%QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! :%QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP...
RQ WUDGLWLRQDO HGXFDWLRQ 7KH VWDWH WKDW HGXFDWLRQ SDUWLFXODUOSURIHVVLRQDO WHFKQLFDO YRFDWLRQDO HGXFDWLRQ LV DOZDV IDFLQJ W...
FLWHV WKH SKLORVRSKHU $OIUHG 1RUWK :KLWHKHDG ZKR VWDWHG WKDW WKHUH LV QRWKLQJPRUH XVHOHVV WKDQ D PHUHO ZHOO LQIRUPHG PDQ O...
$VSHFWV RI D GLIIHUHQW YLHZ RINQRZOHGJH DUHx 7KH FODVVLFDO FRQFHSW RI NQRZOHGJH DV VFKRROEDVHG DQG GLVFLSOLQHEDVHG LV EURD...
VWDWHG VRPH WHQ HDUV DJR WKDW LQPDQ VXE 6DKDUDQ $IULFDQ FRXQWULHV WKHUH LV WUDGLWLRQDOO QR IRUPDOO FRGLILHGNQRZOHGJH DQG W...
VSHDNV DERXW WZR ¶PRGHV· RI NQRZOHGJH SURGXFWLRQ 0RGH  SURGXFWLRQ UHIHUV WRNQRZOHGJH RI WKH GLVFLSOLQHEDVHG WSH WSLFDOO SU...
,Q VRPH FDVHV XQLYHUVLWLHV ZDQW WR SXW D VWURQJ HPSKDVLV RQ WUDGLWLRQDO
6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPVGLVFLSOLQDU NQRZOHGJH SURGXFWLRQ EHFDXVH WLPHOHVV XQLYHUVDO NQRZOHGJH LV LPSRUWDQW LQ DZ...
,QVWLWXWLRQV RI KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ LQ GHYHORSLQJFRXQWULHV KDYH PRVWO NHSW WR WKH WUDGLWLRQDO IXQFWLRQV DQG REMHFWLYHV RI :HV...
RIWHQ EHLQJ ¶PRUH 5RPDQ WKDQ WKH SRSH·+RZHYHU JOREDO GHYHORSPHQWV LQ VFLHQFH VRFLHW DQG HFRQRP DIIHFW WKH GHYHORSLQJFRXQWU...
$QRWKHU UHVXOW RI WKH GHYHORSPHQWV GHVFULEHG DERYH LV WKDW WKH GLIIHUHQFH EHWZHHQYRFDWLRQDO DQG DFDGHPLFJHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ ...
$ ZD WR FRQFHSWXDOLVH WKH UHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ HGXFDWLRQ DQG WKH ZRUOG RI ZRUN LV WKURXJKFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ 6WDUWLQJ ZL...
· ZKHUH ¶WUDLQLQJ· LV PRUH DVVRFLDWHGZLWK WKH PDVWHULQJ RI VNLOOV ,Q WKH UHVW RI WKLV DUWLFOH WKH WHUP ¶FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HG...
DQG FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ
%QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV!  6JG EQPEGRVU QH EQORGVGPEG CPF EQORGVGPEG...
DQ LQWHJUDWHG FRPELQDWLRQ RI NQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQG DWWLWXGHV ZLWK WKH LQWHQWLRQWR UHDOLVH D WDVN RPSHWHQFH LV WKHQ GHILQHG ...
WKDW FKDUDFWHULVH D SURIHVVLRQRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ DLPV WR PDNH VWXGHQWV PRUH FRPSHWHQW WKURXJK WKHDFTXLVLWLRQ RI FRPS...
6RPH DXWKRUV VLPSO DFFHSW WKH IDFWDQG VXSSRUW D SUDJPDWLF DSSURDFK 6WRRI HW DO
ODEHO WKH VHDUFK IRU DQ RYHUDUFKLQJGHILQLWLRQ DV DQ REMHFWLYLVW DSSURDFK WKDW LV IXWLOH LQ DEVHQFH RI DQ DEVROXWH WUXWK DQ...
µ S
,Q WKH OLWHUDWXUH PDQ GHILQLWLRQV RI FRPSHWHQFFRPSHWHQFH FDQ EH IRXQG DOPRVW DV PDQDV WKHUH DUH DXWKRUV ZULWLQJ RQ FRPSHWH...
RPSHWHQFH DV WKH DELOLW WR SHUIRUP DW D GHVLUHG OHYHO RU DFFRUGLQJ WR D FHUWDLQVWDQGDUG 7KLV UHIHUV WR FRPSHWHQFH DV RXWSX...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

In tech competence-based_curriculum_development_in_higher_education_a_globalised_concept_

238 views
170 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
238
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

In tech competence-based_curriculum_development_in_higher_education_a_globalised_concept_

  1. 1. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! :%QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP*KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV!:LP .RXZHQKRYHQ98 8QLYHUVLW $PVWHUGDP7KH 1HWKHUODQGV +PVTQFWEVKQP,Q D VLPSOH ZD RQH PLJKW VWDUW WKH LQWURGXFWLRQ RI FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ DQGFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FXUULFXOXP GHYHORSPHQW ZLWK D VWDWHPHQW RI (YHUZLMQ %RPHUV DQG.QXEEHQ
  2. 2. RQ WUDGLWLRQDO HGXFDWLRQ 7KH VWDWH WKDW HGXFDWLRQ SDUWLFXODUOSURIHVVLRQDO WHFKQLFDO YRFDWLRQDO HGXFDWLRQ LV DOZDV IDFLQJ WKH SUREOHP WKDW NQRZOHGJHDFTXLVLWLRQ GRHV QRW QHFHVVDULO PHDQ WKH VXFFHVVIXO DSSOLFDWLRQ RI WKH VDPH NQRZOHGJH0LOOHU
  3. 3. FLWHV WKH SKLORVRSKHU $OIUHG 1RUWK :KLWHKHDG ZKR VWDWHG WKDW WKHUH LV QRWKLQJPRUH XVHOHVV WKDQ D PHUHO ZHOO LQIRUPHG PDQ ODVVLFDO UHDFWLRQV WR D GLVFLSOLQHRULHQWHGFXUULFXOXP KDYH EHHQ WKH +DUYDUG ´FDVHµ PHWKRG WKDW VWDUWHG LQ EXVLQHVV DGPLQLVWUDWLRQDQG SUREOHPEDVHG OHDUQLQJ WKDW VWDUWHG LQ PHGLFLQH VWXGLHV DW 0F0DVWHU PHGLFDO 6FKRRO LQDQDGD %XW D WKLUG DQVZHU OLHV LQ DELOLW RU FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG OHDUQLQJ DQG ZLOO EHHODERUDWHG LQ WKLV FKDSWHU,PSRUWDQW GHYHORSPHQWV LQ VRFLHW LQ WKH SDVW GHFDGHV KDYH OHG WR D GLIIHUHQW YLHZ RINQRZOHGJH DFFRPSDQLHG E DQ LQFUHDVHG DWWHQWLRQ IRU WKH DFTXLVLWLRQ RI FRPSHWHQFLHV DQGFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ DQG WUDLQLQJ .HDUQV
  4. 4. $VSHFWV RI D GLIIHUHQW YLHZ RINQRZOHGJH DUHx 7KH FODVVLFDO FRQFHSW RI NQRZOHGJH DV VFKRROEDVHG DQG GLVFLSOLQHEDVHG LV EURDGHQHGNQRZOHGJH LV VHHQ DV DQ LQWHJUDWLYH FDSDELOLW 7KH DFTXLVLWLRQ RI NQRZOHGJH LQ LWVHOI LVQRW WKH PDMRU DLP RI HGXFDWLRQ DQG WUDLQLQJ EXW ZKDW FDQ EH GRQH ZLWK WKLV NQRZOHGJH,V WKLV D WSLFDO :HVWHUQ GHYHORSPHQW HORUV
  5. 5. VWDWHG VRPH WHQ HDUV DJR WKDW LQPDQ VXE 6DKDUDQ $IULFDQ FRXQWULHV WKHUH LV WUDGLWLRQDOO QR IRUPDOO FRGLILHGNQRZOHGJH DQG WKH NQRZKRZ LV EDVHG RQ LPSOLFLW WDFLW NQRZOHGJHx 7KH GHYHORSPHQW RI NQRZOHGJH LV WDNLQJ SODFH LQ PRUH GLYHUVH FRQWH[WV *LEERQV
  6. 6. VSHDNV DERXW WZR ¶PRGHV· RI NQRZOHGJH SURGXFWLRQ 0RGH SURGXFWLRQ UHIHUV WRNQRZOHGJH RI WKH GLVFLSOLQHEDVHG WSH WSLFDOO SURGXFHG LQ WKH ¶FODVVLFDO·XQLYHUVLWLHV 0RGH NQRZOHGJH GHYHORSPHQW LV WKH SURGXFWLRQ RI NQRZOHGJH LQ WKHFRQWH[W RI DSSOLFDWLRQ WKDW LV LW DULVHV LQ WKH SURFHVV RI VROYLQJ SDUWLFXODU FRPSOH[SUREOHPV LQ FROODERUDWLYH WUDQVGLVFLSOLQDU WHDPV DQG SDUWQHUVKLSV VLWXDWHG ERWKZLWKLQ DQG RXWVLGH KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ LQVWLWXWLRQV7KH UROH RI XQLYHUVLWLHV LQ WKLV PRGH RI NQRZOHGJH GHYHORSPHQW KDV EHHQ DPELJXRXV*RQF]L
  7. 7. ,Q VRPH FDVHV XQLYHUVLWLHV ZDQW WR SXW D VWURQJ HPSKDVLV RQ WUDGLWLRQDO
  8. 8. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPVGLVFLSOLQDU NQRZOHGJH SURGXFWLRQ EHFDXVH WLPHOHVV XQLYHUVDO NQRZOHGJH LV LPSRUWDQW LQ DZRUOG ZKHUH HYHUWKLQJ LV LQ IORZ +RZHYHU PRUH DQG PRUH WKH QHHG LV UHFRJQLVHG IRUGRPDLQVSHFLILF FRPSHWHQFLHV ZLWKLQ WKH GLVFLSOLQHV DQG WUDQVGLVFLSOLQDU DV ZHOO DVJHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHV 7HLFKOHU
  9. 9. ,QVWLWXWLRQV RI KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ LQ GHYHORSLQJFRXQWULHV KDYH PRVWO NHSW WR WKH WUDGLWLRQDO IXQFWLRQV DQG REMHFWLYHV RI :HVWHUQXQLYHUVLWLHV 0DDPRXUL :DJQHU
  10. 10. RIWHQ EHLQJ ¶PRUH 5RPDQ WKDQ WKH SRSH·+RZHYHU JOREDO GHYHORSPHQWV LQ VFLHQFH VRFLHW DQG HFRQRP DIIHFW WKH GHYHORSLQJFRXQWULHV DV ZHOO DQG WKHLU KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ LQVWLWXWLRQV DUH FORVLQJ WKH JDS EHWZHHQ¶FODVVLFDO· GLVFLSOLQDU NQRZOHGJH DQG NQRZKRZ UHTXLUHG IRU WKH QHZ MRE PDUNHW 2QHDQVZHU RQ WKH GHPDQG IRU PRUH UHOHYDQW HGXFDWLRQ KDV EHHQ D VWURQJHU IRFXV RQ WKH ZRUOGRI ZRUN VLJQLILHG E WKH DWWHQWLRQ IRU ¶FRUH· RU SHUVRQDO WUDQVIHUDEOH VNLOOV VXFK DV WKHDELOLW WR FRRSHUDWH FRPPXQLFDWH DQG VROYH SUREOHPV VNLOOV ZKLFK DUH DVVXPHG WR WUDQVIHUUHDGLO DFURVV D UDQJH RI FRQWH[WV %HQQHWW XQQH DUUp
