BIOLOGICAL
SCIENCES
By:
MARIA KRISIA
FAE DELOS
REYES DE ASIS,
BSN-RN
CLASSIFY!
WOLF
KINGDOM: Animalia
PHYLUM: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Canidae
Genus: Canis
Species: l...
CLASSIFY!
LION
KINGDOM: Animalia
PHYLUM: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Felidae
Genus: Panthera
Species...
CLASSIFY!
WALRUS
KINGDOM: Animalia
PHYLUM: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Pinnipedia
Family: Odobenidae
Genus: Odobenus
S...
CLASSIFY!
BLUE WHALE
KINGDOM: Animalia
PHYLUM: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Cetacea
Family: Balaenopteridae
Genus: Bala...
CLASSIFY!
POLAR BEAR
KINGDOM: Animalia
PHYLUM: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Ursidae
Genus: Ursus
Spec...
CELLULAR LEVEL OF
ORGANIZATION
+ MATTHIAS SCHLEIDEN
- Stated that all plants are
composed of cells
+ THEODOR SCHWANN
- Sta...
CELL THEORY
= states that all organisms are
composed of cells and that cells
come only from preexisting cells

+ ROBERT HO...
CELL
= the structural and functional
unit of organs and organisms
= “building block of life”

+ CYTOLOGY
- Study of
cells
CELL COMPONENTS
= PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS,
CARBOHYDRATES and LIPIDS are the
four major molecules that
underlie cell struct...
CELL COMPONENTS
= PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS,
CARBOHYDRATES and LIPIDS are the
four major molecules that
underlie cell struct...
CELL COMPONENTS
+ ENZYMES
- Specialized proteins that speed
up chemical reactions
+ RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)
- works with DN...
CELL STRUCTURE
O PROKARYOTIC
- all the components, including
the DNA, mingle freely in the
cell’s interior as a single
com...
PROKARYOTIC CELL
= Among the smallest of all cells
= can be rodlike, spherical, or
spiral in shape, are surrounded by a
pr...
PROKARYOTIC CELL
+ CYTOPLASM
-Semifluid that fills the cells and
enclosed by the plasma membrane
+ RIBOSOMES
-The only org...
PROKARYOTIC CELL
+ DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA)
-a complex molecule in the form of a
double helix
-it repeatedly twists and...
EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL
= typically about ten times larger
than prokaryotic cells

+ PLASMA MEMBRANE
-it separates the cell...
EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL
ORGANELLES:
o NUCLEUS
-surrounded by a doublelayered membrane that
protects the DNA from
potentiall...
EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL
o ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
-An elongated membranous sac
attached to the nuclear membrane
+ Rough Endop...
EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL
+ Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
-Has no attached ribosomes
-Function: LIPID SYNTHESIS
(phospholipids...
EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL
o GOLGI APPARATUS
-Named after Camillo Golgi
-An organelle that resembles a
stack of pancakes
-“pac...
EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL
o LYSOSOMES
-small, often spherical organelles
that function as the cell’s recycling
center and gar...
EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL
o MITOCHONDRIA
-Powerhouses of the cell
-enzymes convert the sugar glucose
and other nutrients into...
EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL
+ CYTOSKELETON
- a dynamic network
of protein tubes,
filaments, and
fibers, crisscrosses
the cytopl...
EUKARYOTIC PLANT CELL
= have all the components of animal
cells with several added features,
including chloroplasts, a cen...
EUKARYOTIC PLANT CELL
+ VACUOLE
-stores water, salts, sugars,
proteins, and other nutrients
-it stores the blue, red, and ...
EUKARYOTIC PLANT CELL
+ CELL WALL
-surrounds and protects the plasma
membrane
-Its pores enable materials to pass
freely i...
Biological sciences2
Biological sciences2
Biological sciences2
Biological sciences2
Biological sciences2
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Biological sciences2

527 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
527
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Biological sciences2

