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Anglo--Saxons A term used by historians to designate the Germanic tribes who invaded the south and east of Great Britain beginning in the early 5th century AD, and the period from their creation of the English nation to the Norman conquest. The Anglo-Saxon Era denotes the period of English history between about 550 and 1066 AD. The term is also used for the language now called Old English, spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons and their descendants in much of what is now England and some of south-eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century.
Where did they Come from ? They came from three most powerful Germanic tribes, the Saxons, the Angles, and the Jutes. Of Jutish origin are the people of Kent and of the Isle of Wight, and the part of the kingdom of Wessex opposite the Isle of Wight, still called the nation of the Jutes. From the Saxon land, that is the place which is now called Old Saxony, came the East Saxons, the South Saxons, and the West Saxons. From the Anglian land, that is the place between the realms of the Jutes and the Saxons which is calledAngulus, and remains deserted to this day, came the East Angles, the Middle Angles, the Mercians, and all the Northumbrian peoples, that is, those who dwell north of the river Humber, as well as other Anglian peoples.
How did Anglo-Saxons lived ? In their own lands, most Anglo-Saxons were farmers. They lived in family groups in villages, not cities. Since they lived close to the sea and big rivers, many Anglo-Saxons were sailors too. They built wooden ships with oars and sails, for trade and to settle in new lands. Raiders in ships attacked Roman Britain. Most people in Roman Britain were Christians. Most Anglo-Saxons were not Christians. They worshipped lots of gods and goddesses. Their beliefs were similar to those of the Celts, who lived in Britain before the Romans invaded.
What sort of money did they use, and how much was it worth? From the middle of the eighth century, Anglo-Saxon coinage standardized on the silver penny, which was about the size of (though much thinner than) a modern quarter or 10p piece. For designs, the coins tended to have the king's head (with his name around the rim) on the front ("heads", or obverse) side, and a pattern (often a cross) with the moneyer's name around the rim on the back ("tails", or reverse) side. The Northumbrians didn't switch to the new standard and continued to issue base silver coins (eventually base copper coins) until the independent kingdom of Northumbria was snuffed out by Vikings in 867. So what could you buy with a handful of silver pennies? The short answer is that we don't know, but from a handful of clues a penny seems to have been a substantial sum of money, more equivalent to a ten or twenty pound note (C$20-50) today.
Where did the Anglo- Saxons settled ? When the Anglo-Saxons arrived in Britain, most kept clear of Roman towns. They preferred to live in small villages. However, warrior chiefs knew that a walled city made a good fortress. So some Roman towns, like London, were never completely abandoned. Many Roman buildings did become ruins though, because no one bothered or knew how to repair them. Some Saxons built wooden houses inside the walls of Roman towns. Others cleared spaces in the forest to build villages and make new fields. Some settlements were very small, with just two or three families.
ANGLO- SAXON HOME In an Anglo-Saxon family, everyone from babies to old people shared a home. Anglo-Saxon houses were built of wood and had thatched roofs. At West Stow in Suffolk archaeologists found the remains of an early Anglo-Saxon village. They reconstructed it using Anglo-Saxon methods. They found that the village was made up of small groups of houses built around a larger hall. Each family house had one room, with a hearth with a fire for cooking, heating and light. A metal cooking pot hung from a chain above the fire.
FUN FACTS Did you know that ? It took about 18 trees to provide enough wood to build a Saxon house.
Sutton Hoo In the 7th century AD, a King – it was surely no less – received a magnificent burial at Sutton Hoo, in East Anglia. A ship was hauled up from the river, a burial chamber was erected in the middle of it, and a stupendous collection of magnificent objects – gold and silver brooches and dishes, the sword of state, drinking horns and a lyre – was set in the burial chamber.
The helmet has become a symbol of the Sutton Hoo burial; yet it survived as a mass of small pieces, and was only reconstructed after years of painstaking work in the British Museum Laboratory. Here we see a photo of the excavations in 1939, with the excavators uncovering the chamber built at the middle of the ship, and Mrs Pretty, the landowner and sponsor of the excavations, sitting with her friends in the background.
