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Environmental  science project by u.subhash (1)
Environmental  science project by u.subhash (1)
Environmental  science project by u.subhash (1)
Environmental  science project by u.subhash (1)
Environmental  science project by u.subhash (1)
Environmental  science project by u.subhash (1)
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Environmental science project by u.subhash (1)


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  • 1. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE U.Subhash  ROLE OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN PRESERVING NATURAL RESOURCES FOR THEIR EQUITABLE MAINTENANCE..:- Natural Resources :- The resources which are occurred through nature and which fulfill human needs/desires. They are.. I. Forest Resources II. Water Resources III. Mineral Resources IV. Food Resources V. Land resources VI. Energy Resources Every individual has responsibility to use natural resources judiciously. This will giveequal opportunity to all to use the resources for the benefit of mankind. One should not be selfish to spendthe available resources without thinking of other fellow beings. There is no limit to spend naturalresources if available plenty but at the same time one should realize that natural resources are non-renewable sources. The future also depends on such resources. Every individual should think himselfor herself as a world citizen. The whole world is a family and all are inter-dependant for a better life. Themother earth has given enough for all to satisfy minimum wants but not enough to utilize. Everyindividual has a role in the conservation of natural resource like in using water electricity woods, foodsetc.With our small individual efforts we can together help in conserving our natural resources to large extent. Need of conservation :-Use of natural resources is increasing but the amount of these resources are decreasing. Methods of conservation: 1) Forest Conservation :- Many forests have been cut due to man’s activities. Due to this several forests are being destroyed. Man has to take effect to prevent forests in the following ways…………  Conservation of forest is a national problem so it must be tackled with perfect coordination between forest department and other departments.  Indiscriminate deforestation should be prohibited. Wastage of timber and fuel wood to be avoided. Forest fires should be prevented.
  • 2.  Grazing of cattle in forests should be discouraged. Operations called improved cutting and selective cutting should be adopted in forest management.  The cutting of trees in the forests must be stopped at all costs. Celebrations of all functions, festivals should precede with tree-plantation.  Some of the afforestration programs to be implemented to conserve forests:- 1) Social Forestry Programme (1976):- Trees are grown on public and common land for the benefit of the rural community. 2) Agroforestry programme:- It is aimed at reviving the ancient practice of using the same land for farming, forestry and animal husbandry. 3) Urban Forestry Programme:- The aim of this project is to grow fruit trees and ornamental plants in urban areas, in private compounds and in common parks. 4) Production Plantation:- It involves growing trees needed for industries in specific areas. 5) Reserve Forests:- These are grown in ecologically fragile areas. Felling of trees and grazing of cattle are prohibited in these forests. A special function of tree plantation, Van Mahotsava, is held each year in February and July since 1950 to propagate the idea of forest conservation.2) Soil Conservation :- Soil is very important natural resource. Animals depends on plants, plants get their nourishment from the soil, so it is must to conserve soil.  Some ways to conserve soil are as follows:  Use rotational grazing. There is a short grazing period followed by a rest period of longer duration. Grazing is done when the farm is still in the vegetative stage. This prevents crops from being totally eaten away.  Change the plant species on your farm. Don’t use tilling, instead use herbicides to kill the existing plants. Cover the entire soil with plants, which will significantly reduce erosion.  Don’t cultivate soils on steep slopes. Do terrace farming. Add humus to your soil. It will prevent soil erosion.
