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Theories of Life Stages & Human
Development
Presented by Vanessa Kiraly, Hannah DeVries, & Ghazala Nazeer
Peer Tutoring Un...
Introduction to Life Stages & Human
Development Theories
Today we will be learning about 3 different theories that
describ...
Materials Needed
For this lesson, you will need:
-Paper & Pens
-A ruler
-A computer to view this presentation
-A clean wor...
Expectations/ Lesson Goals
 Have a general understanding about the
key discoveries of Piaget, Erikson, &
Freud.
 Be able...
All About Jean Piaget
 He developed French variations of questions on English intelligence
tests at the Binet institute d...
How Piaget's Theory Differs from
Other Theories
 Piaget’s theory is specific to children.
 It targets development instea...
The 3 Basic Parts to the Piaget
Theory
 Schemas (The building blocks and creation of
knowledge)
 Processes that enable t...
Schemas & Transitions
A schema is a representation of cognitive connections and our
world. In this case, schemas are attri...
A Visual Example for Tactile
Learners of This Process
Development Stage
Features and Facts Studies
Conducted
Sensorimotor- 0 to 2 years old Object permanence (that objects may
...
About Sigmund Freud
-He was born May 6th 1856 in the Austrian Empire (now called Czech Republic)
and died September 23rd 1...
The Principles of His Theory
-The way you developed is decided by your experiences as a child.
-Your attitude, views, trai...
Freud’s technique is to analyze the patients verbally
through “free associations” and dreams. The
psychoanalyst will then ...
The Two Theories of Freud
Topographic Theory: Theory of dividing the brains mental procedures into
conscious, pre consciou...
An Example for Tactile Learners...
When you are hanging out with your friends and
you want to overeat (your id is telling ...
Freud on Psychosexual Development
Freud believes that everyone is born with sexual desire
(a.k.a. libido) and it contains ...
Stages of Psychosexual Development
After Freud had passed away, many “neo-freudians” went further into Sigmund Freud’s the...
The Biography of Erik Erikson
Erik Erikson was born on June 15, 1902 and passed away on May 12, 1994. Erik
Erikson was a p...
The main key point in Erikson's theory is the development of ego
identity (conscience sense of self). We develop ego ident...
How His Theory Differs from Other
Theories
- Erikson's theory focuses on full stages of a person's life
The difference bet...
The Stages of Predetermined
Development
Erikson believed that the stages of predetermined development are
formed by social...
Development Stages Explained
Trust vs. Mistrust is the first development of emotions and feelings. And infant view on
soci...
Development Stages Explained
Stage number 3 is innitiation vs. guilt. According to Erikson this stage
happens during the a...
Identity vs. role confusion occurs at the ages of 12-18. How one sees them self is what identify is.
It is a sense of who ...
Development Stages Explained
Generatively vs. stagnation occurs approximately at the age from 50-60. At this stage
people ...
How These Three Theories Relate to
Our World and Lesson Summary
 In order to understand others, we must understand
the me...
Review & Work for You!
 Watch the following links below on Piaget, Erikson
and Freud and make a table of the differences
...
Thank you for Attending our Lesson
Today!
 Piaget: Vanessa Kiraly
 Erikson: Ghazala Nazeer
 Freud: Hannah
 Power Point...
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Lesson on Human Development & Life Stages by Vanessa Hannah Ghazala

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Transcript of "Lesson on Human Development & Life Stages by Vanessa Hannah Ghazala"

  1. 1. Theories of Life Stages & Human Development Presented by Vanessa Kiraly, Hannah DeVries, & Ghazala Nazeer Peer Tutoring Unit 2
  2. 2. Introduction to Life Stages & Human Development Theories Today we will be learning about 3 different theories that describe the psychological development of humans!
  3. 3. Materials Needed For this lesson, you will need: -Paper & Pens -A ruler -A computer to view this presentation -A clean workspace -Willingness to learn and stay focused!
  4. 4. Expectations/ Lesson Goals  Have a general understanding about the key discoveries of Piaget, Erikson, & Freud.  Be able to apply these three theories to real-life situations when dealing with children.  Understand the foundations and basic concepts that each of the following three theories presented are based upon.  Be succesful at understanding the differences between each theory.  Have a general understanding about the life and biography of Piaget, Erikson, & Freud.
