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  • 1. Seminar Report On Presented By Jadhav Vinayak Alias Nikhil Dadaso Class:-B.E. ETRX Roll no:-29 Group no.:-10 Under the Guidance of Prof. Mrs. M. U. Phutane
  • 2. Outline  Origin of name ZigBee  Introduction :-What is ZigBee?  General characteristics of ZigBee  Research on ZigBee  Market Requirements  How ZigBee Works?  Basic block diagram  What is ZigBee Alliance?  ZigBee Protocol Overview i. Different Node Types in a ZigBee Network ii. Different Network Topology in a ZigBee Network iii. ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4 Protocol Stack Architecture
  • 3. How is ZigBee related to IEEE 802.15.4? Wireless technology comparison chart Applications ZigBee – Highly Reliable ZigBee – Highly Secure Advantages of ZigBee Conclusion References
  • 4. Origin Of Name ZigBee  The domestic honeybee, a colonial insect, lives in a hive that contains a queen, a few male drones, and thousands of worker bees.  The survival, success, and future of the colony is dependent upon continuous communication of vital information between every member of the colony.  The technique that honey bees use to communicate new-found food sources to other members of the colony is referred to as the ZigBee principle.  Using this silent, but powerful communication system, whereby the bee dances in a zig-zag pattern, she is able to share information such as the location, distance, and direction of a newly discovered food source to her fellow colony members.  Instinctively implementing the ZigBee Principle, bees around the world industriously sustain productive hives and foster future generations of colony members.
  • 5. Introduction What is ZigBee ?  ZigBee is a Ad-hoc networking technology for Low Rate –Wireless Personal Area Networks(LR-WPAN).  Based On IEEE 802.15.4 standard that defines the Physical(PHY) and Medium Access Control(Mac) Layers for ZigBee.  The wireless mesh networking standard for monitoring & control system.  Intended for 2.45 Ghz , 868 Mhz and 915 Mhz Band.
  • 6.  Low in cost & power consumption as compared to competing technologies.  Simple (self-configuring), Reliable & robust (self-healing) & Flexible (mesh topology) with high Security (built-in cryptography).  Intended to network inexpensive devices .  Data rates touch 250Kbps for 2.45Ghz Global Band ,40 Kbps for 915Mhz North American band and 20Kbps for 868Mhz European band.
  • 7. General Characteristics Of ZigBee  Data rates of 20 kbps and up to 250 kbps  Star or Peer-to-Peer network topologies  255 devices per network  Support for Low Latency Devices  Carriers Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance(CSMA-CA ) Channel Access  Fully handshake protocol for transfer reliability  Low Power Usage consumption  3 Frequencies bands with 27 channels  Extremely low duty-cycle (<0.1%)
  • 8. Research on Zigbee  The IEEE standard 802.15.4 was completed in May 2003.  The zigbee specifications were ratified on 14 December 2004.  The zigbee alliance announced public availability on 13 June 2005. Papers:  Time Synchronization for ZigBee Networks  ZigBee: “Wireless Control That Simply Works”  Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation  Development of Ubiquitous Sensor Network  Wireless Technologies for Data Acquisition Systems Much research is still going on with zigbee in various fields……….
  • 9. Market Requirements  Global licence free Industrial, Scientific and Medical(ISM) band operation  Unrestricted geographic use  Automatic/semi-automatic installation  Ability to add or remove devices  Possible voice support  10k-115.2kbps data throughput  10-75m coverage range (home/garden)  Support for 32-255 nodes  Support for 4 critical devices  4-100 co-located networks  0.5-2 year battery life  Up to 5m/sec. (18kmph) permitted mobility
  • 10. How ZigBee Works? 1.It works on digital radio networks via direct-sequence spread spectrum coding. 2.Operate on ISM band. 3.ZigBee-compliant radios may operate on one of three different radio bands: the 868 MHz,2.4GHz or 5.8 GHz frequencies.
  • 11. Basic Block diagram UART Data Flow System Data Flow Diagram in a UART‐interfaced environment
  • 12. What is ZigBee Alliance?  An organization with a mission to define reliable, cost effective, low-power, wirelessly networked, monitoring and control products based on an open global standard.  Alliance provides interoperability, certification testing, and branding.
  • 13. ZigBee Protocol Overview Node Types Network Topology Protocol Stack Architecture
  • 14. ZigBee Protocol Overview Different Node Types in a ZigBee Network  Full Function Device (FFD): Can communicate with every type of device. A FFD can operate in three different modes: 1. PAN Coordinator: Sends beacon frames, provides routing information, manages short, network-specific addresses. 2. Coordinator: Acts as router. 3. Normal device.  Reduced Function Device (RFD): Can only talk to a single FFD.
  • 15. ZigBee Protocol Overview Different Network Topology in a ZigBee Network Star Network In the star topology, the PAN coordinator chooses a unique (within its radio sphere of influence) PAN id. All attached nodes can only talk to the central PAN coordinator.
  • 16. ZigBee Protocol Overview Different Network Topology in a ZigBee Network Peer-to-Peer Network Within a peer-to-peer topology, each FFD can communicate with any other device within its range. A RFD may only communicate with a single FFD at a given time.
