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  2. 2.  Natural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity andgeodiversity existent in various ecosystems. Natural resources are derived from the environment. Some of them are essential for our survival while most are used for satisfying our wants. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways. Natural resources are materials and components (something that can be used) that can be found within the environment. Every man-made product is composed of natural resources (at its fundamental level). A natural resource may exist as a separate entity such as fresh water, and air, as well as a living organism such as a fish, or it may exist in an alternate form which must be processed to obtain the resource such as metal ores, oil, and most forms of energy. There is much debate worldwide over natural resource allocations, this is partly due to increasing scarcity (depletion of resources) but also because the exportation of natural resources is the basis for many economies (particularly for developed nations such as Australia). Some Natural resources can be found everywhere such as sunlight and air, when it is so the resource is known as an ubiquitous (existing or being everywhere) resource. However most resources are not ubiquitous. They only occur in small sporadic areas; these resources are referred to as localized resources. There are very few resources that are considered inexhaustible (will not run out in foreseeable future) – these are solar radiation, geothermal energy, and air (though access to clean air may not be). The vast majority of resources are however exhaustible, which means they have a finite quantity, and can be depleted if managed improperly. The natural resources are materials, which living organisms can take from nature for sustaining their life or any components of the natural
  3. 3. There are various methods of categorizing natural resources, these include sourceof origin, stage of development, and by their renewability, these classificationsare described below. On the basis of origin, resources may be divided into:Biotic – Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere (living and organicmaterial), such as forests, animals, birds, and fish and the materials that can beobtained from them. Fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum are also included inthis category because they are formed from decayed organic matter.Abiotic – Abiotic resources are those that come from non-living, non-organicmaterial. Examples of abiotic resources include land, fresh water, air and heavymetals including ores such asgold, iron, copper, silver, etc.Considering their stage of development, natural resources may be referred to inthe following ways:Potential Resources – Potential resources are those that exist in a region and maybe used in the future. For example, petroleum may exist in many parts of India,having sedimentary rocks but until the time it is actually drilled out and put intouse, it remains a potential resource.Actual Resources – Actual resources are those that have been surveyed, theirquantity and quality determined and are being used in present times. Thedevelopment of an actual resource, such as wood processing depends upon thetechnology available and the cost involved.Reserve Resources – The part of an actual resource which can be developedprofitably in the future is called a reserve resource.Stock Resources – Stock resources are those that have been surveyed but cannotbe used by organisms due to lack of technology. For example: hydrogen.
  4. 4. Renewability is a very popular topic and many natural resources can becategorized as either renewable or non-renewable:Renewable resources are ones that can be replenished naturally. Some ofthese resources, like sunlight, air, wind, etc., are continuously available andtheir quantity is not noticeably affected by human consumption. Though manyrenewable resources do not have such a rapid recovery rate, these resourcesare susceptible to depletion by over-use. Resources from a human useperspective are classified as renewable only so long as the rate ofreplenishment/recovery exceeds that of the rate of consumption.Non-renewable resources are resources that form extremely slowly and thosethat do not naturally form in the environment. Minerals are the most commonresource included in this category. By the human perspective, resources arenon-renewable when their rate of consumption exceeds the rate ofreplenishment/recovery; a good example of this are fossil fuels, which are inthis category because their rate of formation is extremely slow (potentiallymillions of years), meaning they are considered non-renewable. Someresources actually naturally deplete in amount without human interference, themost notable of these being radio-active elements such as uranium, whichnaturally decay into heavy metals. Of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling them,[1] but coal and petroleum cannot be recycled.
  5. 5.  1)Forest Resources 2)Water Resources 3)Mineral Resources 4)Food Resources 5)Land Resources 6)Energy Resources
  6. 6. (a) Conservation of forest is a national problem so it must be tackled with perfect coordination between forest department and other departments.(b) Peoples participation in the conservation of forests is of vital importance.So, we must get them involved in this national task.(c) The cutting of trees in the forests must be stopped at all costs.(d) Afforestration or special programmes like Van Mahotsav should belaunched on grand scale.(e) Celebrations of all functions, festivals should precede with tree-plantation.(f) Cutting of timber and other forest produce should be restricted.(g) Grasslands should be regenerated.(h) Forest conservation Act 1980 should be strictly implemented to checkdeforestation.(i) Several centres of excellence have been setup and awards should beinstituted.