  5. 5. All About Jean Piaget  He developed French variations of questions on English intelligence tests at the Binet institute during the 1920s.  After becoming intrigued as to why children gave incorrect answers on logical thinking questions, he proposed that these actions may be vital evidence to reveal different thinking processes between adults and infants.  Before Piaget, it was thought that children were just less proficient thinkers than grown-ups; however he demonstrated that children think in unusually different ways in comparison to adults.  Piaget stated that infants are born with basic mental structure that is evolved and genetically inherited which is the start or the basis of the way we learn to think.
  6. 6. How Piaget's Theory Differs from Other Theories  Piaget’s theory is specific to children.  It targets development instead of learning directly.  Piaget’s theory is about development in discrete stages noticeable by qualitative differences instead of ideas and behaviors that become increasingly complex.  Piaget’s theory is based on the fact that environmental experiences and the reorganization of mental processes in the brain allows children to mature and have a further understanding about topics or physical objects that they identify as familiar. Children must be able to hypothesize the inconsistencies between two or more substances/persons using what they already know.
  7. 7. The 3 Basic Parts to the Piaget Theory  Schemas (The building blocks and creation of knowledge)  Processes that enable the child to transition from one stage to another (equilibrium, assimilation, and accommodation)  Stages of Development (Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational)
  8. 8. Schemas & Transitions A schema is a representation of cognitive connections and our world. In this case, schemas are attributes that a child can associate with their experiences in order to identify an object as what it is supposed to be. When the existing schema is enough information for the child to understand what it is observing, their mind is in a state of equilibrium. As infants we adapt to our world through… The Assumption is that children store the information gained from environmental experiences for later application. Assimilation is the process of combining various attributes learned to become familiar with what a child is viewing, and to be able to use a known schema to distinguish other objects. Accommodation occurs when a schema a child knows does not fit, and they need to change it to deal with their newly found situation.
  9. 9. A Visual Example for Tactile Learners of This Process
  10. 10. Development Stage Features and Facts Studies Conducted Sensorimotor- 0 to 2 years old Object permanence (that objects may exist even though they are not always around) Blanket and Ball Study Preoperational- 2 to 7 years old Egocentrism (Preoccupation with one’s internal world) Three Mountains Concrete Operational- 7-11 years old Conservation (Dealing with numerical values, conserving an object) Conservation of Number Formal Operational- 11 years old and up Manipulation of ideas inside brain (Reasoning for yourself, assuming responsibility) Pendulum Task Stages of Development Jean Piaget was intrigued by the method that children learnt and thought. He observed three children from infantry to adolescence to form his theory that children go through 4 stages in which their mindset changes biologically. These changes occur at varying rates but happen in all children.
  11. 11. About Sigmund Freud -He was born May 6th 1856 in the Austrian Empire (now called Czech Republic) and died September 23rd 1939 in London, England. -He was an Austrian neurologist who founded the term psychoanalysis. -Freud grew up in a family that had financial issues. -At age 17 Freud enrolled in the University of Vienna, to originally study law but changed his mind into studying medical sciences and philosophy. - Freud worked at the Vienna General Hospital in 1882. He worked various jobs at his time there before it led him to a lecture in neuropathology, which sparked his interest in “nervous disorders”. - In 1886 he created a private practice to help patients with several disorders and started to use hypnosis techniques as a remedy to the disorders. -Freud stopped using hypnosis and developed his “psychoanalysis” approach.
  12. 12. The Principles of His Theory -The way you developed is decided by your experiences as a child. -Your attitude, views, traits are effected by non-logical actions. -These actions are unconscious. -It is difficult to bring these mannerisms to recognition because the patient will oppose to believe them or discuss them. -These conflicts between the conscious actions and unconscious actions lead the patient to neurotic disorders such as anxiety, depression and neurosis. -To deal with the disorder you must bring forth the suppressed actions to the alert mind with therapeutic intervention.
