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  • 1. EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY What is a Philosophy of Education?
  • 2. Philosophy of Education • Philosophy centers on three major questions. What are these? – What is real? – What is true? – What is good and beautiful? What is Philosophy?
  • 3. Educational Philosophy • Love of wisdom; pursuit of wisdom • Offers an avenue for serious inquiry into ideas, traditions, & ways of thinking • Help develop new insights into educational problems • Role is to examine critically the intellectual disputes & suggest different ways of viewing things
  • 4. What is Content of Philosophy? • Activites – Prescribing – Speculation – Analysis – Synthesizing • Attitudes – Self-awareness – Comprehensiveness – Penetration – Flexibility
  • 5. Body of content of Philosophy • Metaphysics – what is real to you • Epistemology – how do we know • Axiology – values Ethics – morality, behavior Asthetics – beauty, comfort
  • 6. Everyday problem vs. Philosophical analysis of problem • Philosophical conflicts • Look beyond the obvious = philosophical analysis
  • 7. Assumption • Taken as true • Example: If a student does well on the TAAS, ACT, SAT, etc., they are educated.
  • 8. Hypothesis • A considered guess or hunch in regard to which some pertinent data are available; a trial answer to be tested.
  • 9. Intuition • Instinct – feel something • Low level – gut feeling • Based on past experiences
  • 10. Theory • “A theory is an instrument, a guide to thought, not necessarily a guide to direct practice.” Richare Pratte, Contemporary Theories of Education (1971). • Invites argument and counterargument • Organize ideas for eventual practical activity
  • 11. Practice • Provides raw materials and testing grounds. • Experiences shared, critically analyzed for improvement, taken back into practice for testing • Serves to expand theory and direct it toward new possibilities
  • 12. Theory and Philosophy • What is the relationship between theory and philosophy? • Is theory a set of assumptions? Explain • Explain how questions such as why, what, how, etc. build a theoretical basis from which to operate.
  • 13. Metaphysics • The view that reality exists beyond the observable world • Conceived to be transcendental to humankind’s sensory experience • Beyond, independent of, superior to, & separate from the world of experience Metaphysics Resources;
  • 14. Areas of Metaphysics – Cosmology-order in being universe? Human? – Teleology- final causes, end – Theology – study of God – Anthropology – study of humankind – Ontology-existence, nature of being
  • 15. Cosmology • Order in being • Study of the origin, nature & development of the Universe • Our picture of the order & priority of values in the structure of the Universe More on Cosmology:
  • 16. Teleogy • Study of purpose of being • Is there an end? • Afterlife? Fetus by: Leonardo da Vinci Three Views OutlineThree Views Outline
  • 17. Theology • Theological questions – How do I answer questions I have about God? – Can God allow evil if he is good? Examples of Theological Questions and answers if God were a computer programmer:
  • 18. Anthropology • Two views: – Judeo-Christian human beings have worth & dignity Free will – Scientific determined by our environment No free will
  • 19. Ontology • Study of being • Existence, nature • What are the essential qualities of the human being? • Value - priority More on Ontology:
  • 20. Problems of metaphysics? • What does it mean “to be”? • When does life begin? • Is this a dream or reality? • When does life end?
  • 21. Reality vs. Appearance • Perception • Reliability of sense data
  • 22. Referent vs. Symbol • Symbol = red • Referent = what you think about • Language is a catalogue of symbols
  • 23. Static vs. Dynamic Culture • Characteristics of cultures – Universals – society agrees on these – Specialties – some people know – Alternatives – society disagrees on these Universals > Alternatives = static Alternatives > Universals = dynamic
  • 24. • Culture is static = subjects used for study are static • Culture is dynamic = subjects used to teach people to think
  • 25. Epistemology • What is true? • The nature of truth and knowledge • The source of truth and knowledge Quotes on Truth and Wisdom:
  • 26. In Education • Metaphysics – deals with content • Epistemology – deals with instruction, strategy used to deliver content: – direct instruction, cooperative learning, inquiry learning, etc.
  • 27. Scientific Knowledge vs. Intuition • Knowledge - Truth – Epistemological – Is truth an absolute? • Intuition - Gut feeling; you just know; innate sense of knowing; information is immediate w/o any reasoning involved; react spontaneously w/o knowing why
  • 28. Levels of Intuition • Simple Awareness • Scientific Intuition • Artistic Level • Religious Intuition
  • 29. Problems - Epistemology • Truth vs. truth • Vicarious vs. Direct Learning • Objective vs. Subjective Knowledge • a priori vs. a posteriori
  • 30. Truth vs. truth • Is there an absolute truth in the Universe? Are there absolutes? What are absolutes? • Something that NEVER changes • “T” Classical Phil • Truth changes - small “t” • Contemporary Phil
  • 31. Vicarious vs. Direct Learning • Vicarious – indirectly through others • Direct – experience, by doing
  • 32. Objective vs. Subjective Knowledge • Objective - Knowledge is out there to be discovered. How can I discover knowledge? • Subjective – Knowledge is inside everyone. How can I create knowledge?