  7. 7. FORESTS
  8. 8.  1. Check faucets and pipes for leaks A small drip from a worn faucet washer can waste 20 gallons of water per day. Larger leaks can waste hundreds of gallons. 2. Dont use the toilet as an ashtray or wastebasket Every time you flush a cigarette butt, facial tissue or other small bit of trash, five to seven gallons of water is wasted. 3. Check your toilets for leaks Put a little food coloring in your toilet tank. If, without flushing, the color begins to appear in the bowl within 30 minutes, you have a leak that should be repaired immediately. Most replacement parts are inexpensive and easy to install. 4.Use your water meter to check for hidden water leaks Read the house water meter before and after a two-hour period when no water is being used. If the meter does not read exactly the same, there is a leak. 5. Install water-saving shower heads and low-flow faucet aerators Inexpensive water-saving low-flow shower heads or restrictors are easy for the homeowner to install. Also, long, hot showers can use five to ten gallons evaery unneeded minute. Limit your showers to the time it takes to soap up, wash down and rinse off. "Low-flow" means it uses less than 2.5 gallons per minute. You can easily install a ShowerStart showerhead, or add a ShowerStart converter to existing showerheads, which automatically pauses a running shower once it gets warm. Also, all household faucets should be fit with aerators. This single best home water conservation method is also the cheapest! 6. Put plastic bottles or float booster in your toilet tank To cut down on water waste, put an inch or two of sand or pebbles inside each of two plastic bottles to weigh them down. Fill the bottles with water, screw the lids on, and put them in your toilet tank, safely away from the operating mechanisms. Or, buy an inexpensive tank bank or float booster. This may save ten or more gallons of water per day. Be sure at least 3 gallons of water remain in the tank so it will flush properly. If there is not enough water to get a proper flush, users will hold the lever down too long or do multiple flushes to get rid of waste. Two flushings at 1.4 gallons is worse than a single 2.0 gallon flush. A better suggestion would be to buy an adjustable toilet flapperthat allow for adjustment of their per flush use. Then the user can adjust the flush rate to the minimum per flush setting that achieves a single good flush each time. For new installations, consider buying "low flush" toilets, which use 1 to 2 gallons per flush instead of the usual 3 to 5 gallons. Replacing an 18 liter per flush toilet with an ultra-low volume (ULV) 6 liter flush model represents a 70% savings in water flushed and will cut indoor water use by about 30%.
  9. 9. 7. Insulate your water pipes. Its easy and inexpensive to insulate your water pipes with pre-slit foam pipe insulation. Youll get hot water faster plus avoid wasting water while it heats up. 8. Take shorter showers.A four-minute shower uses approximately 20 to 40 gallons of water. 9. Turn off the water after you wet your toothbrush There is no need to keep the water running while brushing your teeth. Just wet your brush and fill a glass for mouth rinsing. 10. Rinse your razor in the sink Fill the sink with a few inches of warm water. This will rinse your razor just as well as running water, with far less waste of water. 11. Use your dishwasher and clothes washer for only full loads Automatic dishwashers and clothes washers should be fully loaded for optimum water conservation. Most makers of dishwashing soap recomend not pre-rinsing dishes which is a big water savings. With clothes washers, avoid the permanent press cycle, which uses an added 20 liters (5 gallons) for the extra rinse. For partial loads, adjust water levels to match the size of the load. Replace old clothes washers. New Energy Star rated washers use 35 - 50% less water and 50% less energy per load. If youre in the market for a new clothes washer, consider buying a water-saving frontload washer. 12. Minimize use of kitchen sink garbage disposal units In-sink garburators require lots of water to operate properly, and also add considerably to the volume of solids in a septic tank which can lead to maintenance problems. Start a compost pile as an alternate method of disposing food waste. 13. When washing dishes by hand, dont leave the water running for rinsing If your have a double-basin, fill one with soapy water and one with rinse water. If you have a single-basin sink, gather washed dishes in a dish rack and rinse them with a spray device or a panful of hot water. Dual- swivel aerators are available to make this easier. If using a dishwasher, there is usually no need to pre-rinse the dishes. 14. Dont let the faucet run while you clean vegetables Just rinse them in a stoppered sink or a pan of clean water. Use a dual-setting aerator.
