Natural resources The resources that are derived from the environment are called as natural resources. Some of them are most essential for our living while most of them are used for satisfying our needs. They are used to promote the man kind. Every man made item consists of natural resources. Sun is the major natural resource which never ends.
Types of Natural Resources They are mainly classified into 6 types:1.Forest Resources2.Water Resources3.Mineral Resources4.Food Resources5.Land Resources6.Energy Resources
Forest Resources Forest : land occupied with wide range of flora and fauna which supports ecosystem. Uses : 1. They give us wood for different purposes. 2. They are used in medicines . 3. They give fuels like fossil fuels , coal. 4. They have commercial use like honey , gum , lac , paper. 5. they provide 30% of oxygen.
Threats Mainly two types of threats are present.1.Natural disasters2.Man induced threats Forest fires
Disasters*by type: 1971-96 High wind: 21%Man-madedisasters: 34% Total: 8,219,000 Flood: 19%Other naturaldisasters: 21%Volcanoes: 1% Earthquake: 8%Landslides: 3% Drought & Famine: 6%* International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (The Economist, Sept 6, 1997)
Reasonsfor depletion of Forest resources Over-consumption/excessive or unnecessary use of resources Non-equitable distribution of resources Overpopulation. Slash and burn agricultural practices, currently occurring in many developing countries. Technological and industrial development. Erosion Habitat degradation leads to the loss of Biodiversity. Irrigation Mining for oil and minerals. Aquifer depletion. Forestry Forest Reserves within a particular country. Pollution or contamination of resources.
Control Measures Controlling deforestation : Efforts to control deforestation must be taken on a global scale. In addition to making sure that emissions from deforestation are kept to a minimum, an effort to educate people . Reforestation is also being encouraged in many countries in an attempt to repair the damage that deforestation has done.
Participate in your communitys recycling programs. Implement a recycling program at your office too. Buy products manufactured with recycled paper. Many companies use their reputation as recyclers to attract business from eco-conscious customers. Reuse junk mail and scraps of paper whenever possible. Instead of pitching old envelopes, use them to keep notes or make grocery lists.
Mostof the LandEarth (29%)is Oceanscovered (71%)by water“...water, water, every wherenor any drop to drink!”
Water Pollution Water pollution:1.The main problems of pollution that need to be addressed in the country are the following: Pollution from domestic sewage The high rates of drinking water and drainage The general lack of sewage treatment plants. The discharge of large quantities of untreated sewage at specific points of the water resource systems or along the coastline constitute the main water pollution source in our country
Remedies for depletion of Waterresources Improvement of efficiency in water use. Identification of water resources. Technical training and education about water . Information about water resources and flood mitigation. Several programs are implemented such as 1.Integrated development and use of water resources . 2.Drinking water supply and sanitation
Mineral Resources Minerals : which have definite chemical properties and indefinite chemical properties . There are 2 types of minerals namely1.Metallic2.Non-metallic Examples for metallic minerals are Iron , gold , Alluminium , Silver etc., Examples for some non metallic minerals are Gypsum , Lime stone , Coal etc.,
Threats to Mineral Resources1.Mining2.Disturbences to mantle layer which leads to Earth quakes , drowning of land.3.Deforestration –leads to loss of Bio diversity.4.The acid mine drain-by usage of acids to extraction process which leads to mix of acids in soil and Aquifer.5.Loss of marine life due to oil spils while extracting oil.
Remedies for depletion of Mineralresources We must go for bio mining where we use microbial organisms for mining purpose. Mining waste treatment technology. EOR: This process must be implemented to extract oil by using bacteria.
Food Resources Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plants or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. It is also said as source of energy for human activities. Based on production rate agriculture is divided into 2 types as1.Subsistence2.IntensiveThese are traditional practices
Green revolution shifted traditional practices to modern practices. It was first given by Norman Borlang . There were many draw backs such as salinity , soil erosion , water logging , death of non micro organisms. For these problems Albert Howard introduced some practices known as organic farming.
Remedies for depletion of FoodResources Organic farming must be followed which is a combination of traditional farming and modern farming. Crop rotation method must be followed . Contour farming or terrace farming method must be followed to overcome irrigation problems. We have to enrich the soil fertility by using natural ways not by using pesticides.
Land Resources Land is an area which constitutes of biotic and a biotic compounds. Due to soil erosion and land degradation soil is being eroded by agents like wind , water and human activities . Improper agricultural practices like Monoculture and also introduction of alien species through hybrid varieties also leads for the erosion of soil.
Control Measures Two control measures like1.Biological control2.Mechanical control are practices .• In biological control measures1.Mulching2.Polyculture3.Crop rotation must be followed . In mechanical control process1.counter farming2.terrace farming3.Step farming must be practiced .
Energy resources The capacity to do work is known as energy. It is divided as 2 types:1.Renwable2.Non renewable resources There are many disadvantages by using these resources1.They leads to global warming .2.They pollute air.3.Release of carbon dioxide and other harmful gases.Renewable resources are costly and space occupyingSun cannot be used in cooler areas.
Remedies to control depletion ofEnergy Resources Use diesel car to reduce your dependence on fossil fuels. Go solar to reduce the use of non renewable resources. Telecommute. Turn your lawn into an organic garden. Heat with wood to reduce your dependence on non renewable resources and fossil fuels.