Lesson 1: Defining and Types ofLearning Targets Learning Targets is defined as a statement of student performance that includes both a description of what students should know or be able to do at the end of a unit of instruction and the criteria for judging the level of performances demonstrated. It outlines the steps to be followed and the material to be covered if the student is to achieve competence in the more long-term goal. Terms associated with learning targets are content standards, benchmarks, learning outcomes and expectation.
The word learning is used to convey thattargets’ emphasis on the importance of howstudents will change. The learning targets arecomposed of content and criteria. Content iswhat students should know and be able to do. Onthe other hand, criteria are dimensions ofstudent performance used for judgingattainment. Learning Targets describes what studentswill be able to do successfully and independentlyat the end of a specific lesson as a result of aclassroom instruction. Below is an example of alearning target:
Students will be able to explain thecontrasting point of a parliamentary and democraticgovernment by writing a term paper that indicatesthe differences and similarities. The papers will begraded holistically by looking for evidence ofreasons and knowledge of the forms of government. The benefits of having a learning targetestablish is that teachers are bale to know what toassess to their students and students may seeclearer on things that should have done. Parents willknow what and how to assess their children sincelearning targets are often given to them or postedin websites- most commonly in grade school levels.
There are five types of learning targets: Knowledge Learning Targets. Knowledge of the subject matter is the foundation upon which other learning is based. Teachers expect their students to master at least some content. These are subject to facts and concepts we want students to know. Reasoning Learning Targets. Due to the advent of technology, the accessibility to information has resulted in an increased attention to thinking skills. Such capabilities may be described by number of different terms, including problem solving, critical thinking, analysis, comparing, intellectual skills and abilities. Students are able to use what they know and reason it out to solve problems.
Skill Learning Targets. It is something that the studentdemonstrates, something done. Skill learning targetsinvolve a behavior in which knowledge and reasoning to actskillfully.For example, in an Art class where teachers want theirstudents to draw an airplane. In cases like this, successlies on doing the task well. The challenge for teachers toassess lies on the clarity of terms or the usage of words,or both.Product Learning Targets. Use knowledge, reasoning andskill to create a concrete product. Students are to beable to construct charts and graphs from observation.Products are samples of student work that demonstratesthe ability to use knowledge and reasoning in the creationof a tangible product like a term paper, investigativereport, artwork or projects.
Affective Learning Targets. It is theattitude about school and learning. Affectivelearning includes emotions, feelings, andbeliefs that are different from the cognitivelearning, like knowledge, reasoning, and skills.It can be described as being positive ornegative and most teachers hope thatstudents will develop positive attitudestowards school subjects and learning,themselves as learners, and other studentsand schools.
Bibliography: www.meade.k12.sd.us/.../11LT_4Types.dochttp://www.slideshare.net/chambless.laura/curriculum-and-instruction-session-3-learning-targets1Reganit, et. Al 2010 Assessment of StudentLearning 1, C&E publishing Inc.
LESSON 2: Definition and Role of Instructional ObjectivesInstructional objectives describe the skills;knowledge, abilities or attitudes students shouldpossess or demonstrate after they complete thetraining. The starting point for designing a courseof study should include these instructionalobjectives; the objectives determine the intendedoutcomes of the training. Good instructionalobjectives describe an observable performance, onethat can be observed and measured by aninstructor or manager.
In a nutshell, instructional objectives:1. Describe a skill that students are expected topossess after instruction2. Describe a measurable performance3. Describe the performance conditionsLearning Objectives or Instructional Objectives(also called Learning Objectives) are not just briefdescriptions of lesson content or descriptions ofstudent activities. Each question on a quiz shouldlink to a specific learning objective.
The Role of Objectives in Teaching and Testing Objectives can be helpful in instructionalplanning, during the teaching/learning process, andwhen assessing student progress. Instructionalobjectives are often either ignored (by both teachersand students) or are, at best, occasionally referred to.However, it can be argued that instructionalobjectives should guide the teaching and learningprocess from beginning to end. Most lesson plan forms include a place for theobjectives of the lesson to be recorded. However, towrite an objective down and then to plan the lessonaround the topic of the lesson rather than around thelearning outcomes to be reached is missing the point.
There is good evidence in the human learningliterature that different kinds of outcomes are learneddifferently. Robert Gagné was one of the firstresearchers to articulate this; it follows from hisresearch that instructional planning must take intoaccount the kind of learning the students will be engagedin as they seek to reach an objective. Effective teacherslearn to categorize their instructional objectives and thendevelop the teaching and learning activities that will helpstudents do the kind of thinking required for that kind oflearning. Its time to evaluate. How does an educator knowwhat to measure? Look at the objectives. How does ateacher know what kind of information gathering tools touse (test, rubric, and portfolio)? Study the objectives.