  11. 11. $QRWKHU UHVXOW RI WKH GHYHORSPHQWV GHVFULEHG DERYH LV WKDW WKH GLIIHUHQFH EHWZHHQYRFDWLRQDO DQG DFDGHPLFJHQHUDO HGXFDWLRQ LV JHWWLQJ VPDOOHU ZLWK LQFUHDVLQJO DFWLYHSDUWQHUVKLSV EHWZHHQ KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ LQVWLWXWLRQV DQG WKH ZRUOGV RI LQGXVWU FRPPHUFHDQG SXEOLF VHUYLFH 6WHUQ :DJQHU +DJHU +ODQG
  12. 12. $ ZD WR FRQFHSWXDOLVH WKH UHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ HGXFDWLRQ DQG WKH ZRUOG RI ZRUN LV WKURXJKFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ 6WDUWLQJ ZLWK WKH VLPSOH GHVFULSWLRQ RI FRPSHWHQFH DV WKH ¶WKHDELOLW WR SHUIRUP D WDVN XS WR VWDQGDUG· LW LV QRW GLIILFXOW WR VHH WKDW FRPSHWHQFH UHODWHV WRWKH ZRUOG RI ZRUN $FTXLULQJ DQG GHYHORSLQJ FRPSHWHQFH LV PRUH WKDQ OHDUQLQJ D VHW RIVNLOOV $ FRPPRQ WHUP GHVFULELQJ WKH DFTXLVLWLRQ DQG GHYHORSPHQW RI FRPSHWHQFH LV¶RPSHWHQFHEDVHG (GXFDWLRQ DQG 7UDLQLQJ %(7
  13. 13. · ZKHUH ¶WUDLQLQJ· LV PRUH DVVRFLDWHGZLWK WKH PDVWHULQJ RI VNLOOV ,Q WKH UHVW RI WKLV DUWLFOH WKH WHUP ¶FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ·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¶VROXWLRQVµ ZLWK YDULQJ FKDUDFWHULVWLFV RPSHWHQFHEDVHGHGXFDWLRQ HVSHFLDOO LQ +LJKHU (GXFDWLRQ KDV RXWVSRNHQ DGYHUVDULHV 7KH PRVW LPSRUWDQWFULWLFLVPV DUH GLVFXVVHG LQ WKLV FKDSWHU WRJHWKHU ZLWK ZDV WR FRXQWHU WKH GDQJHUV DQG PDNHPRVW XVH RI WKH DGYDQWDJHV RI %( $V DQ H[DPSOH WKH IRUPXODWLRQ RI ´DFDGHPLFFRPSHWHQFLHVµ E D JURXS RI XWFK XQLYHUVLWLHV ZLOO EH SUHVHQWHG )LQDOO VRPH H[DPSOHVIURP FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FXUULFXOXP GHYHORSPHQW SURFHVVHV ZLOO VKRZ WKDW %( LV LQGHHG DJOREDOLVHG FRQFHSW%HIRUH H[SDQGLQJ RQ FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ LQ WKH 1HWKHUODQGV DQG LQ VRPH$IULFDQ FRXQWULHV ZH QHHG WR GHVFULEH PRUH LQ GHWDLO WKH FRQFHSWV RI FRPSHWHQFH RUFRPSHWHQF
  14. 14. DQG FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ
  15. 15. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! 6JG EQPEGRVU QH EQORGVGPEG CPF EQORGVGPEGDCUGF GFWECVKQP7KURXJKRXW WKLV DUWLFOH WKH ZRUG ¶FRPSHWHQFH· ZLOO EH XVHG LQ D JHQHULF VHQVH PHDQLQJ WKHTXDOLW RU VWDWH RI EHLQJ FRPSHWHQW 7KH WHUP ¶FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ· ZLOO EH XVHGDVVXPLQJ WR LQFRUSRUDWH WKH $PHULFDQ ¶FRPSHWHQFEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ· %HORZ D FRPSHWHQFHPRGHO ZLOO EH SUHVHQWHG LQ ZKLFK WKH ¶TXDOLW RI EHLQJ FRPSHWHQW· LV H[SODLQHG E WKHSRVVHVVLRQ RI D VHW RI ¶FRPSHWHQFLHV· WKDW WRJHWKHU DUH FDXVDOO UHODWHG WR D FRPSHWHQWSHUIRUPDQFH $ FRPSHWHQF LV FRQFHSWXDOLVHG LQ WKH PRGHO DV WKH FDSDELOLW WR FKRRVH DQGXVH DSSO
  16. 16. DQ LQWHJUDWHG FRPELQDWLRQ RI NQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQG DWWLWXGHV ZLWK WKH LQWHQWLRQWR UHDOLVH D WDVN RPSHWHQFH LV WKHQ GHILQHG DV WKH FDSDFLW WR UHDOLVH ¶XS WR VWDQGDUG· WKHNH RFFXSDWLRQDO WDVNV VHH EHORZ
  17. 17. WKDW FKDUDFWHULVH D SURIHVVLRQRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ DLPV WR PDNH VWXGHQWV PRUH FRPSHWHQW WKURXJK WKHDFTXLVLWLRQ RI FRPSHWHQFLHV DQG WKH IXUWKHU GHYHORSPHQW RI WKH QHZO DFTXLUHG RU DOUHDGKHOG FRPSHWHQFLHV 7KLV SUHVXSSRVHV WKDW WKHUH LV FODULW DERXW KRZ FRPSHWHQFLHV DUHFRQFHSWXDOLVHG DQG WKDW LQ FDVH RI D SDUWLFXODU HGXFDWLRQ RU WUDLQLQJ SURJUDPPH WKHUHOHYDQW FRPSHWHQFLHV KDYH EHHQ IRUPXODWHG7KH ODFN RI D JHQHUDOO DFFHSWHG RSHUDWLRQDO GHILQLWLRQ RI FRPSHWHQFHFRPSHWHQF LVJHQHUDOO DFNQRZOHGJHG *DUDYDQ 0F*XLUH
  18. 18. 6RPH DXWKRUV VLPSO DFFHSW WKH IDFWDQG VXSSRUW D SUDJPDWLF DSSURDFK 6WRRI HW DO
  19. 19. ODEHO WKH VHDUFK IRU DQ RYHUDUFKLQJGHILQLWLRQ DV DQ REMHFWLYLVW DSSURDFK WKDW LV IXWLOH LQ DEVHQFH RI DQ DEVROXWH WUXWK DQGDGYRFDWH LQVWHDG D FRQVWUXFWLYLVW DSSURDFK ZKHUH WKH ´«FULWHULRQ IRU D FRPSHWHQFHGHILQLWLRQ LV QRW ZKHWKHU WKH GHILQLWLRQ LV WUXH EXW WKH H[WHQW WR ZKLFK WKH FRQVWUXFWHGGHILQLWLRQ KDV SURYHG WR EH DGHTXDWH LQ WKH FRQWH[W WR ZKLFK LW LV XVHG LH YLDELOLW
  20. 20. µ S
  21. 21. ,Q WKH OLWHUDWXUH PDQ GHILQLWLRQV RI FRPSHWHQFFRPSHWHQFH FDQ EH IRXQG DOPRVW DV PDQDV WKHUH DUH DXWKRUV ZULWLQJ RQ FRPSHWHQFHUHODWHG PDWWHUVRPSDULQJ D VHOHFWLRQ RI FRPSHWHQFH GHILQLWLRQV E YDULRXV DXWKRUV ILYH JURXSV FDQ EHGLVWLQJXLVKHG IRU D GHWDLOHG GLVFXVVLRQ VHH .RXZHQKRYHQ
  22. 22. RPSHWHQFH DV WKH DELOLW WR SHUIRUP DW D GHVLUHG OHYHO RU DFFRUGLQJ WR D FHUWDLQVWDQGDUG 7KLV UHIHUV WR FRPSHWHQFH DV RXWSXW $Q H[DPSOH´RPSHWHQFH LV WKH DELOLW WR SHUIRUP LQ ZRUN UROHV RU MREV WR WKH VWDQGDUG UHTXLUHG LQHPSORPHQWµ )LHOG UVGDOH
  23. 23. RPSHWHQFH DV WKH DELOLW WR FKRRVH DQG XVH WKH DWWULEXWHV NQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQGDWWLWXGHV
  24. 24. WKDW DUH QHHGHG IRU D SHUIRUPDQFH DW D GHVLUHG OHYHO 7KLV LQYROYHV PHWDFRJQLWLYH DWWULEXWHV $Q H[DPSOH´$ FRPSHWHQW SHUVRQ LV ZLWKLQ D FHUWDLQ FRQWH[W VLWXDWLRQ
  25. 25. DEOHFDSDEOH WR FKRRVHIURP D VHW RI DYDLODEOH EHKDYLRXUV DQG WR H[HFXWH VXLWDEOH EHKDYLRXUV LQ RUGHU WR UHDFK DFHUWDLQ JRDOµ .LUVFKQHU HW DO
  26. 26. RPSHWHQFH DV WKH SRVVHVVLRQ RI FHUWDLQ DWWULEXWHV NQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQG DWWLWXGHV
  27. 27. RU FRPSHWHQFH DV LQSXW $Q H[DPSOH´RPSHWHQFH UHSUHVHQWV WKH WRWDOLW RI NQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQG DELOLWLHV UHTXLUHG IRUSURIHVVLRQDO SUDFWLFHµ $$3$
  28. 28. RPSHWHQFH DV D PHUH GHVFULSWLRQ RI ZKDW VRPHRQH FDQ GR 7KLV UHIHUV DOVR WRFRPSHWHQFH DV RXWSXW $Q H[DPSOHRPSHWHQFH LV DQ DFWLRQ EHKDYLRXU RU RXWFRPH ZKLFK WKH SHUVRQ VKRXOG EH DEOH WRGHPRQVWUDWHµ *DUDYDQ 0F*XLUH
  29. 29. 0RUH HODERUDWH GHILQLWLRQV RI FRPSHWHQFH FRQWDLQLQJ HOHPHQWV RI WKH IRXU JURXSVDERYH $Q H[DPSOH
  30. 30. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPV´RPSHWHQFH LV WKH FDSDELOLW RI D SHUVRQ RU DQ RUJDQLVDWLRQ WR UHDFK VSHFLILFDFKLHYHPHQWV 3HUVRQDO FRPSHWHQFLHV FRPSULVH LQWHJUDWHG SHUIRUPDQFH RULHQWHGFDSDELOLWLHV ZKLFK FRQVLVW RI FOXVWHUV RI NQRZOHGJH VWUXFWXUHV DQG DOVR FRJQLWLYHLQWHUDFWLYH DIIHFWLYH DQG ZKHUH QHFHVVDU SVFKRPRWRU FDSDELOLWLHV DQG DWWLWXGHV DQGYDOXHV ZKLFK DUH FRQGLWLRQDO IRU FDUULQJ RXW WDVNV VROYLQJ SUREOHPV DQG PRUHJHQHUDOO HIIHFWLYHO IXQFWLRQLQJ LQ D FHUWDLQ SURIHVVLRQ RUJDQLVDWLRQ SRVLWLRQ RU UROHµ0XOGHU
  31. 31. %DVHG RQ WKH YDULRXV FRPSHWHQFH GHILQLWLRQV DQG GLPHQVLRQV RI WKH FRPSHWHQFH FRQFHSW.RXZHQKRYHQ
  32. 32. SUHVHQWV D FRPSUHKHQVLYH GHILQLWLRQ RI FRPSHWHQF WKDW FDQ EH IXUWKHUFODULILHG LQ D PRGHO VHH )LJ EHORZ
  33. 33. 3RLQW RI GHSDUWXUH IRU WKH PRGHO LV WKH TXHVWLRQ´:KDW GULYHV D VDWLVIDFWRU RU H[FHOOHQW SHUIRUPDQFHµ 7KH PRGHO GHVFULEHV ZKDW ¶JRHV RQLQ WKH KHDG· LH SURFHVVLQJ DW FRJQLWLYH OHYHO
  34. 34. ZKHQ D WDVN LV UHDOLVHG )URP WKLV PRGHOFRPSHWHQF LV GHGXFHG DV WKH DELOLW WR SURFHVV LQ DQ LQWHQWLRQDO ZD $ SURIHVVLRQDOSHUIRUPV LQ KLVKHU ZRUN D ODUJH QXPEHU RI WDVNV WKDW FDQ EH JURXSHG LQWR ¶NHRFFXSDWLRQDO WDVNV· RU UROHV)LJ $ PRGHO RI WKH FRJQLWLYH DVSHFWV RI WDVN SHUIRUPDQFH7KH UHDOLVDWLRQ SHUIRUPDQFH
  35. 35. RI WDVNV LPSOLHV ¶LQWHQWLRQDO DFWLRQV· DFWLYLWLHV WKDW DUHFRQVFLRXVO SODQQHG PRQLWRUHG DQG UHJXODWHG DQG WKDW LQYROYH FHUWDLQ DWWULEXWHVNQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DWWLWXGHV
  36. 36. DQG SHUVRQDO FKDUDFWHULVWLFV RI WKH SURIHVVLRQDO .QRZOHGJH7$6.7DVN UHODWHGRQWH[WSHUVRQDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFV PRWLYDWLRQ VHOIFRQILGHQFH FUHDWLYLW DPELWLRQ HWFNQRZOHGJHVNLOOVDWWLWXGHV352(66,1*3HUVRQDORQWH[W3(5)250$1(2)7$6.PHWDFRJQLWLRQHJ VLWXDWLRQDOXQGHUVWDQGLQJ28720(6UHIOHFWLRQ
