Keys to Effective Testing
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  • 1. Module 3 Keys to Effective Testing Module 3: Keys to Effective Testing Lesson 1: Test and Their Uses in Educational AssessmentTo define what is a Test and to know the types of testTo know how to prepare an effective testsTo know the things to be considered in preparing a testAnd to classify a test and its usesTest defined A test is a systematic procedure for measuring an individual’s behavior (Brown,1991). This definition implies that it has to be developed following specific guidelines.It is a formal and systematic way of gathering information about learners’ behavior,usually through paper-and-pencil procedure (Airisan, 1989).Uses of Test Tests serve a lot of function for school administrators, supervisors, teachers,and parents, as well (Arends, 1994; Escarilla & Gonzales, 1990). School administrators utilize test results for making decisions regarding thepromotion or retention of students; improvement or enrichment of the curriculum;and conduct of staff development programs for teachers. Supervisors use test results in discovering learning areas needing specialattention and identifying teachers’ weaknesses and learning competencies notmastered by the students. Teachers, on the other hand, utilize tests for numerous purposes. Throughtesting, teachers are able to― gather information about the effectiveness of instruction;give feedback to students about their progress; and assign grades. Parents, too, derive benefits from test administered to their children. Throughtest scores, they are able to determine how well their sons and daughters are faring inschool and how well the school is doing its share in educating their children.Types of Tests Numerous types of tests are used in school. There are different ways ofcategorizing tests, namely: ease of quantification of response, mode of preparation,mode of administration, test constructor, mode of interpreting results, and nature ofresponse ( Manarang & Manarang, 1993; Louisell & Descamps, (1992).As to mode of response, tests can be oral, written, or performance. 1. Oral test- it is a test wherein the test taker gives his answer orally. 2. Written tests- it is a test where answers to questions are written by test taker. 3. Performance test- it is one in which the test taker creates an answer or a product that demonstrates his knowledge or skill, as in cooking and baking.Ava Clare Marie O. Robles Ph.D Educ 103: Keys to Effective Testing©for MSU Students
  • 2. Module 3 Keys to Effective Testing As to ease of quantification of response, test can either be objective orsubjective. 1. Objective test- it is a paper and pencil test wherein students’ answers can be compared and quantified to yield a numerical score. 2. Subjective test- it is a paper-and-pencil test which is not easily quantified as students are given the freedom to write their answer to a question, such as an essay test. As to mode of administration, 1. Individual test- it is a test administered to one student at a time. 2. Group test- it is one administered to a group of students simultaneously. As to test constructor: 1. Standardized test- it is a test prepared by an expert or specialist. 2. Un-standardized test- it is one prepared by teachers for use in the classroom, with no established norms for scoring and interpretation of results. As to mode of interpreting results: 1. Norm-referenced test- it is a test that evaluates a student’s performance by comparing it to the performance of a group students on the same test. 2. Criterion-referenced test- it is a test that measures a student’s performance against an agreed upon or pre-established level of performance. As to nature of the answer: 1. Personality test- it is a test designed for assessing some aspects of an individual’s personality. 2. Intelligence test- it is a test that measures the mental ability of an individual. 3. Aptitude test- it is test designed for the purpose of predicting the likelihood of an individual’s success in a learning area or field of endeavor. 4. Achievement test- it is a test given to students to determine what a student has learned from formal instruction in school. 5. Summative test- it is a test given at the end of instruction to determine students’ learning and assign grades. 6. Diagnostic test- it is a test administered to students to identify their specific strengths and weaknesses in past and present learning. 7. Formative test- it is a test given to improve teaching and learning while it is going on. 8. Socio-metric test- it is a test used in discovering learners’ likes and dislikes, preferences, and their social acceptance, as well as social relationships existing in a group. 9. Trade test- it is a test designed to measure an individual’s skill or competence in an occupation or vocation. Lesson 2: Generals steps in preparation of test Preparing for a test can be a very overwhelming experience, particularly if youare studying difficult or complicated subject matter. It doesnt have to be that way.Good study techniques go a long way toward improving your readiness for an exam. Ifyou spend a few minutes organizing your materials and developing a realistic studyAva Clare Marie O. Robles Ph.D Educ 103: Keys to Effective Testing©for MSU Students
