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Overview of Initial Ag-ICT Trip to Ethiopia
 

Overview of Initial Ag-ICT Trip to Ethiopia

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This slideshow gives an overview of Team Ethiopia's experiences learning about Agriculture and ICT - Summer 2009

This slideshow gives an overview of Team Ethiopia's experiences learning about Agriculture and ICT - Summer 2009

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  • The team in Ethiopia has traveled to: The Rift Valley Meki, Wonji, and Adama (CRS) Debre Zeit (IPMS) Ziway (Rift Valley Children and Women’s Development - RCWD) Tigray Region Mekelle (TAMPA, Nyala, DECSI, REST) Adiha (REST and Oxfam America) Jimma (coffee area) JICA Oromia Coffee Union
  • The point:Farmers in Meki / Wonji might benefit from the tales in Ziway:How did they organize / make decisions / encourage savings within the community?How has community savings helped them?How are they negotiating with EthioFlora (if, in fact, there is something to learn)?
  • Micro-Insurance DetailsSwiss RE is the re-insurerRequires a premium 22% of what they want to insureMost farmers insured several hundred birrCould enroll by paying labor (PSNP) or through cashPayout determined by rain level (using satellites and automatic rain gauges)Major education initiativeChance games with diceDrama (acting out scenarios)200 households in the community signed up
  • Training approaches:Husband and wife training. If one passes away, the other one knows about both skill setsTwo minds are better than oneUsually, the man decided whether or not to make the investment, but if he doesn’t know what his wife does, he might not invest.Training DAs and farmers togetherTraining only women in:Sericulture (silk production)Dairy (women usually tend to the cows)Farmer Skill Development: give a farmer an intervention for a year – if they like it, they can buy it for themselves in the future.Melkassa Research: Regarding fruits and vegetables, we first brought farmers to Melkassa. Then, Melkassa came and trained farmers on their own land.
  • Training approaches:Husband and wife training. If one passes away, the other one knows about both skill setsTwo minds are better than oneUsually, the man decided whether or not to make the investment, but if he doesn’t know what his wife does, he might not invest.Training DAs and farmers togetherTraining only women in:Sericulture (silk production)Dairy (women usually tend to the cows)Farmer Skill Development: give a farmer an intervention for a year – if they like it, they can buy it for themselves in the future.Melkassa Research: Regarding fruits and vegetables, we first brought farmers to Melkassa. Then, Melkassa came and trained farmers on their own land.
  • Location: TAMPA Office (Mekelle) – Tigray Agricultural Marketing Promotion AgencyInteviewee: KirosTikueMebrahtu (General Manager) +251-344-405029 +251-344-405030 +251-344-405268mebkir@hotmail.comhttp://www.agrimartg.orgDate: 7/22/2009Rough TranscriptTAMPA started an information system three years ago (2006). It’s better than any other system in the country. We also want a National grid. We use the FAO data (produced by the UN). Our system is based upon their Agrimar database software, as is the data format.We discussed the system with the different partners in the region and tried to avoid any duplication. We established 13 market collection stations, and trained 36 data collectors. We have standardized data collection around each commodity, in terms of quality parameters. We collect information on crops and vegetables – weekly – and produce the most up-to-date information in the region. We have four means of disseminating this information: (1) Through our website (though there is a lag in how often this gets updated). (2) Through a bi-weekly bulletin that is distributed to woreda centers, the chamber of commerce, and companies.(3) Local radio: regional (once a week it gets announced over the air) – after the weekly market, it gets announced after the market. Radio programs are very important to farmers.(4) Notice board in each peasant association. TAMPA’s also thinking of putting them in schools.Currently, they don’t do prices for livestock information – they also send prices through “woreda net” or through the telephone.Q: How did you choose which markets to cover?A: Well, we tried to select markets which were representative of each type of market – one or two zones, as well as some terminal markets (lik the ones in Mekelle and Amora). We cover botht he lowlands and the highlands.We take samples of each quality level and train the agents so that we all come to a common understanding. Purity isn’t really an issue in the local markets (more an issue for export). We take 5 prices and then average them.Since sesame gets exported, there’s both a local price and an export price.We also try to provide forecast information, and read different external reports and enter relevant information into the system.Q: Who uses the website?A: Mainly researchers, exporters, and woredas. Also, the site has helped farmers find alternative buyers and importers, because the world now know about them.Q: How has this helped the farmers?A: We want to change the culture of the farmers – we want them to use information as an input to make a decision. It’s very important for their decisions and for their bargaining power. It could also have indirect benefits – a farmer could choose to sell his product in a market that’s buying it for a higher price – could justify the truck / transport costs.We want to reduce the costs of data collection and time. People aren’t ready to pay for this kind of price collection service – not enough value seen yet. Perhaps in the future.Q: What is your biggest challenge?A: Our system doesn’t include livestock prices because we can’t standardize the information. We need some additional support and expertise. There is a project called LINCS for livestock, sponsored by USAID, in the Somali region.In Tigray, there are over 3 million cattle, but we need expertise. We don’t know that our current database schema could accommodate cattle.On local radio: we pay 88,000 birr per year to have prices announced once a week for 10 minutes. It would be nice for each locality to have it’s own radio station – something that would stretc for 10-15 kms. Would be more at the grass roots level.