  • 3.  You can construct wind barriers at the boundaries of the farm. This will prevent wind from blowing away the soil.  Some of the ways to conserve the soil:- 1. Plant Trees 2. Build Terraces 3. No-till Farming 4. Contour Plowing 5. Crop Rotation 6. Maintain Soil pH 7. Water the Soil 8. Salinity Management 9. Promote Helpful Soil Organisms 10. Grow Indigenous Crops3) Water Conservation :- Water is very essential Natural Resource. In total 100% - 97% salt water remaining 3% is fresh water….in 3% - 2% is strucked in polar ice caps…….in 2%, 0.7% used in agriculture & remaining 0.3%, 0.2% is for household & 0.1% is for drinking. Reducing water use should start at home. By following a few simple steps, a family of four can save 50,000 to 100,000 gallons of water a year. That’s a lot of water. As a bonus, they will also be saving energy.  Some of the simple steps to be taken at home to conserve water :-  Take a shower rather than a bath.  Collect rain water for use in the garden.  Don’t run the tap whilst cleaning your teeth.  Only boil as much water as you need when making drinks etc.  Don’t leave taps (faucets) dripping - repair any worn washers.  Only wash full loads in washing machines and dishwashers.  If you have a dehumidifier or air conditioning unit which collects the water this can be used to water houseplants as can water from defrosting a fridge or freezer. This is distilled water.
  • 4.  Water remaining after boiling eggs can be cooled and used to water plants as this is high in nutrients as is the dirty water taken from a fish tank.  If you drink tap water and normally run the tap for a while to ensure the water is cold, collect this initial supply either in your kettle or to water plants etc., Alternatively, instead of waiting for it to run cold keep a jug of water in the fridge.  Wash vegetables in a bowl rather than under a running tap.  Don’t over water your lawn as this encourages the roots to find the surface and can weaken growth. Sprinklers are wasteful as they use as much water in one hour as a family of four uses in one day.  Fit a water saving device in your toilet cistern or replace with a modern one as these use less water for each flush.  Technical Methods to conserve water:-  Rainwater Harvesting :- Rainwater harvesting is the gathering and collection of water from the rooftop. The traditional method of rain water harvesting is the most effective and simple way to conserve the water.  Historical Water Bodies :- There are many traditional water bodies which have been in disuse for the longer time. These bodies can be reused as the recharging points.  Ponds :- Steps should be taken to avoid dumping of sewage into the village ponds. Efforts need to be made to deepen these ponds with the dragline machines. Garbage and other waste sholud not be dumped into the ponds.4) Mineral Conservation:- Minerals are non-renewable resources so once they are used in access we cannot renew them,so we have to conserve our minerals. It takes thousands of years for the formation and concentration of minerals. The rate of formation is much smaller than the rate at which the humans consume these minerals. It is necessary to reduce wastage in the process of mining.
  • 5.  Minerals can be conserved in by the following measures:  Use of improved technologies to allow use of low grade minerals at low costs  Using substitutes  Use of scrap metals  Recycling of metals is good way in which the mineral resources can be conserved. they can be used in a judicious manner.  BIOMINING process should be implemented.  THIOBASCILLUS FERROXIDANCE:- Bacteria which resides deeper the earth and extract iron through oxidance process. It can stay at higher temperatures.5) Food Conservation:- It is a material that provides energy for us to survive. Use of traditional farming increases time & use of modern farming destroys the plant life so in order to do our best we must combine both traditional farming methods and modern farming methods. The best way to conserve food is by ORGANIC FARMING.(initiated by ALBERT HOWARD)  It means the enriching of soil fertility by providing Nitrogen,Pottassium,Phosphorous.  To produce High yield of varities by natural process.  To increase the nutrients & decrease soil or water pollution.  Steps to achieve Organic Farming: 1.Mulching 2.Composting 3.Green Manure6) Energy Conservation:- Energy is the capacity to do work.  Steps to conserve energy:- In car Have your car tuned regularly. Keep tires properly inflated. Slow down. Avoid jackrabbit starts. Pace your driving. Use your air conditioner sparingly.
  • 6. Avoid lengthy engine idling. In home Set your thermostat to save power. Change your light bulbs. Wind Energy: Wind mills should be constructed… “Every Individual should feel responsibility about our environment and come forward to save these resources” “JOIN ALL OUR HANDS TO SAVE OUR ENVIRONMENT” By U.Subhash (ECE_A)