  • 3. Module 3 Keys to Effective Testingplan time, youll find that you will feel more confident and better prepared when youtake those important tests. 1. Take clear, detailed notes in class and review your notes every night. A nightly review will help reinforce the concepts you learned that day and allow you to identify any areas that are causing you problems well before the test. 2. Set aside a specific time for studying each day. Choose a quiet place and allot a certain amount of time for each subject. 3. Get up and take a break from time to time. If you are too tired or bored, youll never follow through with studying. If you have trouble concentrating, arrange your study schedule in several shorter time periods rather than one long study session. 4. Attempt to master the most important or difficult concepts first. Those will be the area’s most likely to be covered by the test and should occupy a significant percentage of your study time. 5. Take notes as you read though chapters in your textbook. Writing down information can help you retain it better and can make it easier to review key facts. 6. Work with a classmate and quiz each other on the material. If you cant find anyone to work with, develop your own review questions. 7. Listen closely when your professor or teacher tells you that certain subject matter will be on the test. It probably will be and it will be a good idea to make sure that you understand that information completely. 8. Practice for the test. If you know from past experience that your teacher likes to include essay questions on the test, write out a few essay answers pertaining to the main concepts of the chapter. Chances are that one of those concepts will be covered on the test. 9. Maintain a positive attitude on the day of the test. Remind yourself that you are well-prepared, confident and ready to face the challenges that the test presents.Tips & Warnings· Increase your study time several days before the test. Dont overload yourself, butstart focusing more on the subject. Get a good nights sleep the night before the test.When you are tired, it is harder to concentrate and remember facts. Studyindependently the night before the exam. This is not the time for all-night crammingsessions. By preparing for the exam weeks in advance, the final night should bededicated to going over the study guide and other notes. It should be a time ofrefreshing your mind, not trying to comprehend or understand information. Make sureyou have all needed supplies for the exam before going to bed the night before. Thismay include pencils, paper, calculators, extra erasers, or any other items yourinstructor requires. Get a good night’s sleep and have a healthy breakfast on themorning of the exam. Try doing some relaxation techniques like deep breaths, yoga orlistening to music. This will help you start the exam with a calm, focused mindAva Clare Marie O. Robles Ph.D Educ 103: Keys to Effective Testing©for MSU Students
  • 4. Module 3 Keys to Effective Testing· Dont wait until the last minute to study. Studying every day helps you commit concepts to your long-term memory. If you try to remember too many facts in one night, chances are that you will forget many of them. Lesson 3: The Keys to Effective Testing The Key to Effective Testing Objectives: The specific statements of the aim of the instruction; it should express what the students should be able to do or know as a result of taking the course; the objectives should indicate the cognitive level, affective level and psychomotor level of expected performance. Instruction: It consists all the elements of the curriculum designed to teach the subject including the lesson plans, study guide, and reading and homework assignment, the instruction should corresponds directly to the objectives. Assessment: The process of gathering, describing or quantifying information about the performance of the learner; testing components of the subject; weight given to the different subject matter areas. Evaluation: Examining the performance of students and comparing and judging its quality. Determining whether or not the learner has met the objectives of the lesson and the extent of understanding. Lesson 4: Factors to Consider when Constructing a Good Test 1. Validity is the degree to which the test measures what is intended to measure the usefulness of the test for a given purpose. A valid test is always reliable. 2. Reliability refers to the consistency of score obtained by the same person when retested using the same instrument. 3. Administrability the test should directed uniformly to all students so that the scores obtained will not vary due to factors other than differences of the students’ knowledge and skills. There should a clear provision for instruction for the students, proctors and even the one one who will check the test. 4. Scorability the test should be easy to score, directions for scoring is clear, provide the answer sheet and the answer key. Ava Clare Marie O. Robles Ph.D Educ 103: Keys to Effective Testing ©for MSU Students