  37. 37. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! VNLOOV DQG DWWLWXGHV DUH XWLOLVHG LQ DQ LQWHJUDWHG ZD DOWKRXJK WKH PD EH XVHG LQ YDULQJGHJUHHV GHSHQGLQJ RQ WKH RFFXSDWLRQDO
  38. 38. WDVN RU D WDVN FRPSRQHQW2QH ZRXOG H[SHFW IRU H[DPSOH LQ FRXQVHOOLQJ D FULPH YLFWLP PRUH HPSKDVLV RQ DWWLWXGHVWKDQ LQ EXLOGLQJ D ERRNVKHOI ,Q RUGHU WR SHUIRUP NH
  39. 39. WDVNV WKH SURIHVVLRQDO VKRXOG EH DEOHWR ¶VHOHFW· DQG XVH WKH DSSURSULDWH NQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQG DWWLWXGHV WKDW LV SURFHVV WKHP DQGFRPH WR GHOLEHUDWH DFWLRQV DLPHG DW UHDOLVLQJ WKH WDVN 7KH PHQWDO SURFHVVLQJ RI D WDVN RU DSUREOHP FKDUDFWHULVHG E LQWHQWLRQDO DFWLRQ UHTXLUHV FHUWDLQ FRJQLWLYH PRQLWRULQJ DQGUHJXODWLRQ DFWLYLWLHV ODEHOOHG ¶PHWDFRJQLWLRQ· 0DU]DQR HW DO $VKFURIW
  40. 40. $QH[DPSOH LV ¶VLWXDWLRQDO XQGHUVWDQGLQJ· SURIHVVLRQDOV WDNH DFFRXQW RI WKH YDULQJ FRQWH[WV LQZKLFK WKH DUH RSHUDWLQJ DQG DUH DEOH WR WUDQVIHU WKDW LV VHOHFW DQG DSSO WKH QHFHVVDUDWWULEXWHV LQ QHZ FRQWH[WV
  41. 41. ,Q WKH PRGHO SUHVHQWHG LQ )LJ WKH WDVN UHODWHG FRQWH[W ZKHUH DQG KRZ WKH WDVN LV¶VLWXDWHG·
  42. 42. LV SHUFHLYHG DQG SURFHVVHG E VLWXDWLRQDO XQGHUVWDQGLQJ 7KH SHUVRQDO FRQWH[WLQYROYHV DPRQJVW RWKHUV
  43. 43. HPRWLRQDO SKVLFDO IDFWRUV WKDW GLUHFWO LQIOXHQFH WKH SURIHVVLRQDODV D SHUVRQ )RU H[DPSOH DQ LQGLYLGXDO PLJKW MXVW KDYH UHFRYHUHG IURP DQ LOOQHVV DQG LV VWLOOIHHOLQJ WLUHG RU VKHKH PLJKW EH ZRUULHG E IDPLO WURXEOHV HWF 7KH SHUVRQDOFKDUDFWHULVWLFV GHWHUPLQH WR ZKDW H[WHQW WKHVH SRVLWLYH RU QHJDWLYH IDFWRUV ZLOO LQIOXHQFH WKHSURFHVVLQJ RI WKH WDVN 5HIOHFWLRQ RQ WKH RXWFRPHV SURYLGHV IHHGEDFN WR WKH SUDFWLWLRQHUOHDGLQJ LI QHFHVVDU WR DGGLWLRQDO LQWHQWLRQDO DFWLRQVRPSHWHQF DQG FRPSHWHQFH FDQ EH GHGXFHG IURP WKH PRGHO DQG EH GHILQHG DV IROORZVx RPSHWHQF LV WKH FDSDELOLW WR FKRRVH DQG XVH DSSO
  44. 44. DQ LQWHJUDWHG FRPELQDWLRQ RINQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQG DWWLWXGHV ZLWK WKH LQWHQWLRQ WR UHDOLVH D WDVN LQ D FHUWDLQ FRQWH[WZKLOH SHUVRQDO FKDUDFWHULVWLFV VXFK DV PRWLYDWLRQ VHOIFRQILGHQFH ZLOOSRZHU DUH SDUW RIWKDW FRQWH[Wx RPSHWHQFH LV WKH FDSDFLW WR UHDOLVH XS WR VWDQGDUG WKH NH RFFXSDWLRQDO WDVNV VHHEHORZ
  45. 45. WKDW FKDUDFWHULVH D SURIHVVLRQ $ FRPSHWHQW SURIHVVLRQDO VKRZV D VDWLVIDFWRU RUVXSHULRU
  46. 46. SHUIRUPDQFH .H RFFXSDWLRQDO WDVNV DUH WKH WDVNV WKDW DUH FKDUDFWHULVWLF IRU DSURIHVVLRQ $ SURIHVVLRQ FRXOG EH GHVFULEHG E NH RFFXSDWLRQDO WDVNV +DJHU*RQF]L
  47. 47. 7KH EURDG JHQHUDO FRQFHSW RI FRPSHWHQFH FDQ EH UHODWHG WR FRPSHWHQFLHV WKURXJK WKHFRQFHSW RI ¶FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHV· DV LV VKRZQ LQ )LJ EHORZRUH FRPSHWHQF LV GHILQHG DV WKH VHW RI DSSURSULDWH FRPSHWHQFLHV QHHGHG WR UHDOLVH D NHRFFXSDWLRQDO WDVN DW D VDWLVIDFWRU RU VXSHULRU OHYHO6WDWHG LQ DQRWKHU ZD RUH FRPSHWHQFLHV DUH GLUHFWO OLQNHG WR NH RFFXSDWLRQDO WDVNV DQGDUH LQWHJUDWHG FOXVWHUV RI GRPDLQVSHFLILF DQG JHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHV,W VKRXOG EH QRWHG WKDW LQ WKH OLWHUDWXUH WKH WHUP ¶FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHV· LV DOVR XVHG LQ WKH VHQVHRI VWUDWHJLF EXVLQHVV FDSDELOLWLHV WKDW SURYLGH D FRPSDQ ZLWK D PDUNHWSODFH DGYDQWDJH FI3UDKDODG +DPHO
  48. 48. ,Q WKH 8. WKH WHUP ¶FRUH VNLOOV· LV UHIHUULQJ WR JHQHULFFRPSHWHQFLHV LQ WKLV FDVH FRPPXQLFDWLRQ QXPHUDF ,7 SUREOHP VROYLQJ DQG ZRUNLQJZLWK RWKHUV
  49. 49. RPSHWHQFLHV DUH FDWHJRULVHG LQ WKLV PRGHO LQ WZR JURXSV RPSHWHQFLHV FDQ EH GRPDLQVSHFLILF UHODWLQJ WR FOXVWHUV RI NQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQG DWWLWXGHV ZLWKLQ RQH VSHFLILF FRQWHQWGRPDLQ UHODWHG WR WKH SURIHVVLRQ $QRWKHU JURXS RI FRPSHWHQFLHV LV FDOOHG ¶JHQHULF· EHFDXVHWKH DUH QHHGHG LQ DOO FRQWHQW GRPDLQV DQG FDQ EH XWLOLVHG LQ QHZ SURIHVVLRQDO VLWXDWLRQVWUDQVIHU
  50. 50. 7KH QDPH ¶OLIH VNLOOV· LV VRPHWLPHV XVHG IRU WKH ODWWHU JURXS DQG LQGLFDWHV WKDW
  51. 51. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPVWKHVH FRPSHWHQFLHV DUH EHFDXVH RI WKHLU WUDQVIHUDELOLW WKH EDVLF VHW RI FDSDELOLWLHV IRU WKHOLIH RI WRGD ZLWKLQ DQG RXWVLGH WKH SURIHVVLRQ,Q WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI D FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FXUULFXOXP D VHTXHQFH LV IROORZHG VRPHWLPHVFDOOHG WKH ¶5RDO WUDFN·
  52. 52. LQYROYLQJ WKH IRUPXODWLRQ RI D SURIHVVLRQDO SURILOH ZLWK NHRFFXSDWLRQDO WDVNV IROORZHG E JUDGXDWH SURILOH ZLWK VHOHFWHG
  53. 53. FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHV WKDWUHODWH GLUHFWO WR WKH SURIHVVLRQDO SURILOH ,Q WKH FXUULFXOXP SURILOH WKH ILQDO DWWDLQPHQW OHYHOVRI WKH JUDGXDWH DUH GHILQHG LQ FRPSHWHQFH VWDQGDUGV IRU ERWK GRPDLQVSHFLILF DQG JHQHULFFRPSHWHQFLHV)LJ 7KH UHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ FRPSHWHQFH FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHV DQG FRQVWLWXWLQJ GRPDLQVSHFLILF DQG JHQHULF
  54. 54. FRPSHWHQFLHV(DUOLHU LQ WKLV FKDSWHU 6WRRI HW DO
  55. 55. ZHUH PHQWLRQHG ZLWK WKHLU ´SUDJPDWLFµ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´LFHEHUJµ PRGHO RI 6SHQFHUDQG 6SHQFHU
  56. 56. 6NLOOV DQG NQRZOHGJH DUH ´GLVFXVVDEOH· DQG REVHUYDEOH DV WKH YLVLEOH$ FRPSHWHQW SURIHVVLRQDOSHUIRUPDQFH RI NH RFFXSDWLRQDO WDVNV DW VDWLVIDFWRU OHYHO
  57. 57. .H RFFXSDWLRQDO WDVNVRUH RPSHWHQFLHVGRPDLQVSHFLILFFRPSHWHQFLHVJHQHULFFRPSHWHQFLHVNQRZOHGJH VNLOOVDWWLWXGHVFRJQLWLYHDWWULEXWHVUHDOLVDWLRQ RIWKURXJK3URIHVVLRQDO3URILOH*UDGXDWH3URILOHXUULFXOXP3URILOH
  58. 58. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! SDUW RI DQ LFHEHUJ EXW WKH VHOIFRQFHSW DWWLWXGHV YDOXHV DQG SHUVRQDOLW WUDLWV DUH XQGHU WKHVXUIDFH QRW GLUHFWO REVHUYDEOH EXW SDUW RI WKH IDFWRUV WKDW GULYH SURIHVVLRQDO EHKDYLRXU7KLV LV DOVR QLFHO LOOXVWUDWHG E .RUWKDJHQ
  59. 59. ZKR DGYRFDWHV D PRUH LQFOXVLYH GHILQLWLRQRI FRPSHWHQFH LQFOXGLQJ SHUVRQDO WUDLWV EXW SUHVHQWV KLV ´RQLRQµ PRGHO VHH ILJXUH
  60. 60. WKDWLOOXVWUDWHV WKH PRUH LQVWUXPHQWDO YLHZ RI FRPSHWHQFLHV DQG WKH LQWHJUDWLRQ ZLWK SHUVRQDOWUDLWV OHDGLQJ WR FHUWDLQ EHKDYLRXU OHDGLQJ WR FHUWDLQ RXWFRPHV FKDQJH LQ WKH HQYLURQPHQW
  61. 61. 7KLV PRGHO LV PLUURUHG LQ WKH LQWHJUDWHG YLHZ RI FRPSHWHQFH FI +DJHU
  62. 62. ZKLFKLQYROYHV DQ LQWHJUDWLRQ RI VHOHFWHG WDVNV ZLWK SHUVRQDO DWWULEXWHV)LJ 7KH UHODWLRQ EHWZHHQ EHKDYLRXU FRPSHWHQFLHV DQG SHUVRQDO WUDLWV DGDSWHG IURP.RUWKDJHQ
  63. 63. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF JKIJGT GFWECVKQP7KH FKDUDFWHULVWLFV RI FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ VKRXOG EH EDVHG RQ WKH DSSOLFDWLRQ RIUHFHQW ILQGLQJV RI WKH FRJQLWLYH VFLHQFHV WR WKH FRQFHSW RI FRPSHWHQFH %DVHG RQ WKHGHVFULSWLRQV RI %( E D QXPEHU RI DXWKRUV .RXZHQKRYHQ
  64. 64. KDV GHULYHG D OLVW RIFKDUDFWHULVWLFV WKDW WRJHWKHU IRUP WKH ¶DUFKHWSH· RI D FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FXUULFXOXPx %( LV RULHQWHG WR WKH SURIHVVLRQDO SUDFWLFH %( LV EDVHG RQ WKH IXWXUH RFFXSDWLRQDOSUDFWLFH RI WKH JUDGXDWH 7KH FXUULFXOXP KDV DQ LQWHJUDO VHWXS LQ ZKLFK WKH SURIHVVLRQLV FHQWUDO %RDW]LV HW DO
  65. 65. EHKDYLRXUFRPSHWHQFLHVEHOLHIVLGHQWLWHQYLURQPHQWPLVVLRQ:KDW GR RX HQFRXQWHU:KDW DUH RX LQYROYHG LQ:KDW DUH RX GRLQJ:KDW DUH RX DEOH WR GR:KDW GR RX EHOLHI LQ:KR DUH RX+RZ GR RX VHH RXU SURIHVVLRQDO UROH:K DUH RX GRLQJ WKLV7R ZKDW JUHDWHU HQWLW DUH RX UHODWHG