  • Broadcasts market prices using electronic boards Warehouses scattered throughout the country – can keep your goods until your broker is able to sell it. Prices can only move by a certain # of percentage points per day Organized buying and selling for large volumes, but it also sets a benchmark price You may not have a broker, but you could sell it on the local market and have a reference point
  • Production Traceability Tool Certification (such as that provided by the Rainforest Alliance) can add up to a 25% premium on sale price of a commodity.Requires the ability to trace produce to the farmer, and know basic farmer attributes (how much land s/he owns and other basic facts).Some of this information already collected and submitted to the ministry of Agriculture.ICT Intervention:Collection: data (quantity produced, farmer who produced it, basic attributes about the farmer) could be entered into a small handheld form (or PC form)Transmission: over the network, by Flash Drive, or by paper formStorage: data kept in a central database (hosted by the cooperative union)Corresponding grain from farmer could be labeled as it’s given to the primary cooperative.Could also provide a quality feedback mechanism – ACOS could flag producers by shipment, which could be traced to the individual farm.
  • Production Traceability Tool Collection: data (quantity produced, farmer who produced it, basic attributes about the farmer) could be entered into a small handheld form (or PC form)Transmission: over the network, by Flash Drive, or by paper formStorage: data kept in a central database (hosted by the cooperative union)
  • Production Traceability Tool Corresponding grain from farmer could be labeled as it’s given to the primary cooperative.Could also provide a quality feedback mechanism – ACOS could flag producers by shipment, which could be traced to the individual farm.
  • Deployed with over 2,000 farmers• 30% reduction in inspection time• 71% reduction in evaluation time• $4000 yearly savings for cooperative• Feedback from farmers used to informdecision-making and governance• Service contract and interest from coops

Overview of Initial Ag-ICT Trip to Ethiopia Overview of Initial Ag-ICT Trip to Ethiopia Presentation Transcript

  • Exploring ICT’s potential to help smallholder farmersEthiopia
  • Project Goals
    Introduction
    Funded by the Gates Foundation
    Looking for high-impact ways to apply ICT to small-holder agriculture to improve farmer livelihoods
  • What We Did
    Introduction
    Our team:
    • Traveled
    • Observed
    • Interviewed
    • Brainstormed
  • Ethiopia Interesting Facts
    Introduction
    The only country in Africa that was never colonized
    Lucy, Salem, Arc of the Covenant
    Second most populated country in Africa
    Ongoing war with Eritrea
    History of famine and civil war
    Conflict between the Communist party, “The Derg,” and the Democratic Liberation Front, 1974 to 1991
    Tigray people currently in power
    Half Christian, half Muslim
    Has the greatest water reserves in Africa
  • Ethiopian Agriculture
    Overview
    People
    Over 80% of Ethiopians are farmers
    The majority of them are barely at subsistence
    Government has organized farmers into cooperatives and unions
    Land
    No land ownership: land use rights
    4% of arable land is irrigated
    Crops
    Teff, wheat and maize are the most common crops
    Coffee and oilseeds (sesame) are most valuable exports
    Other high-value crops are fruits (oranges, bananas) and vegetables (tomatoes, onions, green beans)
  • Ethiopian Agriculture
    Government
    Regions
    Generally broken down by language and ethnicity
    5 major languages but 50-80 total
    Woredas
    Most farmer programs are managed at district level
    Kabele