Any test item, any rating scale or checklist, anytechnique devised to collect information about studentprogress must seek to measure the instructional objectivesas directly and as simply as possible. Instructionalobjectives are an extremely valuable teaching tool thatguides both teachers and students through the teachingand learning process.Bibliography: http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2098/Instructional-Objectives.html www.eastfieldcollege.edu/Core/SLO-MVC.pdfhttps://www.aalhe.org/sites/default/files/BrumfieldCarrigan%20AALHE%20Instructional%20Objectives%20slides_0.pdf
LESSON 3: Characteristics of well written anduseful instructional objectivesCharacteristics of a Well-Written ObjectiveInstructional objectives (also known as behavioralobjectives or learning objectives) are basically statementswhich clearly describe an anticipated learning outcome.When objectives were first coming into their own ineducation, they almost always began with the phrase:"Upon completion of this lesson, the student should beable to…." This phrase focused on the outcome of learningrather than on the learning process. In fact, one of thecriteria for a well-written objective is that it describesthe outcome of learning, that is, what the learners can doafter learning has occurred that they might not have beenable to do before the teaching and learning process began.
Describe a learning outcome – it should notdescribe a learning activity. Learning activities areimportant in planning and guiding instruction butthey are not to be confused with instructionalobjectives.Be student oriented – it describes what the learnerwill be expected to be able to do. It should notdescribe a teacher activity. It may be helpful toboth the teacher and the student to know what theteacher is going to do but teacher activities are alsonot to be confused with instructional objectives.
Be observable (or describe an observableproduct) – if an instructional objective is notobservable (or it does not describe an observableproduct), it leads to unclear expectations and it willbe difficult to determine whether or not it hadbeen reached. The key to writing observableobjectives is to use verbs that are observable andlead to a well-defined product if the action impliedby that verb.
Characteristics of a useful objectiveBe sequentially appropriate – for an objective tobe sequentially appropriate it must occur in anappropriate place in the instructional sequence. Allprerequisite objectives must already have beenattained. Nothing thwarts the learning experiencemore than having learners trying to accomplish anobjective before they have learned the necessaryprerequisites. This is why continuous assessmentof student progress is so important.
Be attainable within a reasonable amount of time – a usefulobjective is attainable within a reasonable time. If aninstructional objective takes students an inordinately long timeto accomplish, it is either sequentially inappropriate or it is toobroad, relying on the accomplishment of several outcomes orskills rather than a single outcome or skill. An objective shouldset expectations for a single learning outcome and not a clusterof them.Be developmentally appropriate – developmentally appropriateobjectives set expectations for students that are well withintheir level of intellectual, social, language or moral development.Bibliography:COOPER, JAMES M., ed. 1999. Classroom Teaching Skills, 6thedition.http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2098/Instructional-Objectives.html
LESSON 4: The Three Student LearningOutcomes: Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Assessment of Learning in the Cognitive Domain Knowledge Level-behaviors related in recognizing and remembering facts, concepts, and other important data of any subject or topic. Comprehensive Level-behaviors associated with the clarification and articulation of the main idea of what students are learning. Application Level-behaviors that have something to do with problem- solving and expression, requires students to apply what they have learned. Analysis Level-requires students to think critically such as looking for motives, assumptions, cause-effect relationship, differences and similarities, hypothesis, and conclusions. Synthesis Level-calls for creative thinking such as combining elements in new ways, planning original experiments, creating original solutions to a problem and building models. Evaluation Level-necessitate judging or valuing the worth of a person, object or idea or giving opinion on an issue.
Preparing for Assessment of Cognitive LearningPrior to the construction of paper and pencil to be testto be used in the measurement of cognitive learning,teachers have to answer the following questions.• What should be tested.• How to gather information about what to test.• How long the test should be.• How best to prepare students for testing.Assessing Cognitive LearningTeachers use two (2) types of tests in assessingstudent learning in the cognitive domains: objective testand essay test (Reyes, 2000)
Objective Test An objective test is a kind of test whereinthere is only one answer to each item. On theother hand, an essay test is one wherein the testtaker has the freedom to respond to a questionbased on how to feels it should be answered.Types of Objective Test There are two types of cognitive tests:supply type and selection type (Carey, 1995). Inthe supply type, the students construct their ownanswer to each question. Conversely, the studentschoose the right answer to each item in theselection type.
Supply Types of Objective TestsCompletion Drawing Tests-an incomplete drawing ispresented with the has to completeCompletion Statement Type-an incomplete sentence ispresented and the student has to complete it by filing inthe blank.Identification Type-a brief description is presented andthe student has to identify what it is.3Correction Type-a sentence with underlined word orphrase is presented, which the student has to replace tomake it right.Simple Recall Type -a direct question is presented andthe student has to identify what it is.Short Explanation Type-similar to an essay but itrequires a short answer.
