WIND ENERGY

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Basics of Wind Energy - availability, methods of harnessing wind energy and factors affecting performances of wind machines / wind turbines ....

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WIND ENERGY

  1. 1. - VANITA N. THAKKAR ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, BABARIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, VARNAMA, VADODARA.
  2. 2. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 2 • Wind energy is a large renewable energy source. • Global wind power potential : about 11,000 GW (about 5 times the global installed power generation capacity). • In India : • gross potential : 45,195 MW • technical potential : 2,8375 MW. Distribution of wind power potential in India (wind power density in W/m2.)
  3. 3. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 3  India : 5th in the world based on the installed wind power capacity,  India produces : about 2 billion kWh per year from wind with the average utilization factor of 1175 hours per year.  Cost of energy from wind is about Rs.4 to 5 per kWh in India.  India has also started exporting 1 MW capacity machines.
  4. 4. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 4 Wind is an indirect solar energy source. Its characteristics : ◦ It is environmentally clean source of energy. ◦ It is a dilute source of energy. ◦ It is perennially available. ◦ Its availability is unpredictable. ◦ Data are available about its availability pattern around the day for different months of the year.
  5. 5. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 5  The machine that converts kinetic energy in the wind into usable form of mechanical energy (usually shaft power).  Wind machines are typically used for mechanical applications like water pumping, grinding, woodcutting, or for AC or DC power generation in grid connected or isolated mode.
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  9. 9. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 9  Study of wind machines is called Molinology.  It cuts across various fields including: ◦ Meteorology, ◦ Aerodynamics, ◦ Machine Design, ◦ Structural Design, ◦ Materials Technology, ◦ Power Engineering, ◦ Reliability Engineering, ◦ Instrumentation and Controls Engineering.  Three bladed propeller deign has evolved as the commercial Wind Energy Conversion System today. Designs of 225 kW, 450 kW, 650 kW or 1 MW are installed commercially in India.
  10. 10. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 10 Design and performance details of a typical 1 MW unit installed by Suzlon :
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  12. 12. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 12 Power developed by the wind machine is mainly affected by : ◦ wind speed, u, ◦ area swept by the rotor, AS, ◦ density of air, ρ, ◦ rotational speed of the machine, Ω, ◦ radius of the rotor, R, ◦ number of blades, B ◦ total blade area.
  13. 13. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 13 Power developed is also affected by : Lift and drag characteristics of the blade profile.
  14. 14. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 14 By Dimensional Analysis parameters for characterizing wind machines are identified : Coefficient of Performance, CP = P / (½ ρ AS u3) Where, P = Power output at rotor shaft (W) AS = Area swept by the machine (m2) ρ = Air density (kg/m3) u = Undisturbed wind speed (m/s)
  15. 15. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 15 Tip speed ratio, λ = R Ω / u R = Rotor radius (m), Ω = rotational speed of the rotor (rad/s) Solidity, σ = blade area / AS = (average chord x blade length x number of blades) / AS
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  17. 17. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 17 Effect of solidity (range 0.03 to 1) : • Torque increases as solidity increases • Wake in the downwind flow increases as solidity increases • Maximum power decreases as wake increases Hence, maximum power decreases as solidity increases Effect of tip speed ratio : Tip speed ratio increases as solidity decreases Maximum power increases as tip speed ratio increases
  18. 18. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 18 Wind machines can be broadly classified according to the axis of mounting into Horizontal Axis Wind Machines and Vertical Axis Wind Machines. Majority of the machines built in the modern wind energy applications are horizontal axis wind machines.
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  20. 20. - VANITA N. THAKKAR ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT, BABARIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, VARNAMA, VADODARA. VANITA THAKKAR - BIT 20

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