Vanessa Irvin Morris Assistant Professor The iSchool at Drexel University Philadelphia, PA, USA [email_address]
Comics to Graphic Novels <ul><li>Historical Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic form originally literacy format for worki...
Comics to  Graphic Novels <ul><li>1940s: Big boom in comics – readership sky high –  </li></ul><ul><li>post-War reading – ...
Comics to  Graphic Novels <ul><li>Historical Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s:  Creation of “Graphic Novel” </li></ul>...
Comics to Graphic Novels <ul><li>Historical Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1990s:  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Batman, ...
Contemporary US Comics Defined <ul><li>Categories:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Comics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
Comics and Libraries <ul><li>Traditional Comics  (flimsy mags) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not usually in library collections </...
Comics & Censorship <ul><li>May have challenges to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic depi...
Comics and Gender <ul><li>Comics (American) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically attracts males, young & old </li></ul></ul><ul...
Creators & Artists <ul><li>Writer:  writes story / dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Penciller:  draws comic in pencil </li></ul>...
Graphic Novel  - Formats <ul><li>Series   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-Monthly </li></ul><...
Graphic Novels  - Formats <ul><li>Standard Annual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yearly supplement to an ongoing series  </li></ul>...
Graphic Novel  - Formats <ul><li>Standard format  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 32-page s, 7” x 10” </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Graphic Novels - Formats <ul><li>Magazine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing series , but can have larger  </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Graphic Novels –  Collection Criteria <ul><li>Popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly lists of the top-selling comics  </...
Graphic Novels –  Collection Criteria <ul><li>Age level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
Graphic Novels –  Collection Criteria <ul><li>Genre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most  popular genres: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Graphic Novels –  Collection Criteria <ul><li>Artistic quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dra...
Graphic Novels –  Collection Criteria <ul><li>Reputation of writers and artists, many of whom have strong fan followings <...
Anime <ul><li>Anime  – short for “Animation”  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First anime recorded circa 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Anime <ul><li>Was/Is inspiration for Manga in US </li></ul><ul><li>Anime came first, during the 1960s, </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Manga <ul><li>Manga  – “Japanese comics” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes in various genres for different target  </li></ul></u...
Manga <ul><li>Origins of Manga </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osamu Tesuka (1928 - 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1947 (age 1...
Manga <ul><li>1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shojo manga explodes  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1974: Toma no Shinzo (“The ...
Manga <ul><li>1980s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art becomes more realistic/documentary-esque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manga fo...
Manga <ul><li>Characteristics of Manga </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characters have large, expressive eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
More Comics in Libraries <ul><li>Aaron McGruder’s  Boondocks </li></ul><ul><li>(series – multiple pub dates) </li></ul><ul...
More Comics in Libraries <ul><li>Jimmy Gownley’s  Amelia Rules (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re: 9 y.o. girl moves from cit...
People to Know in Comics <ul><li>Marvel Comics (founded 1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Stan Lee (1922 - )  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
People to Know in Comics <ul><li>DC Comics ( founded 1934) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Batman:  Bob Kane (1915 – 1988) & Bill Fi...
People to Know in Comics <ul><li>Art Spiegelman (1948- )  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maus I, A Survivor’s Tale (1986) </li></ul...
People to know in Comics <ul><li>Moto Hagio  (1949 - ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Heart of Thomas (1974) </li></ul></ul><ul...
Librarian Considerations  4 Graphic Novels/Anime/Manga <ul><li>Collect for children, teens, and adults  </li></ul><ul><li>...
References <ul><li>Graphic Novels Resources for Librarians </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/...
References <ul><li>Thorn, M. (2001). Shojo Manga: Something for the Girls.  Available:  http://www.matt-thorn.com/shoujo_m...