  66. 66. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPVx %( LV OHDUQHUFHQWUHG DQG WKH OHDUQLQJ SURFHVV LV FHQWUDO 7KH LQGLYLGXDO ZRUNHU LVFHQWUDO DQG EDVHG RQ KLV ¶FRPSHWHQFH VWDWXV· DOUHDG DFTXLUHG FRPSHWHQFLHV
  67. 67. WKHFRPSHWHQFLHV DUH GHILQHG WKDW VWLOO KDYH WR EH DFTXLUHG DQG GHYHORSHG 2WKHU DVSHFWV RID OHDUQHUFHQWUHG DSSURDFK LQ %( DUH WKH XVH RI LQGLYLGXDOLVHG PDWHULDOV IOH[LEOHOHDUQLQJ WLPH DQG D FRQWLQXRXV IHHGEDFN WR WKH OHDUQHU )LHOG UVGDOH
  68. 68. x %( KDV D FRQVWUXFWLYLVW DSSURDFK *ULIILRHQ
  69. 69. XVHV WKH PHWDSKRU RI WKH QHWZRUN RIVWHHO LQ UHLQIRUFHG FRQFUHWH WR HPSKDVLVH WKDW WKH FRQVWUXFWLYLVW SDUDGLJP WRJHWKHU ZLWKWKH FRQFHSWV RI FRPSHWHQFH IRUPV WKH EDFNERQH RI FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ0RWVFKQLJ3LWULN +RO]LQJHU
  70. 70. VWDWH LQ D VXFFLQFW ZD ´,Q EULHI WKH PDLQ JRDO RIFRQVWUXFWLYLVP LV FRPSHWHQFH QRW NQRZOHGJH DV LQ FRJQLWLYLVP RU DFKLHYHPHQW DV LQEHKDYLRXULVPµ S
  71. 71. 6WDWHPHQWV DVLGH LW LV NQRZQ WKDW WKH TXDOLW RI WKH DFTXLUHGNQRZOHGJH WKURXJK DFWLYH FRQVWUXFWLRQ LV EHWWHU WKDQ SDVVLYHO JDLQHG NQRZOHGJHx ,Q %( WKH UROH RI WKH WHDFKHU LV WKDW RI D ¶FRJQLWLYH JXLGH· 7HDFKHUV HQFRXUDJH VWXGHQWVWR HQJDJH LQ DFWLYH LQTXLU DQG PDNH H[SOLFLW WKHLU WDFLW DVVXPSWLRQV ´$ FRQVWUXFWLYLVWWHDFKHU LV PRUH LQWHUHVWHG LQ XQFRYHULQJ PHDQLQJV WKDQ LQ FRYHULQJ SUHVFULEHGPDWHULDOµ .HUND S
  72. 72. x %( KDV OHDUQLQJ HQYLURQPHQWV IRFXVVHG RQ WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI FRPSHWHQFLHVLVFLSOLQDU FRQWHQW LV QRW DQ PRUH WKH FULWHULRQ IRU DUUDQJLQJ WKH FXUULFXOXP EXW WKHFRPSHWHQFLHV WKDW VKRXOG KDYH EHHQ DFTXLUHG DQG GHYHORSHG E WKH HQG RI WKHHGXFDWLRQ SURJUDPPH .LUVFKQHU HW DO
  73. 73. ,Q WKLV VHQVH RQH FRXOG VSHDN RIGHVLJQLQJ DQG GHYHORSLQJ WKH FXUULFXOXP ¶EDFNZDUGV· EHFDXVH WKH NQRZOHGJH DQGVNLOOV DUH GHWHUPLQHG E WKH FRPSHWHQFLHV WKDW DUH QHHGHG E D FRPSHWHQW SURIHVVLRQDODQG QRW E WKH GLVFLSOLQDU ¶ERG RI NQRZOHGJH·x %( LQFOXGHV WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI JHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHV $VSHFWV DUH JHQHULFFRPSHWHQFLHV DUH LQWHJUDWHG WKURXJKRXW WKH ZKROH FXUULFXOXP %( VWLPXODWHV WKHWUDQVIHU FDSDFLW IRFXV RQ LQQRYDWLRQV DQG SUREOHP VROYLQJ DQG WKH H[SOLFDWLRQGHILQLWLRQ
  74. 74. RI SUREOHPV VHOIUHIOHFWLRQ DQG VHOIDVVHVVPHQW SOD D IXQGDPHQWDO UROH(YHUZLMQ HW DO
  75. 75. LQGLFDWH WKDW LQ D FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FXUULFXOXP WKUHH JRDOV KDYH DUROH WR SOD ,PSRUWDQW LV DQG UHPDLQV WKH GHWHUPLQDWLRQ RI WKH GLVFLSOLQDU DQGIXQFWLRQDO VXEMHFW DUHDV 7KH VHFRQG JRDO LQYROYHV WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI JHQHUDO VNLOOV RUFRPSHWHQFLHV 3ULQFLSOHV DQG VWUDWHJLHV XQGHUOLQJ JHQHUDO VNLOOV SURYLGH WKH VWXGHQWZLWK DQ LQVLJKW WKDW WHDFKHV KLP WR DEVWUDFW IURP VSHFLILF VLWXDWLRQVGHFRQWH[WXDOLVDWLRQ
  76. 76. DQG WR SXUSRVHIXOO ZRUN WRZDUGV WKH VSHFLILF VLWXDWLRQ IURP WKHDEVWUDFW FRQWH[WXDOLVDWLRQ
  77. 77. )LQDOO WKH GHYHORSPHQW RI WKH FDSDELOLW RI ´OHDUQLQJ WROHDUQµ LV LPSRUWDQW 7KLV LV SDUWO UHDOLVHG E D WHDFKLQJOHDUQLQJ SURFHVV LQYROYLQJ WKHGHYHORSPHQW RI JHQHUDO VNLOOV SDUWO E HPSKDVLVLQJ D UHIOHFWLYH DWWLWXGH DV VXFK 7KLVUHTXLUHV DV ZHOO DVVHVVPHQW WKDW HQDEOHV WKH VWXGHQW WR UHIOHFW RQ ZKDW KDV EHHQDFKLHYHG DQG ZKDW VWLOO KDV WR EH OHDUQHG 6XFK DVVHVVPHQW PD OHDG WR SHUVRQDOOHDUQLQJ DUUDQJHPHQWV RIWHQ IRUPXODWHG LQ D 3HUVRQDO HYHORSPHQW 3ODQx ,Q %( DVVHVVPHQW IRFXVVHG RQ FRPSHWHQFLHV $VSHFWV DUH PDLQO DVVHVVPHQW RIFRPSHWHQFLHV UDWKHU WKDQ NQRZOHGJH DQG VNLOOV DVVHVVPHQW LV ERWK IRUPDWLYH DQGVXPPDWLYH DQG IRUPV DQ LQWHJUDO SDUW RI WKH SURFHVV RI WKH GHYHORSPHQW RIFRPSHWHQFLHVx ,Q %( FXUULFXOXP GHYHORSPHQW LV EDVHG RQ WKH HODERUDWLRQ RI SURILOHV DQGLGHQWLILFDWLRQ RI FRPSHWHQFLHV RPDLQVSHFLILF NQRZOHGJH DQG VNLOOV DUH GHWHUPLQHG
  78. 78. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! E WKH FRPSHWHQFLHV WKDW DUH QHHGHG E D FRPSHWHQW SURIHVVLRQDO DQG QRW E WKHGLVFLSOLQDU ´ERG RI NQRZOHGJHµ,Q SUDFWLFH RQH PLJKW ILQG HGXFDWLRQDO SURJUDPPHV WKDW DUH WR D JUHDWHU RU OHVVHU H[WHQWFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG %DVHG RQ UHVHDUFK RQ WKH SUDFWLFH RI FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ LQ%HOJLDQ HGXFDWLRQDO LQVWLWXWLRQV RFK DQG 1LFNPDQV
  79. 79. GHVFULEH IRXU FDWHJRULHV RIFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FXUULFXOD WKDW VKRZ DQ LQFUHDVLQJ GHJUHH RI FRPSHWHQFHEDVHGFKDUDFWHULVWLFV HVFULELQJ WKH LQIOXHQFH RI ¶FRPSHWHQFH WKLQNLQJ· LQ WKH FDWHJRULHV PLJKW EHLOOXVWUDWLYH 7KLV LV GRQH LQ WDEOH EHORZ7KH LQIOXHQFH RI ¶FRPSHWHQFH WKLQNLQJ·DWHJRU 3XUSRVHIXO HGXFDWLRQ QHZREMHFWLYHV DQG QHZ WHDFKLQJDQG OHDUQLQJ DSSURDFKHVx 3URIHVVLRQDO SUDFWLFH SRLQW RI GHSDUWXUHx RPSHWHQFLHV GHFRPSRVHG LQWR NQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQGDWWLWXGHVx 0RUH DWWHQWLRQ IRU DSSOLFDWLRQ RI NQRZOHGJH DQG IRU VNLOOVx ,QFOXVLRQ RI JHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHVx (PSKDVLV RQ DFWLYH OHDUQLQJDWHJRU ,QWHJUDWLRQ YLD FDVHVx .QRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQG DWWLWXGHV IRUPXODWHG DV VHSDUDWHREMHFWLYHV EXW DOZDV VWURQJO OLQNHG WR SURIHVVLRQDOSUDFWLFH DQG RIWHQ OHDGLQJ WR LQWHJUDWLRQx 8VH RI UHDOLVWLF DXWKHQWLF
  80. 80. VLWXDWLRQVx DVHV RIWHQ XVHG LQ WHDFKLQJOHDUQLQJ DQG LQ DVVHVVPHQWx $OVR SUREOHPEDVHG OHDUQLQJ DQG SURMHFW ZRUNDWHJRU /HDUQLQJ DQG GHYHORSPHQWWUDMHFWRULHVx ,QFOXVLRQ RI OHDUQLQJ GHYHORSPHQW
  81. 81. SDWKZDV LQ WKHFXUULFXOXPx 6VWHPDWLF DQG JUDGXDO GHYHORSPHQW RI FRPSHWHQFLHVx (PSKDVLV RQ JHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHVx ,QFUHDVLQJ FRPSOH[LW DQG GHFUHDVLQJ JXLGDQFH DQGFRDFKLQJx /HDUQLQJ WR OHDUQ LV WKH XOWLPDWH JRDOx 1RW RQO DVVHVVPHQW DQG HYDOXDWLRQ RI SHUIRUPDQFH RIVWXGHQW LQ WHUPV RI NQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQG DWWLWXGHV
  82. 82. EXWDOVR RI SHUVRQDO GHYHORSPHQWDWHJRU HPDQGGULYHQ DLPHG DWGHYHORSPHQW RI FRPSHWHQFLHV6HSDUDWH WHDFKHU GLUHFWHG DQG VWXGHQW GLUHFWHG SDUWVx )URP WHDFKHU DXWKHQWLF WDVNV ZLWK LQFUHDVLQJ FRPSOH[LWDQG GHFUHDVLQJ JXLGDQFHx )URP VWXGHQW IRUPXODWLRQ RI SHUVRQDO GHYHORSPHQW SODQx 3UDFWLFDO SUREOHPV OHDG WR LQSXW E WHDFKHURPSOHWHO GHPDQGGULYHQx 6WDUW ZLWK D EURDG RSHQ DVVLJQPHQWx 6WXGHQW IRUPXODWHV OHDUQLQJ TXHVWLRQVx 6WXGHQW JXLGHG E WHDFKHU IRUPXODWH SHUVRQDOGHYHORSPHQW SODQ DQG UHODWHG FRPSHWHQF PDWUL[x 6WXGHQW LQGLFDWHV ZKDW FRPSHWHQFLHV ZLOO GHYHORSHG ZKHQDQG DW ZKDW OHYHO7DEOH )RXU FDWHJRULHV RI FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FXUULFXOD )URP RFK 1LFNPDQV
  83. 83. )URP WKH H[DPSOH DERYH WKH PHVVDJH FDQ EH GHGXFHG WKDW HQJDJLQJ LQ FRPSHWHQFHEDVHGFXUULFXOXP GHYHORSPHQW UHTXLUHV FRQVFLRXV PRUH RU OHVV UDGLFDO FKRLFHV ,W LV DW WKH VDPH
  84. 84. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPVWLPH FOHDU WKDW WKHUH LV QRW RQH FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FXUULFXOXP PRGHO WKDW FDQ EH FRQVLGHUHGWR EH WKH VWDQGDUG 2CKPU CPF RKVHCNNU KP EQORGVGPEGDCUGF GFWECVKQPRPSHWHQFHEDVHG KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ LV QRW XQGLVSXWHG 2QH RI WKH GDQJHUV WKDW FULWLFV RIWHQPHQWLRQ LV WKH PLQRU UROH RI GLVFLSOLQDU NQRZOHGJH WRJHWKHU ZLWK D KDSKD]DUG WDNLQJ LQ RISLHFHV RI GLVFLSOLQDU NQRZOHGJH E VWXGHQWV ,W LV IHDUHG WKDW VWXGHQWV GR QRW DFTXLUH DFRKHUHQW YLHZ RQ WKH ERG RI NQRZOHGJH LQ WKHLU GLVFLSOLQH WKDW LV WKRXJKW QHFHVVDU IRU DQDFDGHPLF SURIHVVLRQ RU WKH VFLHQWLILF HQGHDYRXU ,W LV FOHDU WKDW NQRZOHGJH LQ %( VXSSRUWVWKH GHYHORSPHQW RI FRPSHWHQFLHV DQG WKDW WKH DFTXLVLWLRQ RI NQRZOHGJH WDNHV SODFH LQ WKHFRQWH[W RI SURIHVVLRQDO