    Villages or Peasant Associations are the level at which extension, coops and Farmer Training Centers are organized
    Many are large enough to be split into sub-villages
  • Ethiopian Agriculture
    Culture Challenges
    Trust
    Bad experiences with gov programs (esp during Communism) and even some NGOs have created a culture of distrust
    Relevance
    Many “best practices” are not properly contextualized for specific areas
    Farmers need to see that it will help them before buying in
    Inertia
    Many farmers have been working the land for generations and don’t understand why they need to change
    Access
    Many farmers don’t have access to improved seed and fertilizer, or don’t have access to finance to purchase them
    Stability
    One bad year can cause a farmer to slip into poverty
    Few programs to help them get out – become aid dependent
  • ICT in Ethiopia
    Introduction
    Sporadic electricity nation-wide
    Government monopoly of communications infrastructure
    Cell phones
    Even when full coverage, network often busy / non-responsive
    SMS turned off for 2 years during last election
    Certain websites blocked (Skype, Blogspot)
    CDMA just introduced
    Data Network
    Extremely slow, even in the capital city on a good day
    Quality and quantity of cables very poor / sparse
    Radio permits
    CB Radio permits difficult to obtain
    Radio broadcasting expensive (national and regional radio – not much local radio)
    Woreda NET
    Ubiquitous use of flash drives
  • Case Studies
    Learning from what already exists
  • Case Study #1
    Irrigation Cooperative
    Rift Valley Children and Women Development
  • Case Study #1
    Irrigation Cooperative
    Actions
    Irrigation Infrastructure Developed
    RCWD initially funded canals, pumps
    Land redistribution process
    Supported extension activities
    Facilitated green bean market linkages (EthioFlora)
    Encouraged household to save individually
    Helped start a revolving fund
    10% of farmer proceeds re-invested for all maintenance
    Results
    Food secure, able to buy oxen, iron roofs, improved community spirit
  • Case Study #1
    Irrigation Cooperative
    Challenges
    Required significant initial capital investment
    Perceived lack of bargaining power with single buyer
    Takeaways
    Immediately establishing that the coop is financially responsible for community infrastructure
    Significant effort needed to:
    build coop skills and convince them to pool resources
    convince farmers to change growing practices
  • Case Study #2
    Micro-Insurance
    REST, Oxfam America, DECSI, Nyala
  • Case Study #2
    Micro-Insurance
    Actions
    Initial investment (irrigation infrastructure developed)
    Oxfam America funded river diversion project
    Land redistribution process
    Agricultural Extension
    Heavy use of demonstration plots
    Community nursery
    REST “tissue culture” facility
    Risk minimization
    Crop diversification (fruit, vegetables, and teff)
    Micro-Insurance (Nyala)
    DECSI Financing
    Fertilizer and Input supplies
  • Case Study #2
    Micro-Insurance
    Challenges
    Irrigation Cooperative Capacity
    No community fund, no consensus on pooling resources
    Other farmers at the periphery could potentially benefit
    Micro-insurance
    Educating farmers about insurance; managing risk
    Takeaways
    Even in drought-prone areas, farmers can protect themselves
    Establishing understanding of community savings is critical
  • Case Study #2
    Micro-Insurance
    Micro-Insurance Details
    Swiss RE is the re-insurer
    Requires a premium 22% of what they want to insure
    Most farmers insured several hundred birr of their crop
    Could enroll by paying labor (PSNP) or through cash
    Payout determined through rain level
