resources.
Some databases replaceable by what’s available on the free Web.
Careful analysis of databases needed to make cost-effective subscription decisions.
One Fund per Academic Unit
Consolidate funds into one pool per academic unit.
Library can better negotiate with each unit to decide which resources most effectively support their curricular goals.
Previous Budget Model Budget Circulating Books Reference Books Databases Serials Art Business Art Business Art Business Chemistry Mathematics Nursing Chemistry Mathematics Nursing Chemistry Mathematics Nursing Art Business Chemistry Mathematics Nursing
New Budget Model Budget Art Business Chemistry Mathematics AV Books AV Books AV Books Databases Serials Databases Serials Databases Serials AV Books Databases Serials
New Primary Focus
Base collection development on curricular area, not format.
Up-to-date circulating book collection.
Best possible array of web-based databases.
Print reference collection.
Print journal collection.
Reallocation of Expenditures
Characteristics of Holistic Collection Development
A Transformative Process
A Planning Process
A Fiduciary Process
A Review Process
The Transformative Process
Holistic collection development encourages a global transformation of the library’s processes, including budgeting, collections, services, and physical infrastructure.
Transformation of the budget does not operate in isolation.
A reorganization of the physical collection must be considered as well.
Holistic collection development requires a comprehensive planning process.
Should be incorporated in the library’s strategic plan before implementation.
Stakeholders should participate and be kept informed.
The Fiduciary Process
Holistic collection development simplifies budget administration.
Funds are allocated in a more efficient manner and frees up significant amounts of money.
Eliminates duplicate purchasing.
Creates a transparent budget.
The Review Process
Resources and services reviewed annually.
Deficiencies are identified and addressed.
Budgets for the upcoming academic year are forecast using several contingency scenarios.
The Library has clear and transparent plans tied directly to the university’s curricular needs.
Holistic Collection Development Summary
Aligns the library’s resources with the curricular goals of the university.
Makes the library a more efficient provider of information services.