  85. 85. DSSOLFDWLRQ +RZHYHU %( OHDUQLQJ HQYLURQPHQWV LQFOXGH OHDUQLQJDVVLJQPHQWV DQG OHDUQLQJ SUDFWLFHV :LWKRXW NQRZOHGJH WKH OHDUQLQJ WDVNV FDQQRW EHSHUIRUPHG FHUWDLQO QRW DW DFDGHPLF OHYHO +LJKHU HGXFDWLRQ LV FKDUDFWHULVHG EVFLHQWLILFDOO VRXQG DQG FUHDWLYHFULWLFDO DQDOVLV DQG VROYLQJ RI XQVWUXFWXUHG FRPSOH[SUREOHPV 6WXGHQWV QHHG WKHUHIRUH WR GHYHORS DFDGHPLF JHQHULF
  86. 86. FRPSHWHQFLHV WKDW RQO DUHWUDQVIHUDEOH ZKHQ WKH SRVVHVV HQRXJK KLJK TXDOLW NQRZOHGJH RI WKH GLVFLSOLQH :KDW RQHNQRZV GHWHUPLQHV ZKDW RQH VHHV DQG QRW WKH RWKHU ZD DURXQG .LUVFKQHU HW DO
  87. 87. %DUQHWW
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¶VRFLDO IDFWV RI DFDGHPLF OLIH· 5HVHDUFK PDLQO DFWLRQ UHVHDUFK
  89. 89. DQG DOONLQG RI VNLOOV HQWHUSULVH VNLOOV FRPPXQLFDWLRQ VNLOOV ,7 VNLOOV
  90. 90. DUH DGGUHVVHG ZLWKRXWPXFK GLVFLSOLQDU JURXQGZRUN %DUQHWW LQWURGXFHV D EURDGHU FRQFHSW RI SURIHVVLRQDOLVPWKDW QRW RQO UHIHUV WR DGHTXDWHO SHUIRUPLQJ WDVNV WKDW UHODWH WR SURIHVVLRQDO SUDFWLFH EXWDOVR SURIHVVLRQDO EHKDYLRXU WKDW LV IHG E DQ DFDGHPLFKXPDQLVWLF HGXFDWLRQ +H PDNHV DSOHD IRU D FXUULFXOXP EDVHG RQ D ¶OLEHUDO YRFDWLRQDOLVP·HYHORSLQJ DFDGHPLF
  91. 91. FRPSHWHQFH LQ D FHUWDLQ GLVFLSOLQH UHTXLUHV DPRQJVW RWKHU WKLQJV DZHOO RUJDQLVHG DQG IOH[LEO DFFHVVLEOH GRPDLQVSHFLILF NQRZOHGJH EDVH H RUWH
  92. 92. (YHUZLMQ HW DO
  93. 93. ZKHQ ZULWLQJ RQ WUDQVIHU HPSKDVLVH WKDW D ULFK NQRZOHGJH EDVH ²ZKLFK FRQWUDVWV H[SHUWV· DQG QRYLFHV· SHUIRUPDQFHV ² VHHPV WR EH WKH UHDO SRZHU EHKLQGJRRG WKLQNLQJ ZLWKLQ D GRPDLQVSHFLILF VLWXDWLRQ 6SHFLILF NQRZOHGJH DQG VNLOOV DUHQHFHVVDU WR GLVFRYHU VLPLODULWLHV DQG GLIIHUHQFHV EHWZHHQ ROG DQG QHZ SURIHVVLRQDOVLWXDWLRQV $QRWKHU UHODWHG GDQJHU RI WKH SUDFWLFH RI %( LV WKDW LW LV QDUURZHG GRZQ WR WKHDFTXLVLWLRQ RI WKLQNLQJ VWOHV DWWLWXGHV DQG VFKHPHV IRU SUREOHP VROYLQJ UHODWHG WR D VSHFLILFSURIHVVLRQ :HQGULFK HW DO
  94. 94. 6FLHQWLILF NQRZOHGJH VKLIWV WR WKH EDFNJURXQG DQG LVVXERUGLQDWH WR ZKDW LV QHHG IRU VROYLQJ UHDOLVWLF SURIHVVLRQDO SUREOHPV 7KHUH VHHPV WR EH QRUROH IRU UHIOHFWLRQ RQ WKH WKHRU DQG WKH UHOHYDQFH RI WKHRUHWLFDO LQVLJKWV IRU WKH SURIHVVLRQDODFWLQJ 3HUUHQRXG
  95. 95. VSHDNV LQ WKLV FRQWH[W DERXW FUHDWLQJ D QHZ SUROHWDULDW7ZR PRUH FULWLFLVPV RQ %( WKDW DUH RIWHQ YRLFHG FRQFHUQ WKH EHKDYLRXULVW DSSURDFK DQGWKH YLHZ WKDW %( LV EDVLFDOO HFRQRPLFDOO GULYHQ 7RR PXFK EHKDYLRXULVP LQ %( OHDGV WR
  96. 96. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! DQ H[FHVVLYHO UHGXFWLRQLVW QDUURZ ULJLG DWRPLVHG DSSURDFK 0DFIDUODQH /RPDV
  97. 97. ,W LJQRUHV FRQQHFWLRQV EHWZHHQ WDVNV DQG DWWULEXWHV XQGHUOLQJ SHUIRUPDQFH .HUND
  98. 98. 6R %( VKRXOG LQFOXGH PRUH JHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHV FRUH VNLOOV NH FRPSHWHQFLHV HVVHQWLDOVNLOOV IRXQGDWLRQ VNLOOV
  99. 99. (PSKDVLV VKRXOG EH SXW RQ WHDFKLQJ DQG OHDUQLQJ DFWLYLWLHV DQG LQDVVHVVPHQW RQ WKH ´JHQHUDO DELOLW WR OHDUQ DQG DSSO FRPSHWHQFLHV LQ PDQ GLIIHUHQWDVSHFWV RI D SHUVRQ·V DFWLYLWLHVµ )OHPLQJ
  100. 100. 3URYLGHG WKH DFTXLVLWLRQ DQG GHYHORSPHQWRI FRPSHWHQFH LPSO D JURZLQJ DELOLW WR FKRRVH GHYHORS DQG DGDSW DELOLWLHV WR DGGUHVV QHZVLWXDWLRQV LQ D FUHDWLYH LQQRYDWLYH UHVHDUFKOLNH ZD %( ZLOO EHWWHU UHVSRQG WR WKHGHPDQGV RI GDLO SUDFWLFH WKDQ NQRZOHGJHGULYHQ WUDGLWLRQDO PRGHOV RI SURIHVVLRQDOWUDLQLQJ LZDNDU
  101. 101. %HVW VHHPV WKH EURDG KROLVWLF YLHZ DOVR FDOOHG LQWHJUDWHG RUUHODWLRQDO
  102. 102. RPSHWHQFH LV VHHQ DV D FRPSOH[ FRPELQDWLRQ RI NQRZOHGJH DWWLWXGHV VNLOOV DQGYDOXHV GLVSODHG LQ WKH FRQWH[W RI WDVN SHUIRUPDQFH ,Q WKLV YLHZ WKHUH LV QR WUDLQHGEHKDYLRXU EXW WKRXJKWIXO FDSDELOLWLHV DQG D GHYHORSPHQWDO SURFHVV,Q WKH SROLWLFDO FULWLFLVP %( LV VHHQ DV D PHDQV WR VDWLVI HPSORHUV· QHHGV IRU D VNLOOHGZRUN IRUFH :HQGULFK HW DO
  103. 103. VSHDN RI %( DV WKH SRWHQWLDOO SHGDJRJLFDO FRQGHQVDWLRQRI KXPDQ FDSLWDO WKHRU FRJQLWLYLVPFRQVWUXFWLYLVP DQG QHRWDORULVP5HJDUGLQJ WKH LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI WKH LQWHQGHG FXUULFXOXP LW LV H[WUHPHO LPSRUWDQW WKDWLQWHQGHG OHDUQLQJ RXWFRPHV FRPSHWHQFLHV
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
  105. 105. DVVHVVPHQW DOVR UHTXLUH LQWHQVLYH WUDLQLQJ DQG FRDFKLQJ RI DFDGHPLFVWDII DQG D FRQWLQXRXVO DSSOLHG PRQLWRULQJ DQG HYDOXDWLRQ RI WKH FXUULFXOXP LQ DFWLRQ2QH ZD RI GHDOLQJ ZLWK WKH SLWIDOOV RI VXSHUILFLDO OHDUQLQJ WKURXJK %( LQ +LJKHU(GXFDWLRQ KDV EHHQ D IRFXV RQ WKH TXHVWLRQ ZKDW PDNHV HGXFDWLRQ ´DFDGHPLFµ RU ZKDWDFDGHPLF FRPSHWHQFLHV VWXGHQWV VKRXOG DFTXLUH LQ KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ SURJUDPPHV ,Q WKHFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ RI DFDGHPLF SURIHVVLRQDOV LQ WKH 1HWKHUODQGV LQFOXGLQJUHVHDUFKHUV WKH DFTXLVLWLRQ DQG GHYHORSPHQW RI DFDGHPLF FRPSHWHQFLHV KDV D FHQWUDO UROH LQWKH XQGHUJUDGXDWH FXUULFXOXP 7KUHH WHFKQLFDO XQLYHUVLWLHV DQG RQH ¶JHQHUDO· XQLYHUVLWKDYH IRUPXODWHG VHYHQ DFDGHPLF FRPSHWHQFLHV 0HLMHUV HW DO
  106. 106. 7KUHH DUH UHODWHG WR WKHGRPDLQGLVFLSOLQH DQG LQFOXGH EHLQJ FRPSHWHQW LQ RQH RU PRUH VFLHQWLILF GLVFLSOLQHV UHIHUVWR H[LVWLQJ NQRZOHGJH
  107. 107. DQG EHLQJ FRPSHWHQW LQ GRLQJ UHVHDUFK DQG GHVLJQLQJ UHODWHG WRNQHZ NQRZOHGJH DQG DUWHIDFWV
  108. 108. 7KUHH DFDGHPLF FRPSHWHQFLHV UHODWHG WR ¶PHWKRGV· DQGLQFOXGH WKH VFLHQWLILF DSSURDFK VSHFLILF IRU WKH QDWXUDO VFLHQFHV
  109. 109. EDVLF LQWHOOHFWXDO VNLOOV DQGFRPSHWHQFH LQ FRRSHUDWLQJ DQG FRPPXQLFDWLQJ 7KH UHODWLRQ ZLWK WKH FRQWH[W LV IRUPXODWHGLQ WKH VHYHQWK FRPSHWHQF LQ WDNLQJ LQWR DFFRXQW WKH WHPSRUDU DQG VRFLHWDO FRQWH[W 6HH)LJXUH IRU DQ RYHUYLHZ DQG WDEOH IRU GHVFULSWLRQV RI WKH VHYHQ FRPSHWHQFLHV6RPH DFDGHPLF SURJUDPPHV VXFK DV WKH DFDGHPLF WHDFKHU HGXFDWLRQ SURJUDPPHV DUH IXOOEDVHG RQ WKH IRUPXODWLRQ RI FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHV LQFOXGLQJ WKH XQGHUOLQJ DWWULEXWHV LQ WHUPVRI NQRZOHGJH VNLOOV DQG DWWLWXGHV ,Q WKH GHVLJQ RI OHDUQLQJ HQYLURQPHQWV PHDQLQJIXODXWKHQWLF FRQWH[WV DUH HVVHQWLDO $V IDU DV WHDFKLQJ DQG OHDUQLQJ PHWKRGV DUH FRQFHUQHG LQ
  110. 110. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPV%( YDULRXV DSSURDFKHV FDQ EH IRXQG SUREOHP EDVHG OHDUQLQJ SURMHFW EDVHG HGXFDWLRQFDVH EDVHG OHDUQLQJ DQG GXDO OHDUQLQJ ZLWK LQWHUQVKLSV LQ WKH ZRUOG RI ZRUN)LJ $FDGHPLF FRPSHWHQFHV )URP 0HLMHUV HW DO
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
  112. 112. KDV D VFLHQWLILF DSSURDFK$ XQLYHUVLW JUDGXDWH KDV D VVWHPDWLF DSSURDFK FKDUDFWHULVHG WKH GHYHORSPHQW DQG XVH RIWKHRULHV PRGHOV DQG FRKHUHQW LQWHUSUHWDWLRQV KDV D FULWLFDO DWWLWXGH DQG KDV LQVLJKW LQWR WKHQDWXUH RI VFLHQFH DQG WHFKQRORJ SRVVHVVHV EDVLF LQWHOOHFWXDO VNLOOV
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
  114. 114. HGXFDWLRQ LV PRUH WKH ¶JXLGH RQ WKH VLGH· WKDQ¶VDJH RQ WKH VWDJH· $SDUW IURP WKLV FKDOOHQJH DQG WKH LPSRUWDQW TXHVWLRQ RI GHVLJQLQJDVVHVVPHQW SUDFWLFHV LQ %( WHDFKHUV ZLOO DOVR KDYH WR DQVZHU WKH IROORZLQJ WZR TXHVWLRQV9DQ $OHEHHN .RXZHQKRYHQ