  10. 10. Water conservation in the yard and garden...15. Plant drought-resistant lawns, shrubs and plantsIf you are planting a new lawn, or overseeding an existing lawn, use drought-resistant grasses such as the new"Eco-Lawn".Many beautiful shrubs and plants thrive with far less watering than otherspecies. Replace herbaceous perennial borders with native plants. Native plantswill use less water and be more resistant to local plant diseases. Considerapplying the principles of xeriscape for a low-maintenance, drought resistantyard.Plant slopes with plants that will retain water and help reduce runoff.Group plants according to their watering needs.16. Put a layer of mulch around trees and plantsMulch will slow evaporation of moisture while discouraging weed growth.Adding 2 - 4 inches of organic material such as compost or bark mulch willincrease the ability of the soil to retain moisture. Press the mulch down aroundthe dripline of each plant to form a slight depression which will prevent orminimize water runoff.For information about different mulch materials and their best use17. Dont water the gutterPosition your sprinklers so water lands on the lawn or garden, not on pavedareas. Also, avoid watering on windy days.
  11. 11. 18. Water your lawn only when it needs itA good way to see if your lawn needs watering is to step on the grass. If it springs back up when you move, itdoesnt need water. If it stays flat, the lawn is ready for watering. Letting the grass grow taller (to 3") will alsopromote water retention in the soil.Most lawns only need about 1" of water each week. During dry spells, you can stop watering altogether andthe lawn will go brown and dormant. Once cooler weather arrives, the morning dew and rainfall will bring thelawn back to its usual vigor. This may result in a brown summer lawn, but it saves a lot of water.19. Deep-soak your lawnWhen watering the lawn, do it long enough for the moisture to soak down to the roots where it will do themost good. A light sprinkling can evaporate quickly and tends to encourage shallow root systems. Put an emptytuna can on your lawn - when its full, youve watered about the right amount. Visit our natural lawncare page for more information.20. Water during the early parts of the day; avoid watering when its windyEarly morning is generally better than dusk since it helps prevent the growth of fungus. Early watering, andlate watering, also reduce water loss to evaporation. Watering early in the day is also the best defence againstslugs and other garden pests. Try not to water when its windy - wind can blow sprinklers off target and speedevaporation.
  12. 12. 21. Add organic matter and use efficient watering systems for shrubs, flower beds andlawnsAdding organic material to your soil will help increase its absorption and waterretention. Areas which are already planted can be top dressed with compost ororganic matter.You can greatly reduce the amount of water used for shrubs, beds and lawns by:- the strategic placement of soaker hoses- installing a rain barrel water catchment system- installing a simple drip-irrigation systemAvoid over-watering plants and shrubs, as this can actually diminish plant health andcause yellowing of the leaves.When hand watering, use a variable spray nozzle for targeted watering.22. Dont run the hose while washing your carClean the car using a pail of soapy water. Use the hose only for rinsing - this simplepractice can save as much as 150 gallons when washing a car.