    Major education initiative
    Chance games
    Drama (acting out scenarios)
    200 farmers signed up
  • Case Study #3
    Farmer Field School
    JICA
  • Case Study #3
    Farmer Field School
    Actions
    WaBuBs (Walda Bulchiinsa Bosonaa)“Forest Management Association”
    Participatory Forest Management
    Organic / fair trade certification
    Management training
    Farmer Field Schools
    Learn by doing / experimentation
    DA or “graduated farmer” teacher
    Mandatory attendance
    Meet once a week for 3-4 hours
    Learn by doing
  • Case Study #3
    Farmer Field School
    Results
    Motivated farmers
    All farmers take what they learn and apply it to their homesteads
    Challenges
    Difficult for FFSs to learn from one another
    FFS exchanges are extremely popular, but only happen once a year
    Decentralization makes monitoring hard
  • Case Study #3
    Farmer Field School
    Takeaways
    Importance of:
    Taking ownership of the curriculum
    Learning experimentation and troubleshooting
    Farmers learn by doing
    Farmers are responsive to being taught by one another
  • Case Study #4
    Oromia Coffee Union
    Jimma
  • Actions
    Single-product focus
    Building market leverage through high-volume transactions
    Certification to earn a premium price
    Engage in value-added services (washing, packaging)
    Sell directly to exporters
    “Triple Payout”
    Results
    Dividend payments
    Community Infrastructure projects
    Sufficient revenue to re-invest in business and community
    Case Study #4
    Oromia Coffee Union
  • Challenges
    Organizational capacity of cooperatives varies according to:
    Leadership / business savvy
    Planning
    Reporting
    Traceability needed to ensure continued certification
    Case Study #4
    Oromia Coffee Union
  • Takeaways
    Large-volume unions build market leverage and give higher premiums to farmers
    Community savings can lead to further income increases in the future through investment
    Major incentives exist that entice farmers to join
    Open Questions
    Can this success be replicated for other cash crops?
    Case Study #4
    Oromia Coffee Union
  • Case Study #5
    IPMS
    ILRI, CEDA
  • Actions (4 Pillars)
    Knowledge Management
    IPMS Knowledge Portal
    Regional and local “Knowledge Centers”
    Agricultural training materials
    TV & DVD players
    PC & phone line / CDMA-based modem
    Knowledge exchanges – farmer field days, field trips, etc.
    Experimentation with training curriculums to farmers
    Capacity Building
    Training and short courses for DAs
    Innovation & Commodity Development
    Production techniques
    Market linkage
    Research
    Case Study #5
    IPMS
  • Results
    Still being evaluated, but preliminary feedback:
    DVDs and “farmer field days” are wildly popular
    DAs interviewed reported using Internet – connectivity surprisingly fast using CDMA
    Challenges
    Computer literacy
    Access to electricity
    Network
    Case Study #5
    IPMS
  • Takeaways
    Farmers learn from each other’s successes
    It is possible to have supplementary ICT at the FTC level
    Could be an initial platform for enhanced 2-way communication
    Case Study #5
    IPMS
  • Case Study #6
    Catholic Relief Services
    Meki and Wonji
  • Case Study #5
    Catholic Relief Services
    ActionsCRS uses an integrated approach
    Education
    Food Security
    Extension Work
    Provision of Improved Seeds
    Fertilizer
    Health
    Promoting Savings & Credit groups through Metamamen
    Supplementing traditional extension and coop/union system
  • Results
    Access to new seeds and fertilizer
    Improved farming techniques
    Challenges
    Will investment in Haricot bean value chain improve farmers’ livelihoods?