Venerable Bede English historian and theologian. Of Baeda, commonly called "the Venerable Bede", almost all that we know is contained in the short autobiographical notice which he has appended to his Ecclesiastical History: "Thus much concerning the ecclesiastical history of Britain, and especially of the race of the English, I, Baeda, a servant of Christ and priest of the monastery of the blessed apostles St. Peter and St. Paul, which is at Wearmouth and at Jarrow, have with the Lord's help composed, so far as I could gather it, either from ancient documents, or from the tradition of the elders, or from my own knowledge. Born: c. 672 ADBirthplace: Jarrow, Northumbria, EnglandDied: 25-May-735 ADLocation of death: Jarrow, Northumbria, EnglandCause of death: unspecifiedRemains: Buried, Durham Cathedral, Durham, England Gender: MaleReligion: Roman CatholicRace or Ethnicity: WhiteOccupation: Religion Nationality: EnglandExecutive summary: Ecclesiastical History
Early Anglo-Saxons Beliefs In Roman Britain, many people had been Christians. The early Anglo-Saxons were pagans. Much like theVikings of Scandinavia, they believed in many gods. The king of the Anglo-Saxon gods, for example, was Woden - a German version of the Scandinavian god Odin. From his name comes our day of the week Wednesday or 'Woden's day'. Other gods were Thunor, god of thunder; Frige, goddess of love; and Tiw, god of war. Anglo-Saxons were superstitious. They believed in lucky charms. They thought 'magic' rhymes, potions, stones or jewels would protect them from evil spirits or sickness.
How did Anglo-Saxons fought ? Anglo-Saxon armies were usually small, with only a few hundred men. The soldiers had spears, axes, swords and bows and arrows. They wore helmets on their heads and carried wooden shields. Everyone fought on foot during a battle. It must have been a bit like a giant rugby scrum, with lots of pushing and yelling, and nasty wounds. The most feared Anglo-Saxon weapon was a battle axe, but the most precious weapon was a sword. It took hours of work by a smith to craft a sword. He softened iron in a red-hot fire, twisted iron rods together and hammered the sword into shape.
The Warrior Code The king had a small bodyguard of brave warriors who would die to defend him. The 'warrior-code' of the Anglo-Saxons taught that a warrior must fight and die for his leader, if he had to. An Anglo-Saxon poem called The Battle of Maldon tells the story of a battle in Essex in 991, between English and invading Vikings. The English leader allowed the Vikings to cross from their camp for a 'fair fight'. The English lost, but the poem still praises their heroism.
Why was Alfred so Great ? Great Anglo-Saxon kings included Offa of Mercia (who built Offa's Dyke) and Edwin of Northumbria (who founded Edinburgh or 'Edwin's burh'). But the most famous of all is Alfred, the only king in British history to be called 'Great'. Alfred was born in AD849 and died in AD899. His father was king of Wessex, but Alfred became king of all England. He fought the Vikings, and then made peace so that English and Vikings settled down to live together. He encouraged people to learn and he tried to govern well and fairly.
How did Alfred Ruled ? King Alfred was advised by a council of nobles and Church leaders. The council was called the witan. The witan could also choose the next king. Alfred made good laws. He had books translated from Latin into English, and translated some himself. He told monks to begin writing the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Alfred built warships to guard the coast from Viking raiders. He built forts andwalled towns known as burhs. He split the fyrd (the part-time army) into two parts. While half the men were at home on their farms, the rest were ready to fight Vikings
FUN FACTS - To test if a person was guilty of a crime, he had to hold a red-hot iron! If his hand healed quickly, he was innocent. If not, he was guilty. - When the Viking chief Guthrum was baptized a Christian, Alfred was his godfather. - The Anglo-Saxons knew the Earth was round, but wrongly believed the Sun and stars went round the Earth. - The body of the Sutton Hoo king was not found in his ship-burial. The body may have 'dissolved' in the soil. - Cow-stealing was a common crime. There are records of people tracking down stolen cows, like detectives.
GROUP 2 KeffersonCalleja Bea Pacris Christine Castillo Kyle Van Dela Paz Danela Dela Cruz Christopher Laplano Jonah Insao Kyle Quitasol MclloydSumagpang Genesis Ojenal JeielTacbi Theresa Tibor Lester Traen