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Graphic Novels: An Introduction

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Graphic Novels: An Introduction

  1. 1. Vanessa Irvin Morris Assistant Professor The iSchool at Drexel University Philadelphia, PA, USA [email_address]
  2. 2. Comics to Graphic Novels <ul><li>Historical Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic form originally literacy format for working class and poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic novels go as far back as 1842 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1930s: Banner decade for Newspaper Comic Strip launchings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blondie & Dagwood (1930 – still running) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superman (1939 - 1966) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Phantom (1936 – still running) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1934: DC Comics established </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1938: DC Comics launched Superman, volume 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Superman ran 1939-1988, issues 0-423 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adventures of Superman ran 1987 – 2006, Issues 424-649 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1939: Marvel Comics parent company (Timely Publications) established </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Comics to Graphic Novels <ul><li>1940s: Big boom in comics – readership sky high – </li></ul><ul><li>post-War reading – considered “Golden Age of Comics” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1940: Will Eisner lauded for The Spirit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1941: Marvel launched Captain America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1950s: TV makes fiction visual; Comic sales go down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1951: Timely (aka Atlas Comics) officially becomes Marvel Comics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1960s: Anime comes to America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underground comics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deal with political and social topics of the day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese animation comes to American TV </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Comics to Graphic Novels <ul><li>Historical Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s: Creation of “Graphic Novel” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1972: Maus, by Art Spiegelman is born as a small comic strip; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1978: Publication of Will Eisner’s Contract with God, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the first ever graphic novel – a connective series of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>short stories bound in one volume, subtitled as </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ a graphic novel by Will Eisner” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1980s: Begins “Modern Age of Comics” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic novel renaissance w/mass-market trade paperbacks; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1986: Art Spiegelman morphs Maus into full graphic novel form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1988: Eisner Awards are born at Comic-Con Conference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considered the “Oscars” of comic book industry (see willeisner.com) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Comics to Graphic Novels <ul><li>Historical Timeline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1990s: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Batman, Darkman begin resurgence of comic characters in cinema; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic novels available as serializations; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic novels gain popularity in libraries; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1992 – Maus, A Survivor’s Tale, wins Pulitzer Prize, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>solidifying literary quality of graphic novel form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000s: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comic franchises in cinema w/movie tie-ins, of course; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X-Men I, II, III, IV (forthcoming), V (forthcoming) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spider Man I, II, III </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fantastic Four I, II </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iron Man I, II (forthcoming) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biographies, literary classics in graphic novel form; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Born Chinese (2006) wins 2007 Printz Award from YALSA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Contemporary US Comics Defined <ul><li>Categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional Comics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typical flimsy magazine format serialized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic Novels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Original book-length stories in comic format </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected Works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called trade collections or graphic albums previously published in graphic novel form </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese comics, pocket-sized, highly serialized </li></ul></ul></ul>SOURCE: http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/formats/
  7. 7. Comics and Libraries <ul><li>Traditional Comics (flimsy mags) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not usually in library collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still popular in comic book shops, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amongst collectors, comic conventions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be stored in archives, historical art collections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphic Novels & Manga </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular in library collections, esp. public libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If literary tie-in, may be present in school libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High circulating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collected Works </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular in library collections, esp. art collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May circulate; may be reference </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Comics & Censorship <ul><li>May have challenges to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic depictions of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible sexist representations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible objectionable themes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horror/Supernatural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Science Fiction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary Issues (Middle East themes, war, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Collection development policy should cover intellectual freedom </li></ul><ul><li>ALA Code of Ethics counsels against self-censorship </li></ul><ul><li>Always use sanctioned resources for selection </li></ul>SOURCE: http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/dev/censorship.php