    Limited access to finance
    Water supply issues
    Under-developed irrigation
    Organizational Capacity
    Case Study #6
    Catholic Relief Services
  • Takeaways
    Organizing Coops focused on high-value crops can improve farmer livelihoods
    Creating a new value chain is very difficult and costly
    Need proper incentives to achieve quality improvements
    Access to finance and water are critical for any program
    Case Study #6
    Catholic Relief Services
  • Case Study #7
    Market Prices
    TAMPA and the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX)
  • Case Study #7
    Market Prices
    TAMPA - Tigray
  • Case Study #7
    Market Prices
    ECX
  • Challenges, Strengths, and knowledge sharing
    Summarizing Field Observations
  • Summary
    Challenges
    Communication
    • Limited infrastructure
    • Lack of two-way communication
    Organizational Capacity
    • Leadership capacity of cooperatives, unions, and farmer groups
    • Farmer participation
  • Summary
    Field Observations
    Strengths
    Challenges
    • Integrated development approach
    • Building organizational capacity
    • Forging market linkages
    CRS
    • Access to credit / financing
    • Capacity of coops / unions
    RCWD
    • Organizational capacity
    • Incentives for participation
    • Community savings and investing
    • Market linkages
    • Reliance on single buyer
    • Quality control
    REST Micro-Insurance
    • High-value crop production
    • Access to household loans
    • Financial protection
    • Community decision-making ability
    • Little community investment
    JICA FFS
    • Strong education program
    • Farmer ownership of curriculum
    • Emphasis on experimentation
    • Short-term pilot
    • Dependence on government
    Oromia Coffee Union
    • Well organized union and coops
    • Emphasis on value-add services
    • Substantial community investing
    • May only be possible with Coffee
    • Scaling and management training
    IPMS
    • Advanced ICT infrastructure
    • Centralization of knowledge
    • Farmer to farmer connections
    • Short-term pilot
    • Heavy investment requirements
    • ICT impact is mostly at DA level
  • Challenges Address
    Organizational Capacity
    • Question
    • Adiha Tabia River Diversion Project (REST & Oxfam America)
    • How do we convince members of the cooperative to save collectively to invest in community infrastructure?
    • Answer
    • Haleku Melka TessoIrrigation Cooperative (RCWD)
    • Members have agreed (by consensus) to give 10% of their profits back to the cooperative!
  • Challenges Address
    Financing
    • Question
    • Farmers in Meki and Wonji (CRS)
    • How do we provide a buffer for our farmers when drought is endemic to our area?
    • Answer
    • Adiha River Diversion Project (REST & Oxfam America)
    • Invest in crop insurance based on rainfall measurements.
  • Challenges Address
    Agriculture Techniques
    • Question
    • Farmer Field Schools – Jimma
    • How do I build a “modern”beehive with local materials?
    • Answer
    • IPMS – Gondar
    • We’ve already produced a photo essay / case study outlining how to do this!
  • Challenges Address
    Sales & Marketing
    • Question
    • Haleku Melka Tesso Irrigation Cooperative
    • How do we organize into a like-minded cooperative union to get higher prices?
    • Answer
    • Oromia Coffee Union
    • We engage in value-add services and export directly to International buyers!
  • Ideas for ICT in Ethiopia
    Education platform and streamlining finance
  • ICT Ideas Overview
    Potential Ideas
    Farmer-to-farmer knowledge sharing using multimedia for things like
    agricultural practices
    how financing works
    how community savings works
    how value-added services work
    Expanding access to micro-finance using handheld devices to enhance:
    Efficiency in coverage
    Data entry & reporting
    Transparency
  • ICT Ideas Overview
    Potential Ideas
    Enhancing field-to-office and office-to-field communication using structured communication tools using synchronization software. Example:
    Field collects GPS coordinates, photos, and data about drinking water
    Data is saved in a standard format (using some software) and put onto a USB thumb drive (automatically)
    Thumb drive is driven to headquarters, synchronized with the central GIS repository (automatically)
    Everyone has access to the data -- if every field office did this, large, integrated databases could be compiled relatively easily
  • Farmer to Farmer Video Sharing
    A grassroots peer-to-peer knowledge-sharing network
  • Knowledge Sharing
    Lessons Learned
    Farmers learn best from other farmers
    Farmers are risk averse
    Farmers believe demonstrations
    Farmer, empowered by experts, are ultimately the most effective teachers
    Farmers are capable and eager to learn when they perceive information as relevant
  • Agricultural Extension
    New agricultural practices improving productivity
    Moving beyond subsistence farming
    Business
    Exploring market linkage opportunities
    Certification
    Value-added post-harvest techniques
    Insurance and risk-minimization
    Organizational Capacity
    Conflict resolution
    Allocating community resources
    Financing
    Knowledge Sharing
    Existing Innovations
  • What if there were a way to easily empower model farmers to be teachers?
    What if farmers in one village could quickly benefit from innovations in a similarly-situated village?
    What if newfound knowledge could quickly be put into action using information on how to obtain inputs and finance?