  115. 115. x +RZ FDQ WHDFKHUV OHDUQ WR FRQVWUXFW DSSOLFDWLRQ RULHQWHG OHDUQLQJ WDVNV RU VHOHFW WKHPIURP FRQWH[WV WKDW DUH DXWKHQWLF DQG PHDQLQJIXO WR VWXGHQWVx +RZ FDQ WHDFKHUV OHDUQ WR VKDSH ¶VWHHULQJ RI VHOIVWHHULQJ· %QORGVGPEGDCUGF JKIJGT GFWECVKQP KP #HTKEC UQOG GZCORNGU7KH UHVKDSLQJ RI KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ ZLWK D PRUH SURIHVVLRQDO RULHQWDWLRQ LV QRW DSKHQRPHQRQ UHVWULFWHG WR :HVWHUQ XQLYHUVLWLHV 7KHUH LV QRW PXFK OLWHUDWXUH HW RQFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ LQ ¶GHYHORSLQJ· FRXQWULHV 0XVRQGD
  116. 116. +RZHYHUWKHUH DUH GHVLJQ DQG GHYHORSPHQW SURMHFWV JRLQJ RQ LQ YDULRXV FRXQWULHV RIWHQ LQ WKHFRQWH[W RI LQWHUQDWLRQDO FRRSHUDWLRQ SURJUDPPHV 0XOGHU
  117. 117. VWDWHG LQ DQVZHU RQ WKHTXHVWLRQ ZKDW SURPLVH FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ KDV IRU $IULFD ´,Q P RSLQLRQ WKHVDPH DV LQ RWKHU FRXQWULHV D PRUH UHOHYDQW FXUULFXOXP *UDGXDWHV ZKR DUH EHWWHU SUHSDUHG3URIHVVLRQDOV ZKR DUH DGGLQJ PRUH YDOXH WR GHYHORSPHQW $QG XQLYHUVLW FROOHJH DQGWUDLQLQJ SURJUDPV ZKLFK DUH PRUH VDWLVILQJ IRU VWXGHQWV WHDFKHUV DQG SRWHQWLDOHPSORHUVµ 7KH DXWKRU RI WKLV FKDSWHU KDV EHHQ LQYROYHG LQ D 0R]DPELTXH SURMHFW DQG LVVWLOO LQYROYHG LQ WKH *KDQD SURMHFW DV HGXFDWLRQ FRQVXOWDQW ,Q ERWK FDVHV FXUULFXOXPGHYHORSPHQW SURMHFWV ZHUH XQGHUWDNHQ ZLWK WKH DLP WR GHVLJQ DQG GHYHORS FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG 0DVWHUV SURJUDPPHV7KH (GXDUGR 0RQGODQH 8QLYHUVLW 8(0
  118. 118. LQ 0DSXWR 0R]DPELTXH GHFLGHG LQ WRUHRSHQ WKH IDFXOW RI (GXFDWLRQ WKDW KDG EHHQ FORVHG IRU HDUV $Q LQVWDOODWLRQFRPPLVVLRQ JRW WKH DVVLJQPHQW WR FRRUGLQDWH WKH SURFHVV DQG WR GHVLJQ DQG GHYHORS D
  119. 119. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPVFXUULFXOXP IRU RQH JUDGXDWH DQG WKUHH SRVWJUDGXDWH SURJUDPPHV 7KLV SURMHFW ZDVDFFRPSDQLHG E H[SHUWV IURP WKUHH XWFK XQLYHUVLWLHV LQ WKH FRQWH[W RI XWFK GHYHORSPHQWDLG WR KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ LQVWLWXWLRQV $W WKH VDPH WLPH D XQLYHUVLWZLGH FXUULFXOXP UHYLVLRQSURFHVV KDG VWDUWHG ZLWK WKH DLP WR PDNH WKH FXUULFXOD PRUH UHOHYDQW WR WKH 0R]DPELFDQVRFLHW D VLJQ RI WKH GHFUHDVLQJ JDS EHWZHHQ JHQHUDO DFDGHPLF
  120. 120. DQG YRFDWLRQDO HGXFDWLRQ7KH LQVWDOODWLRQ FRPPLVVLRQ IRU WKH QHZ HGXFDWLRQ IDFXOW GHFLGHG WR HPEDUN RQ WKH URDGWRZDUG FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ LQ WKH IDFXOW 7KH DXWKRU RI WKLV DUWLFOH ZRUNHG WKHQ DW8(0 DQG EHFDPH D PHPEHU RI WKH LQVWDOODWLRQ FRPPLVVLRQ %HFDXVH KH GHFLGHG WR VWDUW DWWKH VDPH WLPH D UHVHDUFK SURMHFW RQ WKH FXUULFXOXP GHYHORSPHQW SURFHVV .RXZHQKRYHQ
  121. 121. KH EHFDPH WKH ´GHVLJQHUUHVHDUFKHUµ LQ WKH SURMHFW +LV GHVLJQ DFWLYLWLHV ZLWK LQSXWIURP D FXUULFXOXP H[SHUW RI WKH XWFK 7ZHQWH 8QLYHUVLW DQG IURP YDULRXV VWDNHKROGHUV OHGWR WKH IRUPXODWLRQ RI D QXPEHU RI FXUULFXOXP DVSHFWV RU HOHPHQWV RI DQ LQWHQGHG LGHDO
  122. 122. FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FXUULFXOXP7KH IXUWKHU GHYHORSPHQW WRZDUGV D IRUPDO FXUULFXOXP ODLG GRZQ LQ D FXUULFXOXPGRFXPHQW
  123. 123. VWDUWHG ZLWK D QHHGV DVVHVVPHQW DGPLQLVWHUHG WR UHSUHVHQWDWLYHV RI UHOHYDQWSURIHVVLRQDO FRPPXQLWLHV LQ 0R]DPELTXH 7KH IRXU PDLQ TXHVWLRQV ZHUHx $UH WKH RSWLRQV FKRVHQ IRU WKH HGXFDWLRQDO SURJUDPPHV JUDGXDWH SURJUDPPH LQSVFKRORJ SRVWJUDGXDWH SURJUDPPHV LQ DGXOW HGXFDWLRQ VFLHQFH PDWKHPDWLFVHGXFDWLRQ DQG FXUULFXOXP LQVWUXFWLRQ GHYHORSPHQW
  124. 124. OHJLWLPLVHG E WKH SURIHVVLRQDOFRPPXQLWLHV 7KLV TXHVWLRQ UHFHLYHG D SRVLWLYH DQVZHUx :KDW SURIHVVLRQDO SURILOHV FDQ EH GHVFULEHG IRU WKH SURJUDPPHV 7KH UHVXOWLQJ SURILOHVIRUPHG WKH EDVLV IRU WKH IRUPXODWLRQ RI JUDGXDWH SURILOHVx :KDW JHQHULF
  125. 125. FRPSHWHQFLHV VKRXOG EH GHYHORSHG LQ WKH HGXFDWLRQDO SURJUDPPHVx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
  126. 126. DQG IRXU H[WHUQDO FXUULFXOXP H[SHUWV HYDOXDWHG WKH IRUPDOFXUULFXOXP RQ FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FKDUDFWHULVWLFV ,W ZDV FRQFOXGHG WKDW WKH JUDGXDWH SURILOHVDQG GHVFULSWLRQV RI GRPDLQVSHFLILF DQG JHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHV PDWFKHG WKH RXWFRPHV RI WKHQHHGV DVVHVVPHQW 7KH FXUULFXOXP GRFXPHQW FRQWDLQHG JXLGHOLQHV IRU WKH GHYHORSPHQW RIFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG OHDUQLQJ HQYLURQPHQWV DQG UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV IRU IRUPDWLYH DVVHVVPHQWWKURXJK D VWXGHQW SRUWIROLR +RZHYHU LW ZDV QRW DOZDV FOHDU KRZ WKH GLVFLSOLQDU
  127. 127. FRQWHQWUHODWHG WR WKH JUDGXDWH SURILOHV ,QWHJUDWLRQ RI FRQWHQW HVSHFLDOO LQ WKH FRPPRQ FRUHSURJUDPPH ZDV QRW YLVLEOH $QRWKHU FRQFHUQ ZDV WKDW WKH LQWHJUDWLRQ RI JHQHULFFRPSHWHQFLHV LQWR WKH YDULRXV FRXUVHV ZDV QRW VXIILFLHQWO ZRUNHG RXW ,W ZDV DOVR REVHUYHGWKDW PRUH VWXG DQG UHIOHFWLRQ ZDV QHHGHG RQ WKH UROH RI GLVFLSOLQDU
  128. 128. NQRZOHGJH LQFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG SURJUDPPHV IRU KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ DV ZHOO DV WKH LPSRUWDQFH RILQVWLWXWLRQDOLVHG FRQWDFWV ZLWK SURIHVVLRQDO SUDFWLFH LQ WKH 0R]DPELFDQ FRQWH[W$ UHFRQVWUXFWLRQ DQG DQDOVLV RI WKH HDUO LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI WKH FRPPRQ FRUH RI WKH0DVWHUV SURJUDPPH VKRZHG D SURPLVLQJ VWDUW RI PRVW FRXUVHV LQ WKH SURJUDPPH IURP DFRPSHWHQFHEDVHG SHUVSHFWLYH 7KH LQSXW RI IRUHLJQ OHFWXUHUV PHDQW WKDW QRW DOZDV
  129. 129. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG OHDUQLQJ HQYLURQPHQWV ZHUH FUHDWHG )RU H[DPSOH D VWUDWHJ WR LQFUHDVHWKH DXWRQRP RI VWXGHQWV ZDV ODFNLQJ 7KH ORFDO VWDII ZDV VWLOO QRW FDSDEOH WR UHIOHFW RQ WKHLUHGXFDWLRQDO SUDFWLFHV DQG WR JXLGH DQG FRDFK VWXGHQWV WRZDUGV VHOIUHIOHFWLRQ DQG VHOIGLUHFWLRQ +RZHYHU UHVXOWV RI LQWHUYLHZV ZLWK VWXGHQWV DQG FRXUVH HYDOXDWLRQV VKRZ WKDWVWXGHQWV LQGLFDWHG WKH LPSDFW RI WKH SURJUDPPH RQ WKHLU ZRUN PRVW VWXGHQWV ZHUH SDUWWLPH
  130. 130. DQG WKHLU IXUWKHU GHYHORSPHQW RI JHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHV 6WXGHQWV DOVR VKRZHG D VRXQGFRPSUHKHQVLRQ RI WKH FRQFHSWV RI FRPSHWHQFH DQG FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ $ IHZHDUV DIWHU WKH LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ RI WKH FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG FXUULFXOD IXUWKHU PRQLWRULQJ ZDVXQGHUWDNHQ LQ WKH DUHD RI JHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHV WKURXJK D IRUPDWLYH HYDOXDWLRQ H[HUFLVH9DQ GHU /LQGHQ 0HQGRQoD
  131. 131. ,Q *KDQD WKH ,QVWLWXWH IRU (GXFDWLRQDO $GPLQLVWUDWLRQ DQG 3ODQQLQJ ,(3$
  132. 132. DW WKH8QLYHUVLW RI DSH RDVW LV SUHVHQWO DVVLVWHG LQ WKH GHVLJQ DQG GHYHORSPHQW RI D QHZ0DVWHUV SURJUDPPH LQ 0DQDJHPHQW LQ 7HUWLDU (GXFDWLRQ 7KH QHHG ZDV IHOW IRU D PRUHSUDFWLFHRULHQWHG SURJUDPPH ZKLOH DW WKH VDPH WLPH WKH QDWXUH RI WKH 03KLO SURJUDPPHZRXOG UHTXLUH D KHDY DFDGHPLF UHVHDUFK
  133. 133. LQSXW,Q DQ LQLWLDO PHHWLQJ EHWZHHQ WKH DXWKRU RI WKLV SDSHU DQG VWDII RI ,(3$ WKH GHFLVLRQ ZDVWDNHQ WR GHVLJQ DQG GHYHORS D FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG SURJUDPPH ZLWK DOO QLQH
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´5RDO WUDFNµ LQGLFDWHG E WKH IROORZLQJ VWHSVx )RUPXODWLRQ RI D SURIHVVLRQDO SURILOH ,W ZDV GHFLGHG WR FRQFHQWUDWH ILUVW RQ DSURJUDPPH IRU PLGGOHPDQDJHUV RI 3ROWHFKQLFV HDQV DQG +HDGV RI HSDUWPHQW