  9. 9. Comics and Gender <ul><li>Comics (American) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically attracts males, young & old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female characters can be sexist in representation, even the super-heroes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-genres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bad-girl Comics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catwoman </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xena: Warrior Princess </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babe Comics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Witchblade </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lady Pendragon </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Manga (Japanese) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically attracts females, young & old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender-swapping common (girl mistaken for boy, vice-versa) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender representations culture-specific to Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American publications may be sensitized to American cultural norms </li></ul></ul>http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/dev/women.php ; http://web.mit.edu/rei/www/manga-gender.html
  10. 10. Creators & Artists <ul><li>Writer: writes story / dialogue </li></ul><ul><li>Penciller: draws comic in pencil </li></ul><ul><li>Inker: outlines images in black ink </li></ul><ul><li>Colorist: adds color to black/white line art, using paints, photography, digital media, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Letterer: writes story in speech bubbles, usually last part of process </li></ul><ul><li>Editor: oversees process, for glitches and errors </li></ul>Artist: can be combo of penciller and/or inker
  11. 11. Graphic Novel - Formats <ul><li>Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-Monthly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarterly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited Series (finite set of issues) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most contain 4 issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But can be from 2 to 12 issues. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mini-Series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4 issues or less </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maxi-Series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 issues or more </li></ul></ul></ul>SOURCE: http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/formats/
  12. 12. Graphic Novels - Formats <ul><li>Standard Annual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yearly supplement to an ongoing series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Batman Annual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fantastic Four Annual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-alone titles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bart Simpson's Treehouse of Horror </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aliens vs. Predator Annual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>One-Shot </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monographic (one-time) publication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard comic format or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prestige Comic or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treasury Edition </li></ul></ul></ul>SOURCE: http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/formats/
  13. 13. Graphic Novel - Formats <ul><li>Standard format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically 32-page s, 7” x 10” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Double-Size&quot; = 48 pages, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Annuals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special editions (anniversary, special event, lengthier story) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ 80-Page Giants”: Some DC Comics annuals and special anthologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prestige Format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard 8&quot; x 10“ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>square-bound with heavier stock covers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oftentimes high quality paper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are one-shots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Treasury Edition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Folio sized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typically prestige format and tabloid-sized. </li></ul></ul></ul>SOURCE: http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/formats/
  14. 14. Graphic Novels - Formats <ul><li>Magazine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing series , but can have larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dimensions and pages than standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>format </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Black & White Comics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have color covers, but black and white content (typical of manga) </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/formats/
  15. 15. Graphic Novels – Collection Criteria <ul><li>Popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly lists of the top-selling comics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library Review Sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Library Journal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>YALSA’s Graphic Novels for Teens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IPL Teen Space – Graphic Novels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No Flying, No Tights @: http://www.noflyingnotights.com/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.graphicnovelreview.com </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>www.mycomicshop.com/graphicnovels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tie-ins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TV shows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video games </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/
  16. 16. Graphic Novels – Collection Criteria <ul><li>Age level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tweeners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young Adults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General suitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not too mature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not too immature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing quality - Originality important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plot & Character Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pacing </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Graphic Novels – Collection Criteria <ul><li>Genre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most popular genres: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Super-Hero </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fantasy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other genres include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Science fiction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horror/Supernatural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Action/Adventure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biography </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Girl Comics (see ‘comics and gender’ slide) </li></ul></ul></ul>SOURCE: http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/
  18. 18. Graphic Novels – Collection Criteria <ul><li>Artistic quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dramatic impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storytelling flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing skill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coloring (where relevant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lettering </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/