    Knowledge Sharing
    Developing a Tool
  • Digital Green
    A Story from India
    Supplementing agricultural extension using DVDs
    Participatory content production
    DAs followed template and film:
    Farmers demonstrating techniques
    Farmers giving testimonials
    Footage shipped to regional video editor
    Footage edited, annotated, indexed, and submitted to central repository
    Photo taken from http://www.digitalgreen.org, courtesy of Rajesh Veeraraghavan
  • Disseminating Content
    DVDs mailed from central repository to target field schools
    DVDs are publically screened with minimally trained mediator (3x / week)
    Relevant input supplies are made available for purchase
    DVD content coordinated according to seasonal relevance 
    Results / Effectiveness
    10 times more effective (per dollar spent) than traditional extension (according to their data and assumptions). 
    Digital Green
    A Story from India
  • Applying Digital Green in Ethiopia
    Videos (farmer to farmer)
    Photos and audio
    Audio (broadcast over radio)
    Digital Green
    Applying it to Ethiopia
  • Handhelds for MFIs
    Increasing access to financing through digital forms
  • Addressed Challenges
  • Proposal
    Field Agent
    Handheld device with interactive forms requiring minimal training
    Questions to determine loan packages that are available for individual farmer
    Collect enough data to process loan application
    Field Agent can quickly process dozens of farmers
  • Proposal
    Internal Processing
  • Impact
    Coverage
    Eliminate DA involvement
    Each agent could cover ~10 sub-villages per week
    Monthly contact with every sub-village
    1 branch with 5 agents can cover 200 sub-villages
  • Impact
    Efficiency
    Low cost field agents given large potential coverage area
    Reduced data entry time, labor and errors
    Improved tracking and reporting
  • Impact
    Capital Raising
  • Traceability Tool for Certification
  • Certification can add up to a 25% premium on the sale price of a commodity
    Could entice greater participation in coop / union value chain
    Requires the ability to trace produce to the farmer, no basic farmer attributes (land owned, amount earned, assets, etc.)
    Much of this information is already collected by the DA
    Traceability Tool
    Introduction
  • Traceability Tool
    Proposal
    Collection
    Data, such as quantity produced, farmer who produced it, basic farmer attributes, could be entered into a small handheld or PC form.
    Transmission
    Data could be transmitted to central repository over the network, by flash drive, or by paper form
    Storage
    Data could be kept in a central database (hosted by the cooperative union)
  • Traceability Tool
    Proposal
    Corresponding grain from the farmer could be labeled as it is given to the primary cooperative
    Could also provide a quality feedback mechanism – ACOS could flag producers by shipment, which could be traced to the individual farmer.
  • Traceability Tool
    Success in Mexico
    Internal inspection and traceability system evaluated in coffee cooperative in Mexico (UC Berkeley project – Digital ICS).
    Results:
    Deployed with over 2,000 farmers
    30% reduction in inspection time
    71% reduction in evaluation time
    $4,000 yearly savings for cooperatives
    Feedback from farmers used to inform decision-making and governance
  • Structured Two-Way Communication
  • Architecture
    FTC Communication Network
    File Transfer
    • New content files added
    • New FTC files uploaded
    Server Software
    • Content Repository files
    • Training materials
    • Accessing inputs
    • Stories
    • Database
    • Synchronize
    Client Software
    • Arrange views
    • Select content
    • Input data
    • Synchronize
  • Could be used for information dissemination
    Training materials for crop diversification
    Farmers group organizational tools
    Or structured communication
    Request for farm inputs (packages)
    MFI Application Form
    Farmer asset data tracking
    Modules
    FTC Communication Network
  • The same modules could be packaged in different ways…
    Farmer View
    Graphics, visualizations, and photos
    MP3s & recordings of radio broadcasts
    Videos
    “How to” training materials
    DA View
    Training materials
    Forms / Worksheets
    Views of the Information
    FTC Communication Network
  • Narrative View
    FTC Communication Network
    Rift Valley Water Cooperative
  • Telling a Story
    FTC Communication Network
  • Questions?
    Thank you to CRS, Oxfam America, REST, RCWD, IPMS, JICA, IDE, Oromia Coffee Union, and everyone else for helping us learn and giving us perspective