  13. 13. Freud’s technique is to analyze the patients verbally through “free associations” and dreams. The psychoanalyst will then introduce the suppressed thoughts that are causing the patients problems and will bring these problems to the patient’s alert mind to resolve the conflicts. Sub theories of Psychoanalysis are the topographic theory, the structural theory. There are other sub theories derived by other psychoanalysis as well.
  14. 14. The Two Theories of Freud Topographic Theory: Theory of dividing the brains mental procedures into conscious, pre conscious and unconscious. Structural Theory: Freud separates the human soul into three sections. The id, ego and super-ego. Freud theorized that the id starts off at childbirth and it functions solely on the “pleasure principle” which means looking for happiness and avoiding suffering. Next the ego progresses steadily and slowly, and it functions the “reality principle” which is the same as the pleasure principle but being able to meet the commands of the real world. Lastly the super-ego is closely related to the ego but in addition it is were the mind begins to criticize itself and judgmental abilities arrive.
  15. 15. An Example for Tactile Learners... When you are hanging out with your friends and you want to overeat (your id is telling you to eat) your superego tells you it is not acceptable to do so in public. The id is always being repressed by the superego.
  16. 16. Freud on Psychosexual Development Freud believes that everyone is born with sexual desire (a.k.a. libido) and it contains five stages. He suggested that if an infant experienced “sexual frustration” in their psychosexual growth, they would experience anxiety, which would continue as an adult and become a mental disorder.
  17. 17. Stages of Psychosexual Development After Freud had passed away, many “neo-freudians” went further into Sigmund Freud’s theories by regarding other components such as culture, environment and society.
  18. 18. The Biography of Erik Erikson Erik Erikson was born on June 15, 1902 and passed away on May 12, 1994. Erik Erikson was a psychologist. Erik was Freud's student and was influenced by the latter theories of personality development. Unlike Freud Erik believed that personality development or a persons psychological development is influenced by their social environment and is through different stages. Erik's theory is called the psychosocial theory of personality development. His theory states that everyone passes through many different stages in life from the day they were born to the day they will die. The main idea in Erikson's theory is that everyone faces a conflict at every stage, which sometimes are or are not resolved within that stage.Through every stage a person goes through according to Erik there is a major issue that occurs but he indicates the stages are not watertight. Problems of one stage overlap with problems of another stage; how a person deals with earlier issues determines how they will solve issues later. Most significantly there is a huge connection with future thinking and feeling, and previous unresolved or resolved developmental issues.
  19. 19. The main key point in Erikson's theory is the development of ego identity (conscience sense of self). We develop ego identity as we make social interactions. Erickson believed that as we experience and encounter information in our every day interactions with others our ego identity changes. The stages in Erikson's theory all concern with one becoming proficient in an area of life. If the stage goes well, the person will feel a sense of pride, feel like they have accomplished a mastery, this is also referred to as ego strength. If however the stage does not go well the person will feel a sense of insufficiency. All these feelings during the stages is what makes the person's personality and makes them who they are as individuals.
  20. 20. How His Theory Differs from Other Theories - Erikson's theory focuses on full stages of a person's life The difference between Erikson's theory and Piaget's theory is that Erikson's theory focused on how character growth happens in full stages of a person's life, on the other hand Piaget believed that kids generally develop mental models to symbolize the world. - Erikson's theory was based mainly on society, culture, religion and parents. His theory explained how all these (parents, culture, society) influence and impact who you are and what you become.
  21. 21. The Stages of Predetermined Development Erikson believed that the stages of predetermined development are formed by social aspects and social experiences. The names he gave his stages were: 1) Trust vs. Mistrust 2) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 3) Initiative vs. Guilt 4)Industry vs. Inferiority 5) Identity vs. Role Confusion 6) Intimacy vs. Isolation 7) Generatively vs. Stagnation 8) Integrity vs. Despair
  22. 22. Development Stages Explained Trust vs. Mistrust is the first development of emotions and feelings. And infant view on society and everyone will be based on either trust or mistrust. An infant that is given a lot of care to and love will most likely grow up to be a loving child. The child will easily be able to establish healthy and good relationships with others. An infant that grows up with step parents, foster homes or neglected parents will most likely have issues with other people. They may find it hard adjusting to life. This child may grow up to be depressive and involved in criminal behaviour. Autonomy vs. shame & doubt occurs at the age of approximately 2-3 years old. The main mission of this stage is to get one to achieve courage and independence while minimizing shame and doubt. In this stage parents should give their kids freedom . If parents are over protective of their kids, their kids could either be overly shy or very rebellious. Having said that, if parents start giving their kids overly freedom and becoming careless this could cause the kid to become impulsive and not be concerned for their actions. There should be a balance of both, autonomy and shame and doubt, this will develop the kid to be confident, have determination, self-esteem, self-control, and have willpower.
