presentation by manoj kumarPresentation Transcript
VARDHAMAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ppt presentation by B.Manoj kumar ECE-A
Importance of forests Forests provide important products for human use and consumption, and they provide valuable ecosystem services. Lets look at each in turn. Forest Products In poor areas where wood is scarce, people, usually women, walk long distances to gather wood for cooking.
Forests provide useful wood products. Round wood (whole logs) can be processed into building materials, or made into plywood products, furniture, etc. Pulp is used not only for paper and boxes, but for a wide variety of products (including the “sponge” you used to wash your dishes). Forests are the source of numerous non-wood products, including bark, dyes, fibers, gums, incense, latexes, oils, resins, shellac, tanning compounds & waxes. Fruits, nuts and berries are harvested as food. Maple syrup is an example of a unique non-wood product from the sap of the maple tree.
Deforestation Deforestation is the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodlands. The term does not include the removal of industrial forests such as plantations of gums or pines. Deforestation has resulted in the reduction of indigenous forests to four-fifths of their pre-agricultural area. Indigenous forests now cover 21% of the earths land surface.
Causes of deforestation Logging Mining Oil and gas extraction Cattle ranching Agriculture: Cash crops Local, National, and International factors: development, land titles, government subsidies to attract corporations into developing countries, trade agreements (NAFTA, CAFTA), civil wars, debt, lack of resources, and lack of law enforcement.
Effects of deforestationExtinctions (loss of biodiversity of microbes (bacteria),plants, insects, animals, indigenous peoples, etc.Habitat fragmentation. This disturbes the animalshabitat and may force them to enter habitats which arealready occupied. This can pose many problems such asterritorial conflicts, homelessness (loss of habitat), lackof food availability, migration disturbances, etc.Soil erosion occurs when trees and plants are removed;the rain water washes the nutrients in the top soil away.
Desertification (dry, hot, arid conditions).Edge effects can change microclimates (small climates)which affect endemic species (native species which canonly live in specific environmental and habitatconditions).Climate change (more carbon dioxide is released into theatmosphere, thus increasing the effects of globalwarming).Pollution (ground, water and air pollution from oilextraction and mining chemicals).Changes in watershed geomorphology.
Impacts of deforestation Loss of culture (indigenous peoples subsistence living in the rainforest). People who live in the rainforest depend on the natural environment for food, shelter, materials for cooking, clothing, etc. If the forest is cut down or if their environment becomes polluted from oil extraction and mining, they are forced to move or risk starvation and sickness. Displacement of people (loss of farmland, forest resources, etc).
Social conflicts and struggles over land andnatural resources.Conflicts over racial and ethnic rights.Poisoning from oil and mining waste.Economic uncertainty (price fluctuations and highinterest rates on outstanding international loanswith The World Bank and International MonetaryFund.