Turok Amman Conference Jan 2010
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Turok Amman Conference Jan 2010

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  • … ongoing efforts to develop and implement a sustainable strategy for PGR conservation in the Region
  • Many constraints such as replacement of traditional by commercial varieties, but most importantly… scarcity of water
  • Genetic variation is key component of biodiversity
  • With the objective of guiding investment decisions of the Trust. … focused on ex situ conservation in genebanks
  • These outputs have been at least partly accomplished
  • - … ICARDA genebank
  • Two photos taken within days of one another (in Bangladesh and in Kenya). Unpredictability.
  • Maps are from Burke et al recent paper. This map is for maize area. Dark blue grid cells have total overlap with climate of past 10 years, dark red cells have absolutely no overlap. Some countries – Tanzania have good overlap. Others – Mali, Niger, very poor overlap. WITHIN COUNTRY. Need to source material from other countries, not currently conserved in genebanks. Farmer varieties – landraces – with inherent genetic diversity, will be better able to adapt, and are very poorly represented in collections.
  • Holistic approach to PGR conservation Particularly important when unpredictable changes of climate
  • -data on ensuring effective collection of agrobiodiversity. Mapping of Phaseolus wild relative records, from many different data sources, combined with eco-geographic data. Zones in the map indicate places in which the species is likely to exist and no genebank accessions have been collected. Inset shows greatest species richness in Mexico.
  • Increasing adaptedness through the choice of provenances that demonstrate high survival and/or phenotypic performance under given environmental conditions Provenance (common garden) field trials since 1840 Geographic patterns of variation Growth and survival rates strongly influenced by climate
  • Prof. Ahmed Tawfik from Egypt elected as Chair.

Turok Amman Conference Jan 2010 Turok Amman Conference Jan 2010 Presentation Transcript