  23. 23. Development Stages Explained Stage number 3 is innitiation vs. guilt. According to Erikson this stage happens during the ages of 3 and 5. At this stage of development kids are exploring the world by playing and interacting with others. When kids play pretend and get invovlved in social activities this teaches them how to direct their own actions, apply control over their environment and develop a sense of meaning to life. Industry vs. inferiority is stage number 4. This stage occurs at the age of 6-11. At this stage, school has a huge role in a child's development. as they interact with teachers and students at school they get a sense of their own abilities, what they are good at and what they need to improve on. They feel pride for their accomplishments and try to overcome their weaknesses. They have a good idea of what they enjoy learning and where their interest is.
  24. 24. Identity vs. role confusion occurs at the ages of 12-18. How one sees them self is what identify is. It is a sense of who you are in the circumstances of life and what lies in advance of you. Role confusion is when a person cannot figure out who they are and where they fit in. They either have a negative perspective of them self or no perspective at all. This stage is also impacted by puberty and adolescence. Teenagers struggle to fit in, they want to fit in with the rest but at the same time they want to be independent and be individual. This is a hue dilemma the kids have to face at this stage aside from the other confusions that they will experience. Role confusion could also be replaced with "Identity diffusion" meaning the same exact definition. Intimacy vs. isolation occurs at the age of 20-40. Intimacy is when you can open up, share your thoughts and secrets with someone. It is the process of making relationships with family, friends and mating partner(s). This stage is explained in terms of sexual mutuality- making emotional connections with one, sharing thoughts and feelings either physically or emotionally. Intimacy is the stage where you give and receive different sort of love with one another, especially between sexual or marital partners. Isolation is when you feel like lonely, and you feel like you will never get love and affection. At this stage one could feel as if they were not meant to be loved, they would feel excluded from the dating experience. Development Stages Explained
  25. 25. Development Stages Explained Generatively vs. stagnation occurs approximately at the age from 50-60. At this stage people are focused on making memories that would outlast them. They want to feel useful and helpful, they want to spend time wisely and make sure its towards a good cause. Working or doing community work are ways that people forge a sense of purpose and they feel like they would be leaving good reputation on them self when they leave. People would remember them for good reasons. Integrit vs. despair is the final stage of Eric Erikson's stages of human development. this stage occurs at the age of 60-65. At this stage people reflect on their life; what they have done, what they have accomplished and what their mistakes were. People that believe they have lived a purposeful and meaningful life resemble in peace, they are happy and not worried. On the other hand people that feel regretful, or may look back with embarrassment and shame may experience bitterness and despair feelings at this stage.
  26. 26. How These Three Theories Relate to Our World and Lesson Summary  In order to understand others, we must understand the mechanisms behind the way we think. This applies especially to children because they require more effort to understand and teach information than a full grown adult and the way they are taught in their early stages is critical to their development.  The three theories by Erikson, Freud, & Piaget explain several possible concepts about the way we think and develop that can help us understand and solve problems we encounter throughout life.
  27. 27. Review & Work for You!  Watch the following links below on Piaget, Erikson and Freud and make a table of the differences between each theory to submit to your portfolio/ in the discussion forum! This activity is very useful for thos of you that learn well by listening and visualization!  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRF27F2bn-A  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Vs8uE8_02E  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpE18fKhAeY
  28. 28. Thank you for Attending our Lesson Today!  Piaget: Vanessa Kiraly  Erikson: Ghazala Nazeer  Freud: Hannah  Power Point by: Vanessa Kiraly
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