Science that implies a serious and deep study Is the system human of a language Is the scientific study of communication language linguistics Study of a language ingeneral and of languages in Preliminary notions particular
Is A branch of linguistics ThatStudy language changeand language relationship Was an Established discipline Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) Scholars as Franz Boop (1791-1867) August Schleicher (1821-1868)
Differeces among them Descriptively and during the in order to languaje find out similarities learning process2 or more Constrative compareslanguages linguistic Centaily Studies analizes
Originally Knows as comparative philology this May be knows as comparative diachronic linguistics as well Is * A branch of historical or diachronic linguistics
Sillabi.- The exposition of CL proceds level-by-level, and the traditional Contrastive linguistics three levels provide ample scope. Lexis.- language, terminology, terms syllabus expresion. Soun.- Untterances (computation) Syntax.- Grammar, sentence structure, languaje, rules. *It is the study of the ability of natural languaje speakers to communicatye more than what is CARL JAMES.- explicitly states. States that Contrastive pragmatics •The ability to understand another constrastive speaker`s intended meaniong is called prgmatic competence. linguistics is a FUNDAMENTALS •* Another perspective is that relevant and pracmatics deals whit the ways weFOR TEACHING CL rewarding reach our goaling in study area communicationghbv for certain type of The contrastive Method. In principle, every diffence or similarity between students Metodology of two or more related languaje should contrastivelinguistics be explicable in terms of isolation or context analysis. Has been described as microlinguistic contrstive anlysis (Jame 1980:61): phonology, grammar, lexis. Example of research questions. •Wath are the vowel and consonant phonemes in MT and NEW TRENDS TL? •Hwo do they differ in their inventory, realisation, and distribution? •What is the tense system of MT and TL? •What are the verbs of saying in MT and TL?
•It suplies reference to description of linguistic phonema in the students`mother tongue. •In group of 3-4, students should produce parallel description of the same observable fact in the foreing languaje . •It recognizesand usesthe IPA conventional registerTHE ROLE OF •It develops listening decoding and transcription notation CORPORA •It does transfer analysis among languajes to bring into play correctivephonology. • Is an arbitrary structed system of utterances sounds, gestures, sings and movements, written symbols morphemes, words and sentences used for human communication.LANGUAgE • List about 6,912 living languages in the world up to 2005.ETHNOLOGY
VERBAL LANGUAGE • Nash (1977) expresses thet a verbal language “is ephemeral because it vanishes into the air as soon as it is uttered”. they live in and accordingly to their lifestyles; consequently, People communicate in endless ways due to the vast places LANGUAGE FAMILY • It is a group of languajes related by descent from a common ancestor called the proto-language of that family.BRIEF CLASIFICATION OF LANGUAJES abundant variations of languajes have arisen. INDIVIDUAL LANGUAGE • It is a language as a wole from the same family. The individual languages are identifiel as being of one of the followingfive types. HISTORIC LANGUAGE •A languaje is listed as historic when it is considered to be distinct from any modern languages that are descended from it. CONSTRUCTED LANGEAGES •This part of ISO 639 also includes identifiers thet denote constructed languages. DIALECT •It is aq variety of a lñanguage, spoken in a detrmined area limited by greographical or political
LANGUAGE INTELLIGIBILITY •The term intelligibility refers to the promotion of a speacker´s out put that a listener can readily understand. IDIOLECT •It is the langauge system of an individual as expressed by the way a person speak –voice qualyity, ptch, speech rhythm- or writes within the overall system of a particular languages. JARGON •It is the language used by the people who work in a particulararea or who have a common interest: lawyers, computer programmers, criminals, etc. COLLOQUIALISM • Itis the informal expression, that is, an expression not used in formal speech or writing. SLANG •It is a language at at´s most informal, using expressions that many wouid considered to be grammatically amperfect and sometimes rude. NON VERBAL LANGUAGE •No sound is uttered. This could be symbolic (written) or Mimic..
Written or It is a system of symbolic permanent written symbols. language IDIOGRAPHIC It is a writing system which uses ideograms WRITING (symbols) torepresent LANGUAGE whole words or concepts. SYLLABIC It is based on syllables which are represented by WRITING separate symbols; LANGUAGE e.g.japanese.ALPHABETICAL It is based on sound-pronuntation-and WRITING deals whit alphabetical symbols whitch LANGUAGE represent consonant or vowel sounds.ARTICULATED Deals with ponetic spelling. LANGUAJE ENGLISH English belongs to the Western group of the Germinic branch of the LANGUAGE Indo-European languages family.SPANISH Spanish belongs to the Romance branch of the Indo-EuropeanLANGUA language famyli.
1.- The same letter orletter combination canrefer to differentsounds.2.- The same soun canbe written whitdifferen letters orletter combinations.3.- Different dialectspronunced the sameword differently.
CLUSTER intrasylabic Intersyllabic Consonant medial Final clustersVowel cluster Initial cluster Medial clusters medial cluster clusters cluster Initial two- This deals whit Consonant It is when Spanish has A consonant Spanish and the cluster may one no clusters cluster also English pronunciation occur in both consonant in final known as a might have the students English and of the position consonant from two upgive to synthetic Spanish while When it cluster while blend is a to four- words three- belongs to belongs to English group or medial containing consonant the second the first words sequence of consonant orthographic clusters just of the two syllable and containing consonants clusters: vowel-cluster take place in syllable the other(s) from two up that appear -VCCV-/-and analyzes the English. peaks to the to four final together in a VCCCV-/- observed CCV-(liquants between second, so consonant syllable whit VCCCCV-;pronunciation in and liquids. which they syllable cluster may out a vowel except relation to Three-initial- appear as division perhaps between Englishcommon English consonant medial. occurs occur: - them. which may words cluster,CCCV- between VCCV-/ - pile up to containing the just happen the VCCCC-/ - five- same vowel in English. members. VCCCCV-. consonant cluster clusters: - VCCCCCV_.
PHONOLOGY Is the study of the system of phonemes of a language PHONEMICS PHONETICS DIACRITIC It is a mark placed over, It is the study and under or through a It studies the relevant, description of the distinctive and letter (or phonetic speech sound made by symbols) to show that itsignificant elements in a the human voices. language which has a sound value different from tha letter (or phonological symbol).
•Also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the word to day •In modern usage, the term “Latin Alphabet” is used for any straight forward LATIN ALPHABET derivation alphabet first used to write.ALPHABET •To achieve widespread acceptance, this encapsulation was based on population LATIN ALPHABET AND usage. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS •There are as many transcription conventions as dictionaries and readers`necessitie. •This implies having almost the same problems as ordinary orthography. THE INTERNATIONAL •This alphabet was proposed and mainly accepted by linguistics, phoneticians, PHONETIC ALPHABET language teachers, and currently dictionary makers. (IPA)
TRANSCRIPTION It a system of notation that represents utterances or partial utterances of a language pronunced by people in general. • Also identified as phonetic transcription, it is BROAD the notation that represents utterances of aTRANSCRIPTION language . NARROW • It is a notation that represent variant of aTRANSCRIPTION specific phonemes. • Marking stress in both monosyllabic andPEDAGOGICAL multisyllabic words is some didactic advice for HINTS students to be able to use and pronounced properly the stressed syllables in words.