  • Towards a Regional strategy on plant genetic resources Jozef Turok Regional Director, Bioversity International El Tahir Ibrahim Mohamed Agricultural Research Centre, PGR Unit, Sudan
  • Outline of presentation
    • Agricultural biodiversity in the Region
    • Towards a Regional strategy on plant genetic resources (PGR)
    • Climate change, adaptation and opportunities for collaborative research
    • Regional collaboration for effective and efficient conservation and management of PGR
  • Bioversity International
    • Committed to harnessing science of biodiversity towards its conservation and use in development
    • Mission: “…undertakes, encourages and supports research and other activities on the use and conservation of agricultural biodiversity, especially genetic resources, to create more productive, resilient and sustainable harvests”
    • Works in partnerships with others
  • Agricultural biodiversity in West Asia and North Africa
    • Important centres of plant biodiversity (Near Eastern, Mediterranean and Central Asian)
    • Flora of 32,000 species of higher plants with a high proportion of endemic and threatened
    • Origin of many major temperate crops (cereals, pulses, vegetables, spices, oil crops, pasture and forage species, dyes, fruit and nut trees, timber tree species)
    • Diverse range of wild relatives, weedy forms and traditional varieties, landraces
    • Scarcity of water (and cultivable land)
    • Largest food-importing region in the developing world
  • Diversity and climate change
    • Biodiversity is affected by changes in the environment: extinction of species, fragmentation
    • Loss of genetic variation: the changes are continuous - quantitative and qualitative effects
    • The changes of climate are generally inert (unlikely to return to the original conditions)
    • Biodiversity is essential for environmental health
    • Biodiversity and especially genetic resources can be managed and used for adaptation
    • Key role in helping agriculture to adapt to climate change
  • Towards a Regional strategy for the conservation of PGR
    • Initiated by the Global Crop Diversity Trust and developed in consultation with the Association of Agricultural Research Institutes of the Near East and North Africa (AARINENA) with input from a wide range of partners, stakeholders
    • Adopted in July 2006, Dr M. Zehni facilitator
    • “… further development of the strategy and related networking capacities in future AARINENA workplans leading to a PGR coordinating mechanism in the Region…”
    • Comprehensive and evolving
  • Regional strategy: outputs
    • Evaluation and assessment of the collections in the Region (crops of Annex I of the International Treaty on PGRFA, but not only)
    • Ranking of the collections (considering size, extent of diversity, holding wild relatives, etc.)
    • Indication of the upgrading needs and needs for building the capacity of the genebanks
    • Regional collaborative arrangements for the rationalization of the priority collections and the sharing of responsibilities
    • Strengthening coordination
  • PGR accessions stored in genebanks in the countries (2006) 525 n.a. Algeria, INRAA 3132 n.a. Tunisia, MOA 328 600 Libya, ARC 259 900 Oman, MAF 2,571 3,000 Yemen, AREA 2,301 4,500 Jordan, NCARE 8,252 11,500 Syria, GCSAR 12,127 20,000 Egypt, NGB 15,405 22,000 Morocco, INRA 15,835 23,000 Pakistan, NARC 25,620 56,000 Turkey, AARI 49,079 60,000 Iran, NPGB Annex I crops All crops Holder
  • Climate Change
  • Challenges
    • Climate
    • Population growth
    • Pests and diseases
    • Resource scarcity
    • Social and economic disorder
  • Contributions of agricultural biodiversity
    • Breeding new varieties and their dissemination to farmers
    • Health and Nutrition (hidden hunger)
    • Resilience and Stability
    • Wider impact on income and sustainable livelihoods of people
  • Adaptation and adaptability
    • Selection and adaptation require diversity
    • New climates
      • New varieties – start breeding now
      • New crops – social factors unknown
    2025 2050 2075 Overlap with historical climate 100% 0%
  • Accelerating adaptation: opportunities for collaborative research on PGR
    • Breeding of climate-resilient varieties
      • Develop crop varieties with a greater resistance to abiotic stresses (e.g., drought)
    • Using the genetic diversity of crop wild relatives and traditional varieties
      • Crop wild relatives and traditional varieties contain resistance genes for breeding climate-resilient varieties
      • Local knowledge to guide crop and variety selection
    Wild banana, Madagascar Source: Annie Lane
  • Dynamic in situ management of genetic diversity
    • Valuable resources in the natural environment, spatially and temporally diverse populations
    • Limitations of ex situ conservation in genebanks
    • In situ conservation of naturally occurring and evolving populations (e.g., emmer wheat, wild almond, pistachio)
    • On-farm management
    • Levels and patterns of genetic variation determine the potential to adapt
    • Collecting strategies
    (from Jaradat, 1998)
  • (from http://gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org/GapAnalysis/ )
  • Factors and processes of evolutionary adaptation
    • Populations adjust their genetic structures through evolutionary processes:
      • Natural selection
      • Genetic drift
      • Mutation
      • Geneflow
      • Mating systems
    • Phenotypic plasticity
  • Adaptation strategies
    • Feasible at local and Regional levels
    • Consideration of the wider environmental and social pressures, adapting land use patterns
    • Practices that support communities in their use of diversity to maintain and improve productivity and resilience in production systems
    • Influences on and collaboration with policy making
  • PGR transfers for climate change: experience from provenance trials (from Rehfeldt et al. 2002)
  • Collaboration on PGR
    • Nature of PGR makes collaboration necessary
    • Credibility and trust amongst collection holders
    • Willingness to collaborate with partners
    • Links with existing collaborative mechanisms
    • Adequate funding to support the system
    • Agreed conservation standards and strong links to users
    • Effective mechanisms for monitoring & evaluation
  • Collaboration in the Region… need for renewal
    • Positive developments in National Programmes during recent years
    • Previous networking efforts (WANANET) were not sustainable
    • Strategy recommended to establish a country driven, self-sustained and broad-based Network under the structure of AARINENA
    • Implementation in accordance with the FAO International Treaty and the Global Plan of Action
    • Inter-Regional collaboration
  • Regional Network: objectives
    • Foster the conservation and sustainable use
    • Promote the exchange of scientific and technical experience, information and knowledge
    • Strengthen national research capacities for providing timely information to policy makers
    • Encourage the establishment of research and training activities based on needs and priorities
    • Strengthen linkages between national, regional and international research organizations
    • Assist in the mobilization of support
  • Areas for collaboration
    • Germplasm management : regeneration, characterization, evaluation, documentation, use
    • Conservation : seed storage, field genebanks, in vitro , multi-location evaluation trials
    • Germplasm movement : safety duplication, germplasm health, exchange and distribution
    • Capacity building : training, technology transfer, policy and legislation
    • Joint research : collecting missions, joint publications, scientific meetings
  • Summary of a Regional Workshop held 30-31 January
    • Focal points from Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Yemen attended (Syria and Tunisia also nominated participants)
    • Held at NCARE and organized by Bioversity, AARINENA with participation of ICARDA and Trust
    • Documentation:
      • Global Information on Germplasm Accessions – involvement of the Region and capacity building
      • Discussion on data standards and use
      • Introduction to GRIN-Global curator tool interface
  • Summary of Workshop (cont’d)
    • Sharing best practices for genebank management:
      • Crop Genebank Knowledge Base – a comprehensive tool developed by the CGIAR
      • Feedback and proposals for updating, dissemination
    • Need for assistance in the implementation of the Treaty, use of Standard Material Transfer Agreement
    • Centres of Excellence for three key areas identified
    • Objectives, structure and governance of the new Regional PGR Network discussed
  • Perspectives
    • Commitment and endorsement of the Network by participating countries (through AARINENA)
    • Human resources for PGR work
    • Communication and involvement; sharing best practices and best approaches
    • Reaching out to other Networks (Europe, Central Asia and Caucasus…)
    • Rationalization of conservation efforts
    • Strengthening links with users of germplasm
    • Holistic approaches to PGR conservation