  135. 135. $OLVW ZDV FRPSRVHG RI NH WDVNV VXEGLYLGHG LQWR D WRWDO RI VXEWDVNV 7KLV OLVW ZDVVXEPLWWHG IRU YDOLGDWLRQ WR +HDGV RI HSDUWPHQW RI WKH WHQ 3ROWHFKQLFV LQ *KDQD $V DUHVXOW VRPH WDVNV ZHUH UHDUUDQJHG DQG UHIRUPXODWHG 7DEOH EHORZ JLYHV WKH NHWDVNVx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x (ODERUDWLQJ FRPSHWHQF GHVFULSWLRQV 7KH WHQ FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHV ZHUH HODERUDWHG LQWHUPV RI D GHVFULSWLRQ RI WKH FRPSHWHQF RXWFRPHV RI WKH EHKDYLRXU WKDW UHTXLUHV WKHFRPSHWHQF DQG VRPH FKDUDFWHULVWLF VLWXDWLRQV LQ ZKLFK WKH FRPSHWHQF ZRXOG EHXVHG $Q H[DPSOH LV JLYHQ EHORZ LQ 7DEOH IRU WKH ILUVW FRUH FRPSHWHQF LQ WKHJUDGXDWH SURILOH
  136. 136. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPV(GXFDWLRQDO /HDGHUVKLS HVLJQLQJ GHYHORSLQJ DQG LPSOHPHQWLQJ WKH FXUULFXOXP HYHORSLQJ FRQGXFWLQJ DQG GLVVHPLQDWLQJ UHVHDUFK 3URYLGLQJ FRPPXQLW DQG RXWUHDFK VHUYLFHV (VWDEOLVKLQJ DQG PDLQWDLQLQJ DFDGHPLF TXDOLW2UJDQLVDWLRQDO /HDGHUVKLS 0DQDJLQJ KXPDQ UHVRXUFHV DFDGHPLF DQG QRQDFDGHPLF
  137. 137. 0DQDJLQJ LQIRUPDWLRQ DQG FRPPXQLFDWLRQ 0DQDJLQJ ILQDQFHV 0DQDJLQJ SKVLFDO UHVRXUFHV$GPLQLVWUDWLYH /HDGHUVKLS ,QWHUSUHWLQJ DQG LPSOHPHQWLQJ LQVWLWXWLRQDO SROLFLHV UXOHV DQG UHJXODWLRQV 3ODQQLQJ DQG LPSOHPHQWLQJ GHSDUWPHQWDOIDFXOW GHYHORSPHQW 2UJDQLVLQJ DQG FRRUGLQDWLQJ GHSDUWPHQWDO SURJUDPPHV /LQNLQJ GHSDUWPHQW ZLWK RWKHU OHYHOV DQG GLYLVLRQV ZLWKLQ WKH LQVWLWXWLRQ /LQNLQJ WKH GHSDUWPHQW ZLWK WKH FRPPXQLW DQG H[WHUQDO LQVWLWXWLRQV DQGDJHQFLHV6XSHUYLVRU /HDGHUVKLS 0RQLWRULQJ VWDII DQG VWXGHQW DFWLYLWLHV (YDOXDWLQJ VWDII DQG VWXGHQW SHUIRUPDQFH 0DLQWDLQLQJ VWDII DQG VWXGHQW GLVFLSOLQH7DEOH .H WDVNV RI +HDGV RI HSDUWPHQW LQ 3ROWHFKQLFV7HQ FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHV IRU +RV XUULFXOXP GHYHORSPHQW DQG LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ 3URYLGLQJ FRPPXQLW DQG RXWUHDFK VHUYLFHV 3ODQQLQJ DQG LPSOHPHQWLQJ GHSDUWPHQWDOIDFXOW GHYHORSPHQW 0DQDJLQJ +XPDQ 5HVRXUFHV 0DQDJLQJ UHFRUGV 0DQDJLQJ 3KVLFDO 5HVRXUFHV 0RQLWRULQJ VWDII DQG VWXGHQW DFWLYLWLHV (YDOXDWLQJ DQG VXSHUYLVLQJ VWDII DQG VWXGHQW SHUIRUPDQFH 0DLQWDLQLQJ VWXGHQW DQG VWDII GLVFLSOLQH 5HVHDUFK7DEOH *UDGXDWH SURILOH IRU WKH 0DVWHUV SURJUDPPH LQ 0DQDJHPHQW DQG /HDGHUVKLS LQ7HUWLDU (GXFDWLRQx $ QH[W VWHS LQYROYHG WKH IRUPXODWLRQ RI FRPSHWHQFH FRPSRQHQWV WR EH DGGUHVVHG E WKHQHZ FXUULFXOXP .QRZOHGJH DQG VNLOOV OLQNHG WR FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHV ZHUH OLVWHG$WWLWXGHV ZHUH FRPELQHG ZLWK SHUVRQDO WUDLWV DQG OLVWHG IRU DOO NH FRPSHWHQFLHVWRJHWKHU 7KH TXHVWLRQ ZKDW WUDLWV DQG PRWLYHV GRHV D +R QHHG WR KDYH LQ RUGHU WR EH DFRPSHWHQW SURIHVVLRQDO LV LPSRUWDQW EHFDXVH LW DVNV WR GLVFXVV ZKHWKHU DQ HGXFDWLRQDOOHDGHU VKRXOG KDYH D FHUWDLQ SHUVRQDOLW $V VWDWHG EHIRUH LQ WKLV FKDSWHUUHTXLUHGFRPSHWHQW·XSWRVWDQGDUG· EHKDYLRXU UHVXOWV IURP WKH XVH RI QHFHVVDUFRPSHWHQFLHV DQG LV FRGLUHFWHG E SHUVRQDO TXDOLWLHV
  138. 138. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! XUULFXOXP GHYHORSPHQW DQG LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ FRPSHWHQFHVFULSWLRQ+RV DUH FRPSHWHQW LQ FXUULFXOXP GHYHORSPHQW DQG LPSOHPHQWDWLRQ ZKHQ WKH DUH DEOH WR± GHVLJQ DQG GHYHORS D FXUULFXOXP LQFOXGLQJ D GHVFULSWLRQ RI UDWLRQDOH DQG PLVVLRQDLPV DQG REMHFWLYHV FRQWHQW OHDUQLQJ DFWLYLWLHV UROH RI WHDFKHU PDWHULDOV DQG UHVRXUFHVJURXSLQJ ORFDWLRQ WLPH DVVHVVPHQW± ZULWH D SURMHFW SODQ IRU WKH GHVLJQ DQG GHYHORSPHQW RI D FXUULFXOXP LQFOXGLQJWLPLQJ DQG EXGJHW
  139. 139. ± RUJDQLVH WURXWV RI D QHZ FXUULFXOXP LQFOXGLQJ WUDLQLQJ RI WHDFKHUV DQG UHILQHEDVHG RQ WKRURXJK HYDOXDWLRQ DQG± LPSOHPHQW WKH FXUULFXOXP DGRSW DQG GLVVHPLQDWH LW WR D WDUJHW JURXS
  140. 140. 2XWFRPHV RI WKH EHKDYLRXU WKDW UHTXLUHV WKH FRPSHWHQF7KH DFKLHYH ZLWK WKLV FRPSHWHQF D FXUULFXOXP WKDW LV UHOHYDQW WR WKH HYHU FKDQJLQJ
  141. 141. QHHGV RI VRFLHW DQG WKH OHDUQHUVKDUDFWHULVWLF VLWXDWLRQV± :KHQ WKHUH LV D FKDQJH LQ QDWLRQDO SKLORVRSKRULHQWDWLRQ VRFLDO SROLWLFDOHFRQRPLF WHFKQRORJLFDO JDS
  142. 142. ± :KHQ WKHUH LV D FRQWHPSRUDU FKDOOHQJH SUREOHP
  143. 143. FRQIURQWLQJ WKH QDWLRQGLVDVWHUV HSLGHPLF
  144. 144. ± $Q HGXFDWLRQDO JDS7DEOH $ FRUH
  145. 145. FRPSHWHQF GHVFULSWLRQ RU FRPSHWHQF VWDWHPHQWx 7KH NQRZOHGJH LWHPV WKDW ZHUH IRUPXODWHG EDVHG RQ WKH WHQ FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHV FRXOGEH FRQGHQVHG WR WKHPHV 7KHVH WKHPHV FRXOG WKHQ DJDLQ EH UHODWHG WR NHFRPSHWHQFLHV DV VKRZQ LQ 7DEOH 7KHPHV RUH FRPSHWHQFLHV,QVWUXFWLRQDO OHDGHUVKLS x XUULFXOXP GHYHORSPHQW DQGLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ/HDGHUVKLS LQ HGXFDWLRQDOLQVWLWXWLRQVx 3ODQQLQJ DQG LPSOHPHQWLQJGHSDUWPHQWDOIDFXOW GHYHORSPHQW6XSHUYLVRU OHDGHUVKLS x (YDOXDWLQJ DQG VXSHUYLVLQJ VWDII DQGVWXGHQW SHUIRUPDQFHx 0DLQWDLQLQJ VWXGHQW DQG VWDII GLVFLSOLQHx 0RQLWRULQJ VWDII DQG VWXGHQW DFWLYLWLHV/HDGHUVKLS DQG PDQDJHPHQW LQH[WUDPXUDO UHODWLRQVx 3URYLGLQJ FRPPXQLW DQG RXWUHDFK VHUYLFHV$GPLQLVWUDWLRQ PDQDJHPHQWOHDGHUVKLSx 0DQDJLQJ +XPDQ 5HVRXUFHVx 0DQDJLQJ 5HFRUGVx 0DQDJLQJ 3KVLFDO 5HVRXUFHV/HDGHUVKLS LQ UHVHDUFK x 5HVHDUFK7DEOH 7KHPHV DQG FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHVx *HQHULF VNLOOV ZHUH JURXSHG LQWR WKH IROORZLQJ JHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHV‡ 3UREOHP VROYLQJ VNLOOV‡ RPPXQLFDWLRQ
  146. 146. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPV‡ ,7 VNLOOV‡ +XPDQ UHODWLRQV UHSKUDVHG WR ´,QWHUSHUVRQDO VNLOOVµ
  147. 147. ‡ /HDGHUVKLS VNLOOV‡ ULWLFDODQDOWLFDO WKLQNLQJ‡ /HDUQLQJ WR OHDUQ PHWDFRJQLWLYH VNLOO
  148. 148. ‡ 6HOIUHIOHFWLRQ PHWDFRJQLWLYH VNLOO
  149. 149. x ,Q WKH QH[W VWHS WKH FXUULFXOXP VWUXFWXUH ZDV GHVLJQHG DQG IXUWKHU VKDSHG ZLWKFRXUVHV ,W ZDV GHFLGHG WR VWDUW ZLWK D SDUWWLPH SURJUDPPH FRQVLVWLQJ RI VHPHVWHUV(DFK RI WKH ILUVW WKUHH VHPHVWHUV KDV WZR EORFNV ,Q D EORFN WZR FRXUVHV DUH JLYHQ LQ DIDFHWRIDFH SHULRG RI IRXU ZHHNV IROORZHG E IRXU ZHHNV ZKHUH VWXGHQWV DSSONQRZOHGJH SUDFWLFH VNLOOV DQG ZRUN IXUWKHU RQ WKHLU FRPSHWHQFH GHYHORSPHQW 6RWKHUH ZLOO EH LQ WRWDO FRXUVHV JLYHQ LQ EORFNV LQ VHPHVWHUV 7KH UHPDLQLQJVHPHVWHUV DUH XVHG IRU WKH UHVHDUFK SURMHFW OHDGLQJ WR WKH 0DVWHUV WKHVLVx $SDUW IURP WKH FRXUVHV WZR ´OHDUQLQJ OLQHVµ KDYH EHHQ GHVLJQHG UXQQLQJWKURXJKRXW WKH ILUVW WKUHH VHPHVWHUV 7KH DUH GHDOLQJ ZLWK UHVHDUFK DQG ZLWK SHUVRQDOGHYHORSPHQW ,Q JHQHUDO KRXUV LQ D EORFN ZLOO EH GHYRWHG WR FRXUVH ZRUN DQG KRXUV WR DFWLYLWLHV LQ WKH OHDUQLQJ OLQHVx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² LQ WKH HQGWKH ERWK ZDQW PRUH SUDFWLFHRULHQWHG SURJUDPPHV ² LW SURYHV PXFK PRUH GLIILFXOW WRGHYHORS LQWHUQDOO FRQVLVWHQW SURJUDPPHV 7KH H[SHULHQFHV IURP 0R]DPELTXH DQG *KDQDVKRZ WKDW IROORZLQJ WKH ´5RDO 7UDFNµ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
  150. 150. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! DFDGHPLFVFLHQWLILF ZD DV FLWL]HQ RI D PRGHUQ VRFLHW OHDUQLQJ IRU OLIH
  151. 151. LQ SURIHVVLRQDOVLWXDWLRQV OHDUQLQJ IRU D SURIHVVLRQ
  152. 152. RQ WKH ODERXU PDUNHW OHDUQLQJ IRU D FDUHHU
  153. 153. DQG LQ WKHRZQ OHDUQLQJ SURFHVVHV OHDUQLQJ WR OHDUQ
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
  155. 155. NQRZOHGJH EDVH RI FRPSHWHQFLHV 4GHGTGPEGU$PHULFDQ $FDGHP RI 3KVLFLDQ $VVLVWDQWV $$3$
  156. 156. 3URIHVVLRQDO RPSHWHQFH $3RVLWLRQ 3DSHU SUHSDUHG E WKH (GXFDWLRQDO RXQFLO RI WKH $PHULFDQ $FDGHP RI3KVLFLDQ $VVLVWDQWV $PHULFDQ $FDGHP RI 3KVLFLDQ $VVLVWDQWV $OH[DQGULD 9$$VKFUDIW 0+
  157. 157. +XPDQ PHPRU DQG FRJQLWLRQ +DUSHU ROOLQV 1HZRUN%DUQHWW 5
