NATURE OF GRADES/MARK• GRADES ARE TEACHER’S JUDGMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS BASED ON CERTAIN CRITERIA. IT CAN BE SUBJECTIVE FROM TIME TO TIME, AND ARE ALSO RELATIVE FROM ONE SCHOOL TO ANOTHER SCHOOL, FROM ONE TEACHER TO ANOTHER, AND FROM ONE STUDENT TO ANOTHER.
VARIABLES• Periodical Examination• Class Standing• Projects
FUNCTIONS OF GRADES/MARKS• To help guide students and the parents with respect to future educational plans.• To help the school decide upon a students readiness to enroll in certain selective programs or courses• To help higher educational levels appraise an applicants acceptability or the program offered.• To help a potential employer decide on the suitability of the student for certain jobs and academic skills.
TYPES OF GRADES• Percentage system (75-100)- It implies precision of judgment that is hardly attainable by most measuring instrument.• Pass or fail- it is good for survey subjects or vocational courses and higher level courses. It encourages students to take the courses they would otherwise not take because of a fear of lowering their grade point average or general average.
COMMON GRADING-RELATED PROBLEMS• Grade inflation- refers to an increase in grade point average without a concomitant increase in achievement.• Questionable Grading Practices- grading practices are clearly matters of opinion, no strong evidence confirms neither their value nor the harm they cause.
GUIDANCE FOR EFFECTIVE GRADING• Grade on the basis of students mastery of knowledge and skills.• Avoid grading systems that put students in competition with their classmates and limit the number of high grades.• Try not to overemphasize grades.• Keep students informed of their progress.
CRITERIA FOR A MARKING- REPORTING SYSYTEM• Is the system based on a of clear statement of education objectives?• Is he system understood both by those making the reports and those to whom they are communicated?• Does the system desirably affect the students learning?• Is the system detailed enough to be diagnostic but still compact enough to be operational?• Does the system promote desirable public relation?• Is the system reasonably economical in terms of teachers time?
MODES OF COMPUTING FINAL GRADES• Averaging Grading System- treats the students performance in each grading period independently.• Cumulative Grading System- believes that the performance of students to a large extent is affected by their past performances.