  1. 1. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES By: MARIA KRISIA FAE DELOS REYES DE ASIS, BSN-RN
  2. 2. CLASSIFY! WOLF KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Canidae Genus: Canis Species: lupus
  3. 3. CLASSIFY! LION KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Felidae Genus: Panthera Species: leo
  4. 4. CLASSIFY! WALRUS KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Pinnipedia Family: Odobenidae Genus: Odobenus Species: rosmarus
  5. 5. CLASSIFY! BLUE WHALE KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Cetacea Family: Balaenopteridae Genus: Balaenoptera Species: musculus
  6. 6. CLASSIFY! POLAR BEAR KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Family: Ursidae Genus: Ursus Species: maritimus
  7. 7. CELLULAR LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION + MATTHIAS SCHLEIDEN - Stated that all plants are composed of cells + THEODOR SCHWANN - Stated that all animals are composed of cells + RUDOLF VIRCHOW - Used a microscope to study the life of cells
  8. 8. CELL THEORY = states that all organisms are composed of cells and that cells come only from preexisting cells + ROBERT HOOKE - First person to use the term “cell”
  9. 9. CELL = the structural and functional unit of organs and organisms = “building block of life” + CYTOLOGY - Study of cells
  10. 10. CELL COMPONENTS = PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS, CARBOHYDRATES and LIPIDS are the four major molecules that underlie cell structure and also participate in cell function + Plasma membrane - Formed by a tightly organized arrangement of lipids, proteins, and protein-sugar compounds
  11. 11. CELL COMPONENTS = PROTEINS, NUCLEIC ACIDS, CARBOHYDRATES and LIPIDS are the four major molecules that underlie cell structure and also participate in cell function
  12. 12. CELL COMPONENTS + ENZYMES - Specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions + RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) - works with DNA to build the thousands of proteins the cell needs + DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) - Nucleic acid that contains the hereditary information for cells
  13. 13. CELL STRUCTURE O PROKARYOTIC - all the components, including the DNA, mingle freely in the cell’s interior as a single compartment O EUKARYOTIC - contain numerous compartments, or organelles, within each cell
  14. 14. PROKARYOTIC CELL = Among the smallest of all cells = can be rodlike, spherical, or spiral in shape, are surrounded by a protective CELL WALL + PLASMA MEMBRANE -composed of two layers of flexible lipid molecules and interspersed with durable proteins -selectively permeable
  15. 15. PROKARYOTIC CELL + CYTOPLASM -Semifluid that fills the cells and enclosed by the plasma membrane + RIBOSOMES -The only organelle in prokaryotic cells -Tiny bead-like structures that serve as the cell’s protein factories (PROTEIN SYNTHESIS)
  16. 16. PROKARYOTIC CELL + DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) -a complex molecule in the form of a double helix -it repeatedly twists and folds to form a compact structure called a CHROMOSOME -Found within the cytoplasm of a prokaryotic cell (nucleoid) -divided into units called GENES found in the PLASMID
  17. 17. EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL = typically about ten times larger than prokaryotic cells + PLASMA MEMBRANE -it separates the cell from its surroundings and regulates the traffic across the membrane + CYTOPLASM -Semifluid that fills the cells and enclosed by the plasma membrane -house a nucleus and numerous other membrane-enclosed organelles
  18. 18. EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL ORGANELLES: o NUCLEUS -surrounded by a doublelayered membrane that protects the DNA from potentially damaging chemical reactions that occur in the cytoplasm -Command center of the cell -In constant communication with the cytoplasm
  19. 19. EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL o ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM -An elongated membranous sac attached to the nuclear membrane + Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum -Studded with ribosomes -Function: PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, forms VESICLES (in which large molecules are transported to other parts of the cell – plasma membrane or Golgi apparatus)
  20. 20. EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL + Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum -Has no attached ribosomes -Function: LIPID SYNTHESIS (phospholipids & steroids) -Other functions are dependent on the type of cell (ex. Testes – produces testosterone, Liver – detoxifies drugs)
  21. 21. EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL o GOLGI APPARATUS -Named after Camillo Golgi -An organelle that resembles a stack of pancakes -“packaging center of the cell” -packed with enzymes that complete the processing of proteins and lipids by sorting and packaging them in vesicles for transport
  22. 22. EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL o LYSOSOMES -small, often spherical organelles that function as the cell’s recycling center and garbage disposal -Powerful digestive enzymes break down worn-out organelles and ship their building blocks to the cytoplasm where they are used to construct new organelles -also dismantle and recycle proteins, lipids, and other molecules
  23. 23. EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL o MITOCHONDRIA -Powerhouses of the cell -enzymes convert the sugar glucose and other nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) -they contain their own DNA in the form of a prokaryote-like circular chromosome; have their own ribosomes, which resemble prokaryotic ribosomes; and divide independently of the cell
  24. 24. EUKARYOTIC ANIMAL CELL + CYTOSKELETON - a dynamic network of protein tubes, filaments, and fibers, crisscrosses the cytoplasm, anchoring the organelles in place and providing shape and structure to the cell
  25. 25. EUKARYOTIC PLANT CELL = have all the components of animal cells with several added features, including chloroplasts, a central vacuole, and a cell wall + CHLOROPLASTS -convert light energy into the sugar glucose by means of photosynthesis
  26. 26. EUKARYOTIC PLANT CELL + VACUOLE -stores water, salts, sugars, proteins, and other nutrients -it stores the blue, red, and purple pigments that give certain flowers their colors -also contains plant wastes that taste bitter to certain insects, thus discouraging the insects from feasting on the plant
  27. 27. EUKARYOTIC PLANT CELL + CELL WALL -surrounds and protects the plasma membrane -Its pores enable materials to pass freely into and out of the cell -The strength of the wall also enables a cell to absorb water into the central vacuole and swell without bursting -provides plants with rigidity and support for stems, leaves, and flowers

×