  13. 13.  Minerals are a non-renewable resource. It takes thousands of years for the formation and concentration of minerals. The rate of formation is much smaller than the rate at which the humans consume these minerals. It is necessary to reduce wastage in the process of mining. Minerals can be conserved in by the following measures: Use of improved technologies to allow use of low grade minerals at low costs · Using substitutes ·Use of scrap metals · Recycling of metals is good way in which the mineral resources can be conserved. they can be used in a judicious manner
  14. 14. There are so many lovely ways to keep food around longer, some easier than others, and heres a list of the major techniques — in my favorite order! 1. Fermenting With the science of fermentation, you can "control spoilage." In other words, the foods you preserve this way will still spoil or age, but theyll do so with friendly rather than nasty bacteria, yeast, mold, etc. This family of preserved foods includes many of the worlds greatest culinary treasures: beer, bread, cheese, chocolate, coffee, wine and a whole host of cured meats, to name but a few. 2. Root Cellaring The practice of "putting food by" often includes simple storage ideas. Many foods will last weeks or months if kept in a cool, dark spot. You can build a fancy ventilated root cellar if youve got the space, time and inclination, but a corner of your garage or basement will probably do nicely. 3. Drying Dehydrating food robs it of its attractiveness to moisture-loving bacteria. Removing the water also concentrates flavors in a mighty tasty way, and its a fitting trick for fruits and veggies of all kinds. Dried foods take up the least pantry space of all the preserved treats you might make. 4. Freezing Plain and simple, freezing food helps prevent it from spoiling before were ready to eat it. Many foods freeze well, but a few really just dont. Its helpful to know the difference. Plus, there are a lots of tricks and tips for improving your freezer strategies. 5. Canning
  15. 15.  According to Natural Resources Management Division, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, we can conserve our land resources by adopting the following measures: 1. By educating, informing and sensitizing all landholders about various aspects of this precious resources and their sustainable use. 2. Contour ploughing is another measure to conserve our land. By this method, the fields are ploughed, harrowed and sown along the natural contour of the hills. 3. By terracing method: A series of wide steps are made along the slop following the contours. This method is very common in rice growing regions. 4. Under the afforestation and reforestation programmes, planting of trees, bushes and grass help to check the soil erosion, 5. Strict actions are taken to check reckless felling of trees and overgrazing.
  16. 16.  Whenever you save energy, you not only save money, you also reduce the demand for such fossil fuels as coal, oil, and natural gas. Less burning of fossil fuels also means lower emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary contributor to global warming, and other pollutants. You do not have to do without to achieve these savings. There is now an energy efficient alternative for almost every kind of appliance or light fixture. That means that consumers have a real choice and the power to change their energy use on a revolutionary scale. The average American produces about 40,000 pounds of CO2 emissions per year. Together, we use nearly a million dollars worth of energy every minute, night and day, every day of the year. By exercising even a few of the following steps, you can cut your annual emissions by thousands of pounds and your energy bills by a significant amount! Home appliances Turn your refrigerator down. Refrigerators account for about 20% of Household electricity use. Use a thermometer to set your refrigerator temperature as close to 37 degrees and your freezer as close to 3 degrees as possible. Make sure that its energy saver switch is turned on. Also, check the gaskets around your refrigerator/freezer doors to make sure they are clean and sealed tightly. Set your clothes washer to the warm or cold water setting, not hot. Switching from hot to warm for two loads per week can save nearly 500 pounds of CO2 per year if you have an electric water heater, or 150 pounds for a gas heater. Make sure your dishwasher is full when you run it and use the energy saving setting, if available, to allow the dishes to air dry. You can also turn off the drying cycle manually. Not using heat in the drying cycle can save 20 percent of your dishwashers total electricity use. Turn down your water heater thermostat. Thermostats are often set to 140 degrees F when 120 is usually fine. Each 10 degree reduction saves 600 pounds of CO2 per year for an electric water heater, or 440 pounds for a gas heater. If every household turned its water heater thermostat down 20 degrees, we could prevent more than 45 million tons of annual CO2 emissions - the same amount emitted by the entire nations of Kuwait or Libya.