  158. 158. 7KH OLPLWV RI FRPSHWHQFH 2SHQ 8QLYHUVLW 3UHVV %XFNLQJKDP 8.%HQQHWW 1 XQQH ( DUUp
  159. 159. 3DWWHUQV RI FRUH DQG JHQHULF VNLOO SURYLVLRQ LQKLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ +LJKHU (GXFDWLRQ %RDW]LV 5 /HRQDUG 5KHH .6 :KHHOHU -9
  160. 160. RPSHWHQFLHV FDQ EHGHYHORSHG EXW QRW LQ WKH ZD ZH WKRXJKW DSDELOLW 5HWULHYHG $SULO IURPKWWSZZZKHDFDGHPDFXN DVVHWVRUNGRFXPHQWVUHVRXUFHVKHFDKHFDBMQBSSGIH RUWH (
  161. 161. $FWLHI OHUHQ ELQQHQ NUDFKWLJH OHHURPJHYLQJHQ $FWLYH OHDUQLQJ LQSRZHUIXO OHDUQLQJ HQYLURQPHQWV@ ,PSXOV HORUV -
  162. 162. /HDUQLQJ WKH WUHDVXUH ZLWKLQ 5HSRUW WR 81(62 RI WKH LQWHUQDWLRQDOFRPPLVVLRQ RQ HGXFDWLRQ IRU WKH WZHQWILUVW FHQWXU 81(62 3XEOLFDWLRQV 3DULVLZDNDU 9
  163. 163. RPPHQWDU 7KH EDE LV WKURZQ RXW ZLWK WKH EDWKZDWHU %0- RFK 3 1LFNPDQV *
  164. 164. RPSHWHQWLHJHULFKW RSOHLGHQ HQ WRHWVHQ 7KHRULH HQSUDNWLMN YDQ IOH[LEHO OHUHQ RPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ DQG DVVHVVPHQW 7KHRUDQG SUDFWLFH RI IOH[LEOH OHDUQLQJ@ /HPPD 8WUHFKW(YHUZLMQ 6(0 %RPHUV *%- .QXEEHQ -$
  165. 165. $ELOLWRU FRPSHWHQFHEDVHGHGXFDWLRQ EULGJLQJ WKH JDS EHWZHHQ NQRZOHGJH DFTXLVLWLRQ DQG DELOLW WR DSSO+LJKHU (GXFDWLRQ )LHOG / UVGDOH
  166. 166. 7UDLQLQJ IRU FRPSHWHQFH $ KDQGERRN IRU WUDLQHUV DQGWHDFKHUV .RJDQ 3DJH /RQGRQ)OHPLQJ
  167. 167. 7KH FRQFHSW RI PHWDFRPSHWHQFH RPSHWHQFH DQG $VVHVVPHQW ²
  168. 168. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPV*DUDYDQ 71 0F*XLUH
  169. 169. RPSHWHQFLHV DQG ZRUNSODFH OHDUQLQJ VRPHUHIOHFWLRQV RQ WKH UKHWRULF DQG WKH UHDOLW -RXUQDO RI :RUNSODFH /HDUQLQJ *LEERQV 0
  170. 170. +LJKHU (GXFDWLRQ 5HOHYDQFH LQ WKH VW HQWXU 3DSHU SUHVHQWHG DW WKH81(62 :RUOG RQIHUHQFH RQ +LJKHU (GXFDWLRQ 3DULV 2FWREHU *RQF]L $
  171. 171. $GYDQFHV LQ HGXFDWLRQDO WKLQNLQJ DQG WKHLU LPSOLFDWLRQV IRU SURIHVVLRQDOHGXFDWLRQ :RUNLQJ 3DSHU 876 5HVHDUFK HQWUH IRU 9RFDWLRQDO (GXFDWLRQ6GQH 5HWULHYHG $SULO IURP KWWSZZZRYDOXWVHGXDXZRUNLQJBSDSHUV :3$*RQF]LSGI*ULIILRHQ $
  172. 172. *HZDSHQG EHWRQ 2S ]RHN QDDU HHQ VWHYLJ IXQGDPHQW YRRUFRPSHWHQWLHJHULFKW RQGHUZLMV 5HLQIRUFHG FRQFUHWH LQ VHDUFK IRU D VROLG IRXQGDWLRQIRU FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ@ 0DVWHUV WKHVLV /8 8QLYHUVLWHLW 8WUHFKW8WUHFKW+DJHU 3
  173. 173. 9RFDWLRQDO HGXFDWLRQ (QFFORSHGLD RI (GXFDWLRQDO 3VFKRORJ 5HWUHLYHG0DUFK IURP KWWSZZZVDJHHUHIHUHQFHFRPHGXFDWLRQDOSVFKRORJ$UWLFOHBQKWPO+DJHU 3 *RQF]L $
  174. 174. :KDW LV FRPSHWHQFH 0HGLFDO 7HDFKHU ;+DJHU 3 +ODQG 7
  175. 175. 9RFDWLRQDO HGXFDWLRQ DQG WUDLQLQJ ,Q 7KH %ODFNZHOO JXLGH WRWKH SKLORVRSK RI HGXFDWLRQ 1 %ODNH 3 6PHHUV 5 6PLWK 3 6WDQGLVK (GV
  176. 176. %ODFNZHOO 3XEOLVKLQJ 2[IRUG.HDUQV 3
  177. 177. *HQHULF VNLOOV IRU WKH QHZ HFRQRP 1DWLRQDO HQWUH IRU 9RFDWLRQDO(GXFDWLRQ 5HVHDUFK $GHODLGH.HUND 6
  178. 178. RQVWUXFWLYLVP :RUNSODFH OHDUQLQJ DQG 9RFDWLRQDO (GXFDWLRQ (ULF LJHVW1R (ULF OHDULQJKRXVH RQ $GXOW DUHHU DQG 9RFDWLRQDO (GXFDWLRQ ROXPEXV2+.HUND 6
  179. 179. RPSHWHQFEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ DQG WUDLQLQJ 0WKV DQG UHDOLWLHV 2IILFH RI(GXFDWLRQDO 5HVHDUFK DQG ,PSURYHPHQW (5, RFXPHQW 5HSURGXFWLRQ 6HUYLFH1R (
  180. 180. :DVKLQJWRQ .LUVFKQHU 3 9DQ 9LOVWHUHQ 3 +XPPHO + :LJPDQ 0
  181. 181. 7KH GHVLJQ RI D VWXGHQYLURQPHQW IRU DFTXLULQJ DFDGHPLF DQG SURIHVVLRQDO FRPSHWHQFH 6WXGLHV LQ+LJKHU (GXFDWLRQ .RUWKDJHQ )$-
  182. 182. ,Q VHDUFK RI WKH HVVHQFH RI D JRRG WHDFKHU 7RZDUGV D PRUH KROLVWLFDSSURDFK LQ WHDFKHU HGXFDWLRQ 7HDFKLQJ DQG 7HDFKHU (GXFDWLRQ ;.RXZHQKRYHQ *:
  183. 183. HVLJQLQJ IRU FRPSHWHQFH WRZDUGV D FRPSHWHQFHEDVHGFXUULFXOXP IRU WKH IDFXOW RI HGXFDWLRQ RI WKH (GXDUGR 0RQGODQH XQLYHUVLWRFWRUDO GLVVHUWDWLRQ 7ZHQWH 8QLYHUVLW (QVFKHGH0DDPRXUL 0 :DJQHU
  184. 184. 8QLYHUVLW DQG 7HFKQRORJIRU/LWHUDF%DVLF(GXFDWLRQ 3DUWQHUVKLS LQ HYHORSLQJ RXQWULHV 87/3
  185. 185. 5RXQGWDEOH 2YHUYLHZ3DSHU SUHVHQWHG DW WKH ([SHUWV 5RXQGWDEOH 8QLYHUVLW DQG 7HFKQRORJIRU/LWHUDF%DVLF (GXFDWLRQ 3DUWQHUVKLS LQ HYHORSLQJ RXQWULHV 87/3
  186. 186. KHOG LQ3DULV 6HSWHPEHU 0DFIDUODQH % /RPDV /
  187. 187. RPSHWHQFHEDVHG PDQDJHPHQW HGXFDWLRQ DQG WKH QHHGVRI WKH OHDUQLQJ RUJDQL]DWLRQ (GXFDWLRQ 7UDLQLQJ
  188. 188. %QORGVGPEGDCUGF EWTTKEWNWO FGXGNQROGPV KP *KIJGT FWECVKQP C INQDCNKUGF EQPEGRV! 0DU]DQR 5- %UDQGW 56 +XJKHV 6 -RQHV %) 3UHVVHLVHQ %= 5DQNLQ 6 6XKRU
  189. 189. LPHQVLRQV RI 7KLQNLQJ $VVRFLDWLRQ IRU 6XSHUYLVLRQ DQG XUULFXOXPHYHORSPHQW $OH[DQGULD 9$0HLMHUV $:0 2YHUYHOG :$0 3HUUHQHW -
  190. 190. ULWHULD IRU DFDGHPLFEDFKHORUV DQG PDVWHUV FXUULFXOD 7HFKQLFDO 8QLYHUVLW (LQGKRYHQ (LQGKRYHQ0LOOHU * (
  191. 191. 7KH DVVHVVPHQW RI FOLQLFDO VNLOOVFRPSHWHQFHSHUIRUPDQFH $FDGHPLF0HGLFLQH 66 0RWVFKQLJ3LWULN 5 +RO]LQJHU $
  192. 192. 6WXGHQWFHQWHUHG WHDFKLQJ PHHWV QHZ PHGLDRQFHSW DQG FDVH VWXG (GXFDWLRQDO 7HFKQRORJ 6RFLHW
  193. 193. 0XOGHU 0
  194. 194. RPSHWHQFH HYHORSPHQW 6RPH EDFNJURXQG WKRXJKWV ,QWHUQDWLRQDO-RXUQDO RI $JULFXOWXUDO (GXFDWLRQ DQG ([WHQVLRQ 0XOGHU 0
  195. 195. RPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ ² DERXW IUHTXHQWO DVNHG TXHVWLRQV3UHVHQWDWLRQ DW WKH 1DWLRQDO XUULFXOXP :RUNVKRS RQ RPSHWHQFH%DVHG+RUWLFXOWXUH (GXFDWLRQ DW -8$90 -LPPD (WKLRSLD -XO 0XVRQGD /:
  196. 196. 7HDFKHU HGXFDWLRQ UHIRUP LQ =DPELD « LV LW D FDVH RI D VTXDUH SHJ LQD URXQG KROH 7HDFKLQJ DQG 7HDFKHU (GXFDWLRQ ;3HUUHQRXG 3
  197. 197. L[ QRXYHOOHV FRPSpWHQFHV SRXU HQVHLJQHU 7HQ QHZ FRPSHWHQFLHV IRUHGXFDWLRQ@ (6)(GLWHXU 3DULV3UDKDODG . +DPHO *
  198. 198. 7KH FRUH FRPSHWHQFLHV RI WKH FRUSRUDWLRQ +DUYDUG%XVLQHVV 5HYLHZ 0D-XQH 6SHQFHU /0 6SHQFHU 60
  199. 199. RPSHWHQFH DW ZRUN PRGHOV IRU VXSHULRUSHUIRUPDQFH -RKQ :LOH 6RQV ,QF 1HZ RUN6WHUQ :DJQHU $
  200. 200. ,QWURGXFWLRQ 6FKRROWRZRUN SROLFLHV LQ LQGXVWULDOL]HGFRXQWULHV DV UHVSRQVHV WR SXVK DQG SXOO ,Q ,QWHUQDWLRQDO SHUVSHFWLYHV RQ WKH VFKRROWRZRUN WUDQVLWLRQ 6WHUQ $ :DJQHU (GV
  201. 201. +DPSWRQ 3UHVV UHVVNLOO 1-
  202. 202. 6WRRI $ 0DUWHQV 5/ 9DQ 0HUULsQERHU --* %DVWLDHQV 7-
  203. 203. 7KH ERXQGDUDSSURDFK RI FRPSHWHQFH D FRQVWUXFWLYLVW DLG IRU XQGHUVWDQGLQJ DQG XVLQJ WKHFRQFHSW RI FRPSHWHQFH +XPDQ 5HVRXUFH HYHORSPHQW 5HYLHZ 7HLFKOHU 8
  204. 204. 7KHPDWLF GHEDWH WKH UHTXLUHPHQWV RI WKH ZRUOG RI ZRUN 3DSHUSUHVHQWHG DW WKH 81(62 :RUOG RQIHUHQFH RQ +LJKHU (GXFDWLRQ LQ WKH VWHQWXU 9LVLRQ DQG $FWLRQ KHOG LQ 3DULV 2FWREHU 9DQ $OHEHHN ) .RXZHQKRYHQ :
  205. 205. RPSHWHQWLHJHULFKW RQGHUZLMV RPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ@ ,Q 9HUQLHXZLQJ LQ KHW KRJHU RQGHUZLMV 2QGHUZLMVNXQGLJKDQGERHN ,QQRYDWLRQ LQ KLJKHU HGXFDWLRQ (GXFDWLRQDO KDQGERRN@ + YDQ +RXW* WHQ DP 0 0LUDQGH 7HUORXZ - :LOOHPV (GV
  206. 206. 9DQ *RUFXP $VVHQ9DQ GHU /LQGHQ - 0HQGRQoD 0
  207. 207. )URP FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG WHDFKLQJ WR FRPSHWHQFHEDVHG OHDUQLQJ 7KH FDVH RI JHQHULF FRPSHWHQFLHV LQ WKH IDFXOW RI HGXFDWLRQ DW WKH(GXDUGR 0RQGODQH 8QLYHUVLW LQ 0R]DPELTXH 3HUVSHFWLYHV LQ (GXFDWLRQ :HQGULFK ( %ORP 69 LHOHPDQ $ :DUGHNNHU :/
  208. 208. RPSHWHQWLHJHULFKWRQGHUZLMV HHQ UHIOHFWLH RPSHWHQFHEDVHG HGXFDWLRQ D UHIOHFWLRQ@ ,Q H VWULMGRP KHW FXUULFXOXP 2QGHUZLMVVRFLRORJLVFKH SHUVSHFWLHYHQ RS LQKRXG YRUP HQ
  209. 209. 6GEJPQNQI[ FWECVKQP CPF GXGNQROGPV]HJJHQVFKDS 7KH VWUXJJOH IRU WKH FXUULFXOXP (GXFDWLRQODVRFLRORJLFDOSHUVSHFWLYHV RQ FRQWHQW IRUP DQG RZQHUVKLS@ : 9HXJHOHUV 5 %RVPDQ (GV
  210. 210. *DUDQW $QWZHUSHQ$SHOGRRUQ

×