  • 5. Module 3 Keys to Effective Testing 5. Appropriateness the test item that the teachers construct must assess the exact performances called for in the learning objectives. The test item should require the same performance of the student as specified in the learning objectives. 6. Adequacy the test should contain a wide sampling of items to determine the educational outcomes or abilities so that the resulting scores are representatives of the total performance in the areas measured. 7. Fairness the test should not be biased to the examinees. It should not be offensive to any examinees subgroups. A test can only be good if it is also fair to all test takers. 8. Objectivity represents the agreement of two or more raters or a test administrator concerning the score of a student. If the two raters who assess the same student on same test cannot agree on score, the test lacks objectivity and the score of neither judge is valid, thus, lack of objectivity reduces test validity in the same way that lack reliability influence validity. Lesson 4: Factors to Consider when Constructing a Good Test 1. Validity is the degree to which the test measures what is intended to measure the usefulness of the test for a given purpose. A valid test is always reliable. 2. Reliability refers to the consistency of score obtained by the same person when retested using the same instrument. 3. Administrability the test should directed uniformly to all students so that the scores obtained will not vary due to factors other than differences of the students’ knowledge and skills. There should a clear provision for instruction for the students, proctors and even the one one who will check the test. 4. Scorability the test should be easy to score, directions for scoring is clear, provide the answer sheet and the answer key. 5. Appropriateness the test item that the teachers construct must assess the exact performances called for in the learning objectives. The test item should require the same performance of the student as specified in the learning objectives. 6. Adequacy the test should contain a wide sampling of items to determine the educational outcomes or abilities so that the resulting scores are representatives of the total performance in the areas measured. 7. Fairness the test should not be biased to the examinees. It should not be offensive to any examinees subgroups. A test can only be good if it is also fair to all test takers. 8. Objectivity represents the agreement of two or more raters or a test administrator concerning the score of a student. If the two raters who assess the same student on same test cannot agree on score, the test lacks objectivityAva Clare Marie O. Robles Ph.D Educ 103: Keys to Effective Testing©for MSU Students
  • 6. Module 3 Keys to Effective Testing and the score of neither judge is valid, thus, lack of objectivity reduces test validity in the same way that lack reliability influence validity. Lesson 5: Uses and Classification of Test.Uses of Test There are two uses of test. These are the productive and unproductive uses oftest.Productive Uses of Tests Learning Analysis: Test are used to identify the reasons or causes why studentsdo not learn and the solutions to help them learn. Improvement of Curriculum: Poor performance in a test may indicate that theteacher is not explaining the material effectively, the textbook is not clear, thestudents are not properly taught. Selection: When enrolment opportunity or any other opportunity is limited, atest can be used to screen those who are more qualified. Research: Tests can be feedback tools to find effective methods of teaching andlearn more about students, their interests, goals and achievements. Evaluation of Learning Program: Tests should evaluate the effectiveness of eachelement in a learning program.Unproductive Uses of Tests Grading: Tests should not be used as the only determinants in grading student. Labelling: It is often a serious disservice to label a student, even if the label ispositive. Threatening: Tests lose their validity when used as disciplinary measures. Unannounced Testing: Surprise Test are generally not recommended. Allocating Funds: Some schools exploit tests to solicit for funding.Classification of Tests Throughout the years, psychologist and educators have cooperatively producednew and better test and scales that measure the students’ performance with greateraccuracy. These tests may be classified according to:1. Administration a. Individual- given orally and requires the examinees’ constant attention since the manner of answering may be as important as the score. b. Group- for measuring cognitive skills to measure achievement. Most tests in schools are considered group tests where different test takers can take the tests as a group.2. Scoring a. Objective- independent scores agree on the number of points the answer should receive.Ava Clare Marie O. Robles Ph.D Educ 103: Keys to Effective Testing©for MSU Students