  17. 17. Home Heating and Cooling1.Be careful not to overheat or overcool rooms. In the winter, set your thermostat at 68 degrees in daytime, and 55 degreesat night. In the summer, keep it at 78. Lowering your thermostat just two degrees during winter saves 6 percent of heating-related CO2 emissions. Thats a reduction of 420 pounds of CO2 per year for a typical home.2.Clean or replace air filters as recommended. Energy is lost when air conditioners and hot-air furnaces have to work harderto draw air through dirty filters. Cleaning a dirty air conditioner filter can save 5 percent of the energy used. That couldsave 175 pounds of CO2 per year.Small investments that pay off 3.Buy energy-efficient compact fluorescent bulbs for your most-used lights. Although they cost more initially, they save money in the long run by using only 1/4 the energy of an ordinary incandescent bulb and lasting 8-12 times longer. They provide an equivalent amount of bright, attractive light. Only 10% of the energy consumed by a normal light bulb generates light. The rest just makes the bulb hot. If every American household replaced one of its standard light bulbs with an energy efficient compact fluorescent bulb, we would save the same amount of energy as a large nuclear power plant produces in one year. In a typical home, one compact fluorescent bulb can save 260 pounds of CO2 per year.4.Wrap your water heater in an insulating jacket, which costs just $10 to $20. It can save 1100 lbs. of CO2 per year for anelectric water heater, or 220 pounds for a gas heater.5.Use less hot water by installing low-flow shower heads. They cost just $10 to $20 each, deliver an invigorating shower,and save 300 pounds of CO2 per year for electrically heated water, or 80 pounds for gas-heated water. 6.Weatherize your home or apartment, using caulk and weather stripping to plug air leaks around doors and windows. Caulking costs less than $1 per window, and weather stripping is under $10 per door. These steps can save up to 1100 pounds of CO2 per year for a typical home. Ask your utility company for a home energy audit to find out where your home is poorly insulated or energy inefficient. This service may be provided free or at low cost. Make sure it includes a check of your furnace and air conditioning.
  18. 18. Getting around1.Whenever possible, walk, bike, car pool, or use mass transit. Every gallon of gasolineyou save avoids 22 pounds of CO2 emissions. If your car gets 25 miles per gallon, forexample, and you reduce your annual driving from 12,000 to 10,000 miles, youll save 1800pounds of CO2.2.When you next buy a car, choose one that gets good mileage. If your new car gets 40miles per gallon instead of 25, and you drive 10,000 miles per year, youll reduce yourannual CO2 emissions by 3,300 pounds.Reduce, reuse, recycle3.Reduce the amount of waste you produce by buying minimally packaged goods,choosing reusable products over disposable ones, and recycling. For every pound ofwaste you eliminate or recycle, you save energy and reduce emissions of CO2 by at least 1pound. Cutting down your garbage by half of one large trash bag per week saves at least1100 pounds of CO2 per year. Making products with recycled materials, instead of fromscratch with raw materials, uses 30 to 55% less for paper products, 33% less for glass, anda whopping 90% less for aluminum.4.If your car has an air conditioner, make sure its coolant is recovered and recycledwhenever you have it serviced. In the United States, leakage from auto air conditioners is
  19. 19. Home Improvements.When you plan major home improvements, consider some of these energy saving investments. They save moneyin the long run, and their CO2 savings can often be measured in tons per year.1.Insulate your walls and ceilings. This can save 20 to 30 percent of home heating bills and reduce CO2emissions by 140 to 2100 pounds per year. If you live in a colder climate, consider superinsulating. That can save5.5 tons of CO2 per year for gas-heated homes, 8.8 tons per year for oil heat, or 23 tons per year for electric heat.(If you have electric heat, you might also consider switching to more efficient gas or oil.)2.Modernize your windows. Replacing all your ordinary windows with argon filled, double-glazed windows saves2.4 tons of CO2 per year for homes with gas heat, 3.9 tons of oil heat, and 9.8 tons for electric heat.3.Plant shade trees and paint your house a light color if you live in a warm climate, or a dark color if you live in acold climate. Reductions in energy use resulting from shade trees and appropriate painting can save up to 2.4tons of CO2 emissions per year. (Each tree also directly absorbs about 25 pounds of CO2 from the air annuallyBusiness and community4.Work with your employer to implement these and other energy-efficiency and waste-reduction measures in youroffice or workplace. Form or join local citizens groups and work with local government officials to see that thesemeasures are taken in schools and public buildings.5.Keep track of the environmental voting records of candidates for office. Stay abreast of environmental issues onboth local and national levels, and write or call your elected officials to express your concerns about energyefficiency and global warming.