  • 33. a priori • Deductive knowledge based on principles that are self-evident apart from observation or experience. • Independent of sensory experience • Proposition is necessarily true or false based on purely logical or semantic (meaning in language) grounds
  • 34. a posteriori • Knowledge gained as a result of experiences
  • 35. How do we know? • Sense data • Common sense • Logic – Syllogism – Dialectic • Intuition • Science • Choice making
  • 36. Rationalism vs Empiricism • Rationalism – the basic source of knowledge is reason. • Adherents think that each person either is or has a mind that has the ability to know truths directly. • Things need not be perceived by the senses. – idealism, classical realism, dualistic theism
  • 37. Rationalism vs Empiricism • Empiricism – the basic source of knowledge is experience, not reason. • Adherents emphasize that human learning centers on perceptual, sensory experience instead of being centered on the mentalistic, speculative reasoning or rational process. – behavioral experimentalism, logical empiricism, cognitive-field experimentalism
  • 38. Axiology • What is good and beautiful? • A general theory of value • Primary concepts are ought, duty, right and wrong
  • 39. Ethics • Ethics = a theory of behavior • Morality = a practice of behavior
  • 40. Axiological problem in U.S. • Growth of mass society • Depersonalization • Alienation • Law of Interchangeable Parts • Cloning
  • 41. What do we deal with in Ethics? • Good “G” vs. good “g” – Free choice vs. determinism on the other • Means vs. Ends – Do ends justify the means? • Conceived vs. Operative Behavior – What you believe you should do vs. what you do • Morality vs. Religion – Varied agreement of morality vs. rules
  • 42. Aesthetics • Beauty • “Feeling good part” • Who are you? What do you like? • Taste – good or bad
  • 43. Aesthetic Experience • Euphoric state • Beauty of something overwhelms you • Transcend self • Lost in the experience
  • 44. Two areas of Aesthetics • Art for Art’s sake – something is done for the purpose of beauty-nothing else • Art for our sake - decide what it is to be used for, then design it. – Form follows function
  • 45. 21st Century Educational Issues • Identify major 20/21st century problems relative to education, such as: – National standards – High Stakes Testing – Vouchers – Federal dollars to religious organizations – others
  • 46. 2. Why does man exist? Man is only a product of chance in a closed universe. Like all existence man is a manifestation of God (Brahman) Man was created by God, distinct form all creation. 3. What is the basis for human dignity? Finally nothing. Relatively, man is the highest form of evolution. Nothing. Man’s uniqueness separates him from oneness with God. Made in the image of God, man exists for personal relation- ship with creator. 4. What is the basis of personality: that man thinks, wills, has emotions? Finally nothing. Relatively: a. genetic formation b. Conditioning Personality is illusion. Man must deny personality to enter into the unity of God. God is personal. God thinks, wills, feels, etc. Man is made in divine image. ATHEISM PANTHEISM THEISM 1. Why is there something instead of nothing? Something always existed. The universe is mere time, space + chance Everything that exists is God (a- personal) particularized in the universe. An infinite personal God created all that exists from noth- ing (ex-nihilo) THREE BASIC WORLDVIEWS Dr. J. Scott Horrell Dallas Theological Seminary
  • 47. 7. What is the basis of ethics, morals and values? Only relativism: a. social-State democracy, communism, etc. b. individual (I’m OK, you’re OK) Finally nothing. Relatively, laws of karma.. The moral nature of God, revealed in the Torah, Bible or Koran THREE BASIC WORLDVIEWS ATHEISM PANTHEISM THEISM 5. What is the basis for reason and rationality? Finally, nothing. Relatively: a. Genetic formation b. Language c. pragmatism Nothing. Reason is illusion. Final reality (God) is a-rational. Truth is known by gnosis (illumination). While divine reason is beyond ours. God is rational; the laws of logic are based in the nature of God. 6. What is the basis for moral feelings, i.e., conscience? Social conditioning. In the final sense, Moral conscious- ness is illusion. Although fallen (conditioned) moral feelings reflect the image of God. Dr. J. Scott Horrell Dallas Theological Seminary
  • 48. 10. What is the place of the individual in the universe? (The problem of unity and diversity) a. All is unity: man has no freedom. Determinism. b. All is diversity, man floats in an absurd universe. Ultimately there is only unity; all individuality is mere illusion. a. Islam; fatalism, determinism b. Christianity: God as Trinity includes unity and diversity. Both have THREE BASIC WORLDVIEWS ATHEISM PANTHEISM THEISM 8. Why is there evil in the universe? a. Physical evil is normal (plagues) formation b. Moral evil is relative to indi- vidual or social perception Because God is everything, there is no real evil. Laws of karma are arbitrary. a. Moral evil de- rives from free will of finite persons; Satan, Adam b. Physical evil is a judgement of moral evil. 9. What is the basis of happiness, pleasure and aesthetic appreciation? Genetic formation and social conditioning a. Human plea- sure separates from God. b. The true bliss is only through unity with God (nirvana). In the imago dei, man has an innate aesthetic, given to enjoy his God and creation.