Toxicology - the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms
polypharmacy: the administration of multiple medications at the same time; common in older persons with several chronic illnesses
Phenytoin acts as anticonvulsant for epilepsy Phenothiazines Any of a group of drugs derived from this compound and used as tranquilizers in the treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia
The actions of the drug on the body are termed pharmacodynamic
Perfusion – delivery of nutrients through arterial blood to capillary
With advanced age, body weight, total body water, lean body mass, and plasma albumin (protein) all decrease, while body fat increases. Consequently, agents that are highly protein-bound have fewer binding sites and higher pharmacologic activity, whereas fat-soluble agents have more binding sites, and therefore enhanced storage and delayed elimination.
Diabetic neuropathy - neuropathic disorders that are associated with diabetes mellitus; complication of diabetes causing damage to the nerves Osteoarthritis is a type of arthritis that is caused by the breakdown and eventual loss of the cartilage of one or more joints. Parkinson's disease (PD) belongs to a group of conditions called motor system disorders, which are the result of the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells
Passive exercise: This type is for people who cannot actively participate in exercise. No effort is required from them. The therapist moves their limbs
Proprioceptors are specialized sensory receptors on nerve endings found in muscles, tendons, joints, and the inner ear. These receptors relay information about motion or position and make us aware of our own body position and movement in space. Proprioceptors detect subtle changes in movement, position, tension, and force, within the body.
Impulsive behavior - action initiated without due consideration or thought as to the costs, results, or consequences
Polyuria - excessive or abnormally large production and/or passage of urine
fecal impaction is a solid, immobile bulk of human feces that can develop in the rectum as a result of chronic constipation
Anticholinergics are a class of medications that inhibit parasympathetic nerve impulses by selectively blocking the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to its receptor in nerve cells Alpha -blockers are useful in the treatment of primary hypertension calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are a class of drugs and natural substances that disrupt the calcium (Ca2+) conduction of calcium channels
An indwelling urinary catheter is one that is left in place in the bladder.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia - caused by the yeast-like fungus found in the lungs of people Kaposis Sarcoma – tumor in skin Wasting syndrome – Cachexia loss of body mass that cannot be reversed nutritionally: even if the affected patient eats more HIV encephalopathy - AIDS dementia complex - infection and latter impairment of the neural cells by HIV
Changeability in those processes in older people is caused, in part, by a reduced capacity of the liver and kidneys to metabolize and excrete the medications and by lowered efficiency of the circulatory and nervous systems in coping with the effect of certain medications.
A high-fiber diet and the use of psyllium (Metamucil) or other laxatives may accelerate gastrointestinal transport and reduce absorption of medications taken concurrently.
If, for any reason, a patient is not dependable about taking medication, the nurse must be sure that the pill or capsule is actually swallowed and not retained between the cheeks and the gums or teeth.
subject with a physiological defect or deficiency regardless of its cause, nature or extent that renders the person unable to move about without assistive devices that limit the person's functional ability to ambulate, climb, descend, sit or rise or to perform any related function
Transient incontinence is characterized by the sudden onset of potentially reversible symptoms or medical conditions.
The patients may be suffering from delirium, urinary tract infection, atrophic vaginitis, psychological problem (such as depression), endocrine disorder, impaired immobility and/or stool impaction. It may be due to drugs such as diuretics and sedatives.
Essentially due to insufficient strength of the pelvic floor muscles. It is the loss of small amounts of urine associated with coughing, laughing, sneezing, exercising or other movements that increase intra-abdominal pressure and thus increase pressure on the bladder
According to a report of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, between 1981 to 1989, more than 10% of all AIDS patients in US were 50 years of age or older at the time of diagnosis, and about 3% were age 60 years or older.
Common AIDS-indicator diseases in older people are