ENG 212 Contrastive Analysis of English & Spanish Professor Cristina Guerra Presentation date: Tuesday, November 29, 2011 By: Jossette Taveras & Vanessa Sánchez-Negrón
Purpose of this presentationDiscuss and present examples of common ESL errors fromstudent journals in a real setting. Language Arts class, fifth grade students with various learning disabilities within an inclusive (heterogeneous) classroom General definition of learning disabilities
Learning DisabilitiesA general term that describes specific kinds oflearning problems. Causes a student to have trouble learning and using certain skills. The skills most often affected are: reading writing listening speaking reasoning math
Learning Disabilities (cont.) Vary from person to person Researchers think that learning disabilities are caused by differences in how a persons brain works and how it processes information. Children with learning disabilities are not "dumb" or "lazy." In fact, they usually have average or above average intelligence. Their brains just process information differently.
ObjectivesDefine languageDefine phonology, morphology and syntaxIdentify and explain common ESL errors
What is language? Language is a complex and dynamic system which connects certain groups of sounds and meanings. This system contains at least two kinds of units, words and sentences, plus a group of rules which tell us how to combine the smaller units into larger units. Every language has a different set of rules for combining the units that make up the language. The essential purpose of language is communication.
Phonological System Phonology is the sound system of a language. Each language makes use of only a small number of the wide range of possible sounds that human beings are capable of uttering and discerning.
Morphological System The system of how words are built. Morphemes are meaningful units, which can sometimes stand alone as words; but often appear in combination with other morphemes. It is important to know that words are built systematically. Can be defined as a branch of linguistics concerned with analyzing the structure of words. The morphology of a given word is its structure or form.
Syntax Syntax refers to the structure or architecture of sentences.
Common ESL ErrorsPerformance Errors indicates that the error is not due to the speaker’s ignorance of the grammatical rules a processing mistake that occurs while a language learner or native speaker is in the act of speaking or writing EXAMPLE: a lack of subject-verb agreement in a sentence * No matter where you live, the great taste of your favorite Lays flavors are just around the corner.
Common ESL ErrorsImperfect Learning Learners have not internalized the rule and/or the restrictions that apply to that ruleOvergeneralization Occurs when the learner applies a grammar rule to forms that do not take itInfluence of the Native Language Many ungrammatical sentences that English language learners produce result from the transferring of grammar rule from their native language to English
Food for Thought Teachers need to provide learners with opportunities to write about topics that are relevant to their lives, to participate in various writing activities, and to feel that their writing has value. By integrating writing with content at every level of instruction, teachers help learners find their own voices in their new language and develop the ability to communicate effectively in different contexts and with different audiences.
You can teach a student a lesson for aday; but if you can teach him to learn by creating curiosity, he will continue the learning process as long as he lives. ~Clay P. Bedford
ReferencesCowan, R. (2007). Teaching Grammar. The teachers grammar of English: a course book and reference guide, with answers (pp. 28-59). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Learning Disabilities. (n.d.). www.medicinenet.com. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from www.medicinenet.com/learning_disability/article.ht mPeregoy, S. F., & Boyle, O. (2005). Second Language Acquisition. Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: a resource book for K-12 teachers (4th ed., pp. 2-71). Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.