Obviously it has been in existence since the primitive ages. This is when man had to protect himself against wild animals and the harsh environment. At first security needs were simple, but as civilization complex, so did man’s security requirements. Through out the ages men started practicing the utilization of workers and equipment in order to protect his well being and property. Thus, the civilized man adopts security measures to have adequate protection against unsecured and unsafe conditions. This probably led to the establishment of the “POLICE”, an institution today responsible for law and order as well as public safety.
“ POLICE” Originated from the Greek word “ POLITEIA” Meaning government of a city
<ul><li>THE GENERAL GOAL OF THE POLICE PATROL FORCE </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of life and property </li></ul><ul><li>Preservation of peace and order </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of crime </li></ul><ul><li>Suppression of criminal activities </li></ul><ul><li>Apprehension of criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement of laws and ordinances </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of criminal conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Performing necessary services and inspections </li></ul>
FUNDAMENTAL THEORIES OF PATROL THEORY OF POLICE OMNIPRESENCE – high police visibility discourages criminals. Normally, criminals think twice before executing their plans if there is obvious presence of police officers. Thus, patrol activity should be carried in a manner that attracts maximum attention to the police officer or police vehicles. This theory applies the principle of overt operation or high police visibility. LOW PROFILE THEORY– low police visibility increases the opportunity to apprehend criminals. Deceptive absence of the police officer will let criminals believe that they will not be detected or caught if they execute crimes that they planned. In this theory, the objective is to attract as little attention as possible while on the process of patrolling. The officers should operate in a manner that it would be difficult for either criminals or the public to determine that police are around. The principle of covert operation is integrated in this theory.
There is an incredible growth of the security industry nowadays. Most companies are using guard forces, protective barriers, communication and electronic hardware and other state-of-the art protection methods and techniques in their asset protection. However, every company or installation cannot yet escape the emerging complicated security problems like the deteriorating peace and tranquility, the treat of terrorism and the social conditions of the community. A determine intruder can sneak in the properties of another while the owner is asleep out on a trip or anytime of the day and divest all valuable items which he can find. The incidents of fire and other disaster should also be considered in the asset protection. Hence, a basic understanding on the concept and methods of security is the primordial concern of everybody.
Security is a state or conditions of being secured; there is a freedom from fear, harm, danger, loss, destruction or damages. Basically, it was the action of man against man that led to many unsecured and unsafe conditions. Reasons could be economic, revenge, or just plain greed and avarice. Whatever the motives, the civilized man needs adequate protection.
Since security in general is very hard to comprehend, it can be divided into three major areas: 1. PHYSICAL SECURITY – this concern with the physical measures adopted to prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, material and document and to safeguard them against espionage, sabotage, damage, loss and theft. 2. PERSONAL SECURITY – it starts even before the hiring of an employee and remains to be maintained for as long as the person is employed. Its purpose is to insure that the firm hires those best suited to assist the firm in achieving its goals and objectives and once hired assist in providing necessary to the work force while carrying out their functions. 3. DOCUMENT AND INFORMATION SECURITY – this involves the protection of documents and classified papers from loss, access by unauthorized persons, damage, theft and compromise through disclosure. Classified documents need special handling. Lack of indoctrination and orientation among the personal handling them can result in the leakage, loss, theft and unauthorized disclosure of the documents.
PROTECTIVE SECURITY can be defined as those measures taken by an installation or unit to protect itself against sabotage, espionage or subversion and at the same time provide freedom of action in order to provide the installation of the unit with the necessary flexibility to accomplish its mission. The aspects of protective security can be seen with the application of the following: – INDUSTRIAL SECURITY – HOTEL SECURITY – BANK SECURITY – VIP SECURITY – SCHOOL SECURITY – SUPERMARKET or MALL SECURITY – OTHER TYPES
INDUSTRIAL SECURITY A type of security applied to business groups engaged in industries like manufacturing, assembling, research and development, processing, warehousing and even agriculture. It may also mean the business of providing security. HOTEL SECURITY A type of security applied to hotels where its properties are protected from pilferage, loss, damage, and the function in the hotel restaurants are not disturbed and troubled by outsiders or the guest themselves. This type of security employs house detectives, uniforms guard and supervisor and insures that hotel guests and their personal effects are safeguarded.
BANK SECURITY This type of security is concern with bank operations. Its main objective is the protection of bank cash and assets, its personnel and clientele. Security personnel are trained to safeguard bank and assets while in storage, in transit and during transactions. VIP SECURITY A type of security applied for the protection of top-ranking officials of the government or private entity, visiting persons of illustrious standing and foreign dignitaries.
SCHOOL SECURITY A type of security that is concern with the protection of students, faculty members, and school properties. Security personnel are trained to protect the school property from theft, vandals, handling campus riots and detecting the use of intoxicated drugs and alcohol by the students. SUPERMARKET SECURITY A type of security which is concern with the protection of the stores, warehouses, storage, its immediate premises and properties as well as the supermarket personnel and customers. Security personnel are trained to detect “shoplifter”, robbery, and bomb detection and customer relation.
OTHER TYPES This include all other security matters not covered in the 6 enumeration like; – FIESTA – BIRTHDAYS – PARTY – PARADE – CONCERT – RALLY – COURT HEARING – INAUGURATION OF PRESIDENT
PHYSICAL SECURITY measures are being used to define, protect, and monitor property rights and assets. These measures consist of barriers and devices that would detect, impede, and prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, material and document and to safeguard them against espionage, sabotage, damage and theft. PHYSICAL SECURITY may be also defined as the safeguarding by physical means, such as guard, fire protection measures, of plans, policies, programs, personnel, property, utilities, information, facilities and installation against compromise, trespass, sabotage, pilferage, embezzlement, fraud or other dishonest criminal act.
<ul><li>A barrier can be defined as any structure or physical device capable of restricting, deterring, delaying, illegal access to an installation. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, a barrier is use for the following process: </li></ul><ul><li>Define the physical limits of an area. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a physical and psychological deterrent to unauthorized entry. </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent penetration therein or delay intrusion, thus facilitating apprehension of intruders. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist in more efficient and economical employment of guards. </li></ul>
TYPES OF BARRIERS – NATURAL BARRIERS – STRUCTURAL BARRIERS – HUMAN BARRIERS – ANIMAL BARRIERS – ENERGY BARRIERS
NATURAL BARRIERS It includes bodies of waters, mountains, marshes, ravines, deserts or other terrain that are difficult to traverse.
STRUCTURAL BARRIERS These are features constructed by man regardless of their original intent that tends to delay the intruder. Examples are walls, doors, windows, locks, fences, safe, cabinets or containers etc.
HUMAN BARRIERS Persons being used in providing a guarding system or by the nature of their employment and locations, fulfill security functions.
ANIMAL BARRIERS Animals are used in partially providing a guarding system. Dogs are usually trained and utilized to serve as guard dogs.
ENERGY BARRIERS It is the employment of mechanical, electrical, electric energy imposes a deterrent to entry by the potential intruder or to provide warning to guard personnel. These are protective lighting, alarm system and any electronic devices used as barriers.