  19. 19. Graphic Novels – Collection Criteria <ul><li>Reputation of writers and artists, many of whom have strong fan followings </li></ul><ul><li>Awards and recognition received </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Eisner, Harvey, and Kirby awards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant annual fan awards include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comics Buyer's Guide Fan Awards and, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usenet’s rec.arts.comics, &quot;Squiddy Awards&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reputation of publisher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For list of graphic novel/manga PUBLISHERS go to: </li></ul></ul><ul><li> http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/dev/censorship.php </li></ul><ul><li>Color versus black & white </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manga readers accustomed to b&w comics </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/
  20. 20. Anime <ul><li>Anime – short for “Animation” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First anime recorded circa 1917 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s: Astro Boy explodes on Japanese & American TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1970s: Anime was originally called “Japanese Animation” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1980s: “Japanimation” – now considered offensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990s: “Anime” term adapted late 90s into 21 st century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide: targeted for late teens and adults </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually violent and sexual content </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000s: U.S.: popularized towards tweeners and teens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OVA: Original Video Animation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>films released straight to video </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TV: American-made shows in Anime style </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avatar; Naruto; Inu Yasha; Phineas & Ferb </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Anime <ul><li>Was/Is inspiration for Manga in US </li></ul><ul><li>Anime came first, during the 1960s, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when TV shows like “Speed Racer” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and “Kimba the White Lion” were adapted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from Japanese format to American animation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, while Astro Boy went to print in </li></ul><ul><li>the 1960s in Japan, it did not go to print for </li></ul><ul><li>US audiences until 2002! </li></ul>SOURCE: Thompson, J. (2007). “Manga in America.” Wired 15(11) Available: http://www.wired.com/special_multimedia/2007/1511_ff_manga
  22. 22. Manga <ul><li>Manga – “Japanese comics” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes in various genres for different target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>audiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shonen: school-age boys, under age 18 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suspense and action-oriented </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shojo: school-age girls, under age 18 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Romance and drama-oriented </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In addition to fictional entertainment, non-fiction genres also include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informational texts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educational texts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate texts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Even Legal texts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fictional genres can be sexual, graphic, violent and combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of all 3 elements </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Manga <ul><li>Origins of Manga </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osamu Tesuka (1928 - 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1947 (age 19) Inspired by Treasure Island - made an illustrated version of it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tesuka was also inspired by Disney characters! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as “Walt Disney” of Japan! </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as “God of Manga” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He was also creator of Astro Boy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960s: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1963: Astro Boy debuted in Japan on TV, also a hit in US </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood manga readers now college students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continued high interest in the art form </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moving into adult themes: soap operas; erotica </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>See: http://www.dnp.co.jp/museum/nmp/nmp_i/articles/manga/manga2.html; http://www.wired.com/images/pdf/Wired_1511_mangaamerica.pdf
  24. 24. Manga <ul><li>1970s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shojo manga explodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1974: Toma no Shinzo (“The Heart of Thomas”), created by female manga artist, Moto Hagio, published – instant classic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is a glbtq story with male protagonists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girl heroines became more independent, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individualistic, less maiden-esque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format evolves from magazine strips to independent paperbacks </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: Thorn, M. (2001). Shojo Manga: Something for the Girls. Japan Quarterly 48(3): July-September issue. Book cover for “ Toma No Shinzo”
  25. 25. Manga <ul><li>1980s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Art becomes more realistic/documentary-esque </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manga for women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1990s – today </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manga = 1/3 all publishing in Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is estimated that at least ½ Japanese women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>under 40, and 3/4 teen girls, read manga regularly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pokemon explodes in the US – was biggest Japanese export during this decade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1996: Dragonball-Z gains US popularity </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: Thorn, M. (2001). Shojo Manga: Something for the Girls. Japan Quarterly 48(3): July-September issue.
  26. 26. Manga <ul><li>Characteristics of Manga </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characters have large, expressive eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair is usually large, spiked, brightly colored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books bound Japanese style, on the right, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thus read, back to front </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Books are pocket-sized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serialized for many volumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stories can become epic, lasting for years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art has abstract imagery, flowery – to attract girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color covers, black and white content </li></ul></ul>SOURCE: Thorn, M. (2001). Shojo Manga: Something for the Girls. Japan Quarterly 48(3): July-September issue.
