• Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
659
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. URBANIZATION
  • 2. WHAT IS URBANIZATION ? •Urbanization is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of rural migration and even suburban concentration into cities, particularly the very large ones.
  • 3. • Large scale emigrations from rural areas to urban areas and population growth have been uninterrupted and accelerating phenomena in parts of Ganga basin, where urbanization is increasing at an unprecedented rate. Urban agglomeration is causing radical changes in groundwater recharge and modifying the existing mechanisms.
  • 4. • Majority of the cities are sited on unconfined or semi confined aquifers depend upon river water and groundwater for most of their water supply and disposal of most of their liquid effluents and solid residues to the rivers and ground. There has also been an inevitable rise in waste production. Drainage of surface water has been disrupted as the small natural channels and low lying areas have been in filled, often with municipal waste
  • 5. • Total water potential of the Ganga basin including surface water potential and ground water potential is around 525.02 km3 and 170.00 km3 respectively. Basin supports approximately 42% of the total population in India. Water tables are declining at approximately an average of 0.20 m per year in many parts of the basin and there is a trend of deteriorating groundwater quality.
  • 6. • The demand of water has been increased many folds and most of the areas are highly reliant upon the groundwater to meet this increasing demand for water, but unfortunately degradation of groundwater both in terms of quantity and quality has deteriorated the situation. Studies shows that change in climate may increase temperature by 2 to 6°C and can reduce precipitation up to 16%, which could reduce the groundwater recharge by 50%.
  • 7. • In densely populated Ganga basin urban drainage consumes a high proportion of the investments into urban infrastructure and needs integrated approach for the sustainable development of water management, water education regarding conservation and pollution caused by urbanization.
  • 8. • Studies shows that change in climate may increase temperature by 2 to 6°C and can reduce precipitation up to 16%, which could reduce the groundwater recharge by 50%. In densely populated Ganga basin urban drainage consumes a high proportion of the investments into urban infrastructure and needs integrated approach for the sustainable development of water management, water education regarding conservation and pollution caused by urbanization.
  • 9. The pollution of the river Ganga
  • 10. • Safe drinking water and sanitation services are common issues in most rapidly growing developing cities. Varanasi is no exception; however, the situation in Varanasi is different compared to the ones of other cities at a similar development stage. Varanasi’s water supply is highly dependent on the Ganga, which is considered to be sacred and purifying by the Hindus. Immersion and ablution in its water are daily procedures for the inhabitants as well for the numerous pilgrims.
  • 11. • During the last century the city spread in a rather unplanned way. The lack of a strong coordinating body resulted in serious deficits in the field of large infrastructures such as drainage and sewerage systems. Consequently, the capacity of the old sewers exceeded and the city’s sewage and industrial waste flow into the Ganga, polluting the river heavily. Today, the largest part of the sewage, industrial effluent, run-off from chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture and huge quantities of solid waste are dumped in the Ganga untreated.
  • 12. • The pollution of the Ganga presents a severe health hazard, in particular for those who bathe in the river and drink its water. In their study, Pandey et al. (2005) found out that the Ganga water pollution has a very significant effect on occurrence of enteric diseases in Varanasi city. In particular the concentration of Nitrate, Chloride and Faecal coliforms in the river water has a major effect on water-borne diseases.
  • 13. • The result of this study indicates that the drinking water may cause enteric diseases even if the raw Ganga water is treated properly. One possible explanation is that contamination could take place due to seepage of old supply pipelines . Many efforts to clean-up the holy Ganga were undertaken during the last decades. The most comprehensive was The Ganga Action Plan (GAP). The GAP was an ambitious program, prepared by the Department of Environment and approved by the Cabinet in 1985, in order to reduce the pollution of the Ganga.
  • 14. Bibliography:
  • 15. • Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) (2000): Ganga Action Plan. http://www.cag.gov.in/reports/scientific/2000_book2/gangaa ctionplan.htm (23.09.2011) • Jaiswal, R. K. (2007): Ganga Action Plan – A critical analysis, Working paper, 49 p. • Mishra, V. B. (2005): The Ganga at Varanasi and a travail to stop her abuse. In: Current Science. Vol. 89, No. 5. pp. 755-763. • Pandey, J. et al. (2005): Ganga Water Pollution and Occurrence of Enteric Diseases in Varanasi City. Indian Journal of Community Medicine: Vol. 30, No. 4.. pp. 115-120. • Sankat Mochan Foundation (SMF) (2011): The struggle to save Ganga. http://www.sankatmochanfoundationonline.org/save_ganga. html (23.09.2011)