  • 7. Module 3 Keys to Effective Testing b. Subjective- answers can be scored through various ways. These are then the given different values by scores, the essays and performance tests.3. Sort of Response being emphasized a. Power- allows examinees a generous time limit to be able to answer every item. The questions are difficult and this difficulty is what is emphasized. b. Speed- with severely limited time constraints but the items are easy and only a few examinees are expected to make errors.4. Types of Response the Examinees must make a. Performance- requires students to perform a task. This is usually administered individually so that the examiner can count the errors and measure the time the examinee has performed in each task. b. Paper and pencil- examinees are asked to write on paper.5. What is measured a. Sample- limited representative test designed to measure the total behaviour of the examinee, although no test an exhaustively measure all the knowledge of an individual. b. Sign test- diagnostic test designed to obtain diagnostic signs to suggest that some form of remediation is needed.6. Nature of the Groups being compared a. Teacher-made-test- for use within the classroom and contains the subject being taught by the same teacher who constructed the test. b. Standardized test- constructed by test specialist working with curriculum experts and teachers. Lesson 6. Table of Specifications The writing of test items should be accompanied with a carefully prepared set oftest specifications. The function of the specifications is to describe the achievementdomain being measured and to provide guidelines for obtaining a representativesample of test tasks. A Table of Specifications is: a plan to help teachers decide the subject matter in which to test. the teacher’s blueprint in constructing a test for classroom use. a test map that guides the teacher, TOS ensures that there is a balance between items that test lower level thinking skills and those with higher order thinking skills in the test. TOS acts in the same way as concept map to analyze content areas. a two-way chart which describes the topics to be covered by a test and the number or points which will be associated with each topic / written in a grid or matrix.Ava Clare Marie O. Robles Ph.D Educ 103: Keys to Effective Testing©for MSU Students
  • 8. Module 3 Keys to Effective Testing To ensure that classroom tests measure a representative sample ofinstructionally relevant tasks, it is important to develop specifications that can guidethe selection of test items and assessment tasks. The simplest TOS consist of four columns: (a) level of objective to be tested, (b)statement of objective, (c) item numbers where such an objective is being tested, and(d) number of items and percentage out of the total for that particular objectiveSteps in Preparing TOS 1. List down the topics covered for inclusion in the test. 2. Determine the objectives (Bloom’s Taxonomy) to be assessed by the test. 3. Determine the percentage allocation of the test items for each topic.Guidelines in Writing Test Items 1. Avoid wording that is ambiguous and confusing. 2. Use appropriate vocabulary and sentence structure. 3. Keep questions short and to the point. 4. Write items that have one correct answer. 5. Do not provide clues to the answer. A Table of Specifications benefits students in two ways: 1. It improves the validity of a teacher-made tests; and 2. It can improve student learning. A Table of Specifications help to ensure that there is a match between what istaught and what is tested. Classroom assessment should be driven by classroomteaching which itself is driven by course goals and objectives. Its purpose is to identify the achievement domains being measured and toensure that a fair and representative sample of questions appear in the test. Teacherscannot measure every topic or objective and cannot ask every question they wish toask. It allows the teacher to construct a test which focuses on the key areas andweighs those different areas based on their importance. A Table of Specificationsprovides the teacher with evidence that a test has content validity, that it covers whatit should be covered.Ava Clare Marie O. Robles Ph.D Educ 103: Keys to Effective Testing©for MSU Students
  • 9. Module 3 Keys to Effective TestingReferenced:http://www.ehow.com/how_4913690_steps-preparing-test.htmlHow to Prepare for Final Exams |eHow.comhttp://www.ehow.com/how_4510068_prepare-final-exams.html#ixzz1soKW0gRonaldo SP. Elicay, Ph.D, and Cresencia C. Laguerta, M.S, Assessment of student learning, 1, cognitive learning. MET REVIEW (2011).Conception, Benjamin.et.al (2011). LET Reviewer. MET Center, Manila.Oriondo, Leonora L. and Antonio, E (1984).. Evaluating Educational Outcomes (Tests,Measurement and Evaluation). Rex Book Store, ManilaGarcia, Carlito D., Ed.D., Measuring and Evaluating Learning Outcomes: A Textbook in Assessment of Learning 1 & 2, Books Atbp. Publishing Corp. 436 Leyva St.,Mandaluyong City, 2008, pages 58-59.Reganit, Arnulto R., Ed. D., Elicay, Ronaldo, Ph. D., Laguerta, Cresencia, M. S. Assessment of Student Learning. Cognitive Learning: 22-27.Ava Clare Marie O. Robles Ph.D Educ 103: Keys to Effective Testing©for MSU Students