  • 17. ZigBee Protocol Overview Different Network Topology in a ZigBee Network Multi-Cluster Network Larger networks may be established by forming multi-cluster topologies. Each cluster has a single cluster head that is responsible for coordination within the cluster.
  • 18. ZigBee Protocol Overview ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4 Protocol Stack Architecture The IEEE 802.15.4 standard describes the physical and MAC layer. ZigBee builds on the IEEE standard and defines the network and application layer.
  • 19. ZigBee Protocol Overview Physical(PHY) Layer The physical layer is responsible for: a) Activation/Deactivation of transceiver. b) Channel selection, assessment. c) Transmission and reception of packets. d) Frequency bands: 2.4 GHz (worldwide), 868 MHz (EU), 916MHz(US) Medium Access Control(MAC) Layer The following services are provided by the MAC layer: a) Beacon management b) Channel access c) Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) management d) Frame validation e) Acknowledgment f) Association, disassociation
  • 20. ZigBee Protocol Overview Network(NWK) Layer The lower level of the ZigBee protocol builds on the MAC layer of IEEE 802.15.4.  Topology specific routing  Security  New device configuration  Network startup  Joining/leaving a network  Addressing  Neighbour discovery  Route discovery  Reception control
  • 21. ZigBee Protocol Overview Application Layer The application layer provides the following services:  Maintain tables for binding  Fragmentation, reassembly and reliable data transport  Provide communication endpoints for the application  Discovering devices and application services.  Initiating/responding to binding requests between endpoints Addressing  Each ZigBee node has a unique 64 bit MAC address  Additionally the Coordinator maintains a table to map the 64 bit addresses to network-specific 16 bit addresses  Within each node, the application can define up to 240 Application endpoints.
  • 22. How is ZigBee related to IEEE 802.15.4?  ZigBee takes full advantage of a powerful physical radio specified by IEEE 802.15.4  ZigBee adds logical network, security and application software  ZigBee continues to work closely with the IEEE to ensure an integrated and complete solution for the market
  • 23. Standard Bandwidth Protocol Stack Size Stronghold Applications ZigBee 250kbps 4-32KB Long battery life, low cost Remote control, battery-operated products, sensors Bluetooth 1 Mbps ~100+KB cable replacement Wireless USB, handset, headset Wi-Fi Up to 54Mbps 100+KB High data range Internet browsing, PC networking, file transfers WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON CHART
  • 24. ZigBee Vs. Bluetooth
  • 25. Applications Home Entertainment and Control :-Home automation ,smart lighting,advanced temperature control, safety and security, movies and music Wireless sensor networks :- Starting with individual sensors like Telosb/Tmote and Iris from Memsic Industrial control Embedded sensing Medical data collection Smoke and intruder warning Building automation
  • 26. ZigBee – Highly Reliable  Mesh and tree networking protocol provides redundant paths  Automatic retries and acknowledgements  Broadcast delivery scheme ensures reliable broadcasts across the network  Parents keep track of messages for sleeping Children  High intrinsic interference tolerance  Multiple channels  Frequency agility  Robust modulation
  • 27. ZigBee – Highly Secure Utilizes Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) 128-bit encryption Concept of a “trust center” Link and network keys Authentication and encryption Security can be customized for the application Keys can be “hard-wired” into application
  • 28. Advantages of ZigBee  Reliable and self healing  Supports large number of nodes  Easy to deploy  Very long battery life  Secure  Low cost  Can be used globally
  • 29. Conclusion  ZigBee will play a vital role in the mass adoption of cost effective, low power, mesh networking technology for monitoring and control applications, based on an open global standard.  Near Future more flexibility and cost savings for consumers and greater control over household appliances.  Used for campus-wide electrical and security systems from a single computer.  In future all devices and their controls will be based on this standard.Since Wireless personal Area Networking applies not only to household devices, but also to individualized office automation applications, ZigBee is here to stay. It is more than likely the basis of future home networking solutions………
  • 30. • IEEE® 802.15.4 OEM RF Modules by MaxStream, Inc. • http://www.ember.com • SPZB32W SeriesofIEEE 802.15.4 RF Modules ,by Gabriel Uribe 28 September 2011 • http://www.zigbee.org/en/about/faq.asp • http://www.zigbee.org/en/resources/#SlidePresentations • [ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4 draft 18] • http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/04/08/wo_brown081904.asp • file://Seminar%20Zigbee/PowerPoint%20Presentations%20Of%20Electronics %20And%20Communication%20Engineering%20_%20PowerPoint%20Prese ntations.htm • http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is- zigbee.htm?referrer=adwords_campaign=zigbee_ad=013761&_content_kw=wh at%20is%20zigbee • http://www.zigbee.org/resources/documents/IWAS_presentation_Mar04_Desig ning_with_802154_and_zigbee.ppt • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZigBee • http://www.zigbee.org/imwp/idms/popups/pop_download.asp?ContentID=7092 • http://www.zigbee.org/en/spec_download/download_request.asp References