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EARTH SCIENCE

EARTH SCIENCE

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  • 1. THE HISTORY OF METEOROLOGY  
  • 2. History of Meteorology is the peer-reviewed journal produced by the ICHM. It has been assigned ISSN 1555-5763 by the U.S. Library of Congress. It is currently being indexed by two leading services: Isis Current Bibliography of the History of Science (from which citations are posted online on the RLG History of Science and Technology database) and Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts.
  • 3. Articles should be based on original research and present a novel thesis. They must be engaging, clearly written, and fully documented, following the style guide linked below. All papers will be subject to peer review. Authors are reminded that international and interdisciplinary perspectives are encouraged and articles should engage social, cultural, and/or intellectual themes and contexts.
  • 4. In the mid 1800s there was still no quick way of transferring weather data from one location to the next. Often the weather that was being warned about would arrive before the data did. That was until Samuel Morse invented his electric telegraph to allow speedy transference of information. Morse's invention now made it possible for the Paris Observatory to begin publishing the first modern weather maps. By 1872, Britain's Meteorological Office had followed suit. From then on the acquiring of weather data became more and more complex, as did the resulting meteorological maps.
  • 5. New graphic devices were developed to convey more information. Isobars, for example, were invented lines drawn to link points that have the same barometric pressure. Isotherms connect locations that have the same temperature. Other graphic devices were also developed - symbols to show wind direction and force, as well as lines that depict the meeting of warm and cold air masses.
  • 6. In the 20th century much sophisticated meteorological equipment has also been developed. Today, weather stations release balloons that carry what are called radiosondes. These are instruments that can measure atmospheric conditions and then radio the information back to the station. Of course, weather stations today also use radar. In 1960 the world's first weather satellite, TIROS 1 was sent into space equipped with a TV camera. Today, weather satellites orbit the earth from pole to pole. Geostationary satellites stay in a fixed position above the earth and constantly monitor one part of the globe.
  • 7. The forecasting of the weather took a leap forward when, shortly after World War One, British meteorologist Lewis Richardson stated that since the atmosphere follows the laws of physics, it is possible to use mathematical calculations to predict future weather conditions. His formulas, however, were so complicated that the weather would be upon him before he could figure out what it would be. His calculations also only allowed for weather readings taken at six hourly intervals. However, with the advent of computers, it became possible to work out Richardson's lengthy calculations quickly. 
  • 8.   A complex numerical weather model was now established that incorporated all the known physical laws governing the weather. The equations are utilized in the following way: meteorologists divide the earth's surface into a grid with grid points spaced 80 kilometers apart. The atmosphere above each square is called a box and observations of atmospheric wind, air pressure, temperature and humidity are recorded at 20 different levels of altitude. A computer than analyzes the data received from the more than 3,500 observation stations around the world and produces a forecast of what the world's weather will be for the next 15 minutes.
  • 9. Then a forecast for the next 15 minutes is produced. Repeating this process a computer can produce a six day world forecast in just 15 minutes.
    To achieve even greater accuracy the British Meteorological Office has what is called the Limited Area Model which covers just the North Atlantic and European sectors. It's grid points are spaced at intervals of just 50 kilometers. However, the formulas used and the results achieved are only approximate descriptions of the behavior of the atmosphere. To achieve more accuracy the skills of the weather forecaster must come into play. The forecaster must use his skills and experience to decide what value to place on the data he receives. 
  • 10. The word 'meteorology' was coined from a research book called 'Meteorologica' which was written by Aristotle, a Greek scientist and philosopher. This early work described the science of earth like its geology, elements, hydrology, seas, wind and weather. In the modern term, the term meteorology explains a complete science. It is for understanding the dynamics of atmosphere and forecasting weather phenomena like hurricanes and thunderstorms.
    Weather forecasting was practiced since the beginning of time with more or less accuracy. Historical records show several examples of weather predicting methods based on observing surrounding elements.
  • 11. Sky is undoubtedly the first indicator used in meteorology its cover and nature of clouds provides clues of the upcoming temperature and weather. The wind factor is also important and is associated with temperature and often rains. Animals and birds are also known to give indications about the future weather.
    Scientists across the world since ancient times have tried to understand the meteorological phenomena like wind and rain. Many instruments for measuring wind power, humidity and rain were invented in the early 15th century.
  • 12. During the 17th century, several discoveries tipped in favor of scientific meteorology. A device to measure temperature was invented by Galileo Galilei and the factor that atmospheric pressure was linked to altitude was discovered by Blaise Pascal. The invention of barometer by EvangelistaA Torricelli is significantly the most important discovery. It is still in use today which indicates atmospheric pressure changes that are linked with the future weather changes.
  • 13. There are also other methods which have been evolved. Meteorology is a lot related with cycles and their analysis which was what Fernando II de Medici wanted to prove. He carried out a very determined program in 1654 for recording weather patterns in different European cities with a view to compile data and make their analysis.
    Other breakthroughs were followed in the 18th century and science was taken to a new level. A modern mercury based thermometer was invented by Gabriel Fahrenheit.
  • 14. When the theory of thermodynamics and atmospheric pressures were adapted, no real changes were important for understanding meteorology. In recent times, focus has been given on meteorological tools for its improvement and attaining better accuracy results. A tremendous boost was given to meteorology because of the technology in two ways. The first is the ability to communicate results and analysis with timing, it was made possible due to the invention of telegraph. The second is the ability of probing skies with using balloons, satellites and radars.
  • 15. Meteorology is a part of our everyday lives. People are kept updated about the changing weather with dedicated channels and mobile devices. The science is still progressing and is an important element of the economy with many industries like agriculture and civil aviation depending on it.
  • 16.  Invention
    of
    Weather Instruments.
     
  • 17. The Model WR-25 Weather Report Weather Station by is a full featured weather forecasters tool. It has the capability of displaying any weather data at a glance in it's 4 selectable readouts.
  • 18. Judging the danger of lightning used to be guesswork. Now with the Model P5 SkyScan Lightning Detector, it's just a simple matter of pushing a button.
  • 19. Kestrel 4000NV Pocket Weather Tracker with Night Vision for day or night use. The Kestrel 4000NV Weather Tracker is the next generation of weather monitoring. You can now measure EVERY major environmental condition, easily and accurately, right in the palm of your hand.
  • 20. he 6152 Davis Vantage Pro2 wireless weather stations are better than ever. You will get all current weather conditions including; wind speed anemometer with wind gust, wind direction, outside and inside temperature and humidity, barometric pressure, rainfall, a weather forecast and much more!
  • 21. The Model EWS-PRO is the only professional grade portable lightning detection and early warning device available today.
  • 22. The Model 05103 Wind Monitor is a high performance rugged wind sensor. Its simplicity and corrosion resistant construction make it ideal for a wide range of wind measuring applications.
  • 23. This wireless rain gauge design eliminates the normal wire connection from the rain gauge to the indoor display. The battery operated transmitter operates up to 300 feet away.
  • 24. The Model 6163 Davis Wireless Vantage Pro2 Plus with Solar radiation and UV sensors consists of a console unit and an innovative aspirated integrated sensor suite that includes a rain collector, temperature, humidity, barometric pressure sensors and an anemometer for wind speed and wind direction.
  • 25. The Certified Hygrometer Model HTAB-176 is certified to be accurate within ± 3% RH. The dial indicates the complete range of 0 to 100% relative humidity and 0 to 210 Fahrenheit with a ±1% accuracy.
  • 26. PREPARED BY:
    VANESSA ORTIZ
    BSED I-B

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