  27. 27. More Comics in Libraries <ul><li>Aaron McGruder’s Boondocks </li></ul><ul><li>(series – multiple pub dates) </li></ul><ul><li>Soo-Young, Lee’s Model (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>(story re: Korean art student </li></ul><ul><li>living in Europe) </li></ul>
  28. 28. More Comics in Libraries <ul><li>Jimmy Gownley’s Amelia Rules (2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re: 9 y.o. girl moves from city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to small town following family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>divorce – create girl power group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(multiple volumes) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robert James Luedke’s Eye Witness series (2004 - ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Graphic Novel Series </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 volumes total </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publisher: www.headpress.info </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. People to Know in Comics <ul><li>Marvel Comics (founded 1939) </li></ul><ul><li>Stan Lee (1922 - ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captain America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spider Man </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X-Men </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fantastic Four </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daredevil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Hulk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron Man </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partners: Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko </li></ul><ul><li>Will do the “Hitchcock Thing” </li></ul><ul><li>in his movies! </li></ul>
  30. 30. People to Know in Comics <ul><li>DC Comics ( founded 1934) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Batman: Bob Kane (1915 – 1988) & Bill Finger (1914-1974) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superman: Jerry Siegel (1914-1996) & Joe Schuster (1914-1992) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wonderwoman: Wm Marston (1893 – 1947) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Flash: Gardner Fox (1911-1986) & Harry Lampert (1916-2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Lantern: Bill Finger (1914-1974) & Martin Nodel (1915-2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Watchmen: Alan Moore (1953 - ) & Dave Gibbons (1949 - ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other important DC Comics characters: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bat-Girl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catwoman </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>League of Extraordinary Gentlemen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promethea </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. People to Know in Comics <ul><li>Art Spiegelman (1948- ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maus I, A Survivor’s Tale (1986) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Won Pulitzer (1992) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maus II, And Here My Troubles Began (1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osamu Tesuka (1928 - 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Astro Boy (1963) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kimba the White Lion (1966) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Father of Anime” | “God of Manga” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There were legal issues for the </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>similarities between Kimba the White Lion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and Disney’s film, The Lion King (1994) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. People to know in Comics <ul><li>Moto Hagio (1949 - ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Heart of Thomas (1974) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regarded as “mother of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shonen manga” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Will Eisner (1917-2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A Contract with God, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Tenement Stories (1978) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First US Graphic Novel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comic Award named after Eisner </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Librarian Considerations 4 Graphic Novels/Anime/Manga <ul><li>Collect for children, teens, and adults </li></ul><ul><li>for a wide-range collection </li></ul><ul><li>Anime: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subtitled & Re-Dubbed may have varying titles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manga: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase series as a whole b/c serializations usually one story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Label clearly so patrons know sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graphic Novels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase literary titles for reluctant readers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biographies </li></ul></ul></ul>Source: http://www.koyagi.com/Libguide.html#anchor118912
  34. 34. References <ul><li>Graphic Novels Resources for Librarians </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://library.buffalo.edu/libraries/asl/guides/graphicnovels/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Shotaro Inshinomori Website (Excellent Manga Timeline) @: http://en.ishimoripro.com/prof/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>Booklist: Reference on the Web, Graphic Novels </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.booklistonline.com/default.aspx?page=show_product&pid=1538194 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A History of Manga: http://www.dnp.co.jp/museum/nmp/nmp_i/articles/manga/manga1.html </li></ul><ul><li>Gender and Gender Relations in Manga and Anime. (2000). </li></ul><ul><li>Available: http://web.mit.edu/rei/www/manga-gender.html </li></ul>
  35. 35. References <ul><li>Thorn, M. (2001). Shojo Manga: Something for the Girls. Available: http://www.matt-thorn.com/shoujo_manga/japan_quarterly/index.php </li></ul><ul><li>Thompson, J. (2007). How Manga Conquered the US, A graphic guide to Japan’s coolest export. </li></ul><ul><li>Available: http://www.wired.com/special_multimedia/2007/1511_ff_manga </li></ul><ul><li>The Unofficial Guide to the DC Universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Available: http://www.dcuguide.com/ </li></ul>
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