Selection types of Objective TestArrangement Type-terms or objects are to be arrangedby the students in a specified order.Matching Type-a list of numbered items is related tolettered choices.Multiple Choice Type-this type contains a questionproblem or unfinished sentence followed by severalresponses.Alternative Response Type -a test wherein there are onlytwo possible answers to the question.The true or false format is a form of alternative responsetype.Key list Type-a test wherein the student to examinepaired concepts based on a specified set of criteria.Interpretative Exercise-it is a form of multiple choicetype of test that assesses higher cognitive behavior.
Essay Test This type of test presents a problem or questionand the student is to compose a response in paragraphform, using his or her own words, and ideas. There are twoforms of the essay test: brief or restricted; andextended.Brief or Restricted Essay Test- form of the essay testrequires a limited amount of writing or requires that agiven problem should be solved in a few sentences.Example: Why did early Filipino revolts fail? Cite andexplain 2 reasons.Extended Essay Test-this form requires a student topresent his answer in several paragraphs or pages ofwriting.Example: Explain your position on the issue of charterchange in the Philippines.
Psychomotor DomainLevels of Psychomotor LearningGronlund, 1970Imitation – crude execution of taskManipulation – independent execution of tasks. Precise butnot accurate.Precision – Accuracy in performing skill. Coordination havebeen mastered. Skill is performed without conscious effortSimpson et al, 2001Articulation – skill so well-developed, individual can modifymovement patterns fit for specific requirementsNaturalization – individual can experiment creating newmotor acts
Assessment: Psychomotor DomainWhy do we need to assess acquisition of skills?Observation of Student PerformanceEvaluation of ProjectsThrough Student PortfoliosAssessment: Observation of Student PerformanceHolistic – Scoring and giving feedback based on pre-established prototypes such as “excellent”, “average” or“poor”Atomistic/Analytic – Analysis of mastery based on thefulfillment of tasks/subtasks
Assessment: Evaluation of Student Product/ProjectAssessment of Student’s Mastery of a skill throughsubmission/construction of models, artwork, design, etc.Assesses student’s improvements through time based ontheir accomplishmentsWhat does a portfolio contain?Solved Math ProblemsProjects and Puzzles CompletedArtworks and CraftsTaped performance/recordingsBenefits of this AssessmentProof/example of student’s performance to the parentsStudent’s assessment as time progressesRecords the student’s performance for the nextyear/course/teacherIdentify areas for improvementEncourages good performance by setting examplesBasis for grading.
Guidelines for Student Portfolios: To Do ListEstablish clear purpose. Set objectives andguidelines for the task.Set performance criteria. Teacher level.Identify standards of performance.Create appropriate setting. Type of portfolioto be done. i.e. written, oral performanceForming scoring criteria. Scrutiny of student’swork based on set criteria of judging.
Tools for Measuring Acquisition of Skills: PsychomotorDomainCriteria for Tools: Unbiased, Reliable, ObjectiveRating Scale – series of categories arranged in order of qualityFunction: judges skills, products and proceduresIdentify qualities and scales for each quality on performanceaspectArrange the scales from positive to negative and vice versaWrite directions for accomplishing the rating scaleExample:Rating ScaleRate the teacher on each skill area as specified below. Use thefollowing code: 5=always, 4=sometimes, 3=often, 2=seldom and1=never. 5 4 3 2 1 Comes to school on time 5 4 3 2 1 Returns quizzes regularly 5 4 3 2 1 Answers students’ questions
Checklist – indicates presence or absence of specifiedcharacteristicsFunction: assess whether or not a task or characteristic is realizedExample:Criterion basedCheck the appropriate box.During the experimentWeighed big blockWeighed small rockYes or NoCheck Yes or No when the specified criterion is metDid the student: Yes NoSpeak proper English ___ ___Provide handouts ___ ___Affective Domain- Concerns Emotional DevelopmentAttitudes,Feelings, Emotions
Levels of Affective LearningReceiving – willingness to heari.e. Listens to others with respect, listens for names of newlyintroduced members.Responding – Active participation. Voluntary reaction. Motivationi.e. Participates in class discussion, asks questions to fully understand.Valuing – giving importance and worthi.e. sensitive towards certain issues such as cultural diversity andsocietyOrganization – creation of value system by organizing values intoprioritiesi.e. accepts responsibility for one’s behavior. Prioritizes time to meetspecific endsInternalizing Values (Characterization) – adjusted behavior based onvalue systemi.e. shows self-reliance, cooperates in group activities